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American Railway Association The American Railway Association was organized for the purpose of discussing and recommending methods for the management and operation of American Railways. Unlike most bodies of this nature its action is only recommendatory and not binding on any member. Its membership consists of common carriers which operate American steam railways. Companies operating more than one thousand miles of road are entitled to one membership for each one thousand miles. Companies which operate less than one hundred miles of road, those whose roads are operated solely by electricity, or which are located elsewhere than in the United States, Canada, or Mexico, may be admitted as associates, but cannot be admitted as members.

The Association has been of great service by developing the Standard Code of Train Rules, Block Signals, Rules for the Interchange of Cars, etc. This Association grew out of what was known as the General Time Convention, which in the year 1883 perfected what is known as Standard Time, of which we shall treat in another chapter.

The Standard Code of Train Rules

The Standard Code of Train Rules is the product of the American Railway Association. Before the Standard Code made its appearance there was no uniform system of rules; each road had a system of its own. Train dispatchers were permitted to send train orders in any form they desired which resulted in many of the orders being misunderstood. With the adoption of the Standard Code a system of train order forms was introduced with an explanation following each form so that there is at present small chance of train orders being misunder

stood so long as the prescribed forms are followed. However, when two or more forms are combined in one order the explanation is not given and it is one of the objects of this book to fully explain such combinations as are generally used.

The Standard Code has been revised from time to time, as imperfections have developed, until it is now a fairly clear and concise statement of necessary operating regulations. At present nearly all of the roads in the United States are operated under the Standard Code. However, most of the roads make minor changes in the rules to meet the requirements of the road or its management.

Standard Time

Before the year 1883, when Standard Time was adopted, there were upwards of fifty different standards of time in use in the United States. Each road had a time of its own; some of them used several different times in getting a train over the road. The confusion resulting from such a condition can hardly be imagined. Both the public and the railroads suffered be. cause of it, until a method of Standard Time was worked out and adopted.

There are now four Standards of Time in the United States, known as, Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific. They are all an even hour apart and based upon the 75th, goth, 105th, and 120th meridians. When it is 12 noon at Philadelphia it is II A.M. at Chicago, 10 A.M. at Denver, and 9 A.M. at San Francisco. The dividing points between the Standard Time sections are as follows:

Between Central and Mountain Time Sections

Alliance, Neb.

(Mountain time is used locally.) Central time-Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. Lines west

of the Missouri River (East of Alliance). Mountain timeChicago, Burlington & Quincy. Lines

west of the Missouri River (West of Alliance).

Arcola, Saskatchewan.
Central time-Canadian Pacific (East of Arcola).
Mountain time—Canadian Pacific (West of Arcola).

Broadview, Saskatchewan.

(Central time is used locally.) Central time-Canadian Pac. (East of Broadview). Mountain time-Canadian Pac. (West of Broadview).

Chamberlain, S.D. Central time—Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul (East of

Chamberlain). Mountain timeChicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul (West of Chamberlain).

Clovis, N.M. Central time-Santa Fé Route (East of Clovis). Mountain time—Santa F: Route (West and South of Clovis).

Dodge City, Kan.

(The city uses Central time.) Central_time-Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé (East of

Dodge City).

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific. Mountain time—Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé (West of Dodge City).

Ellis, Kan.

(Central time is used locally.)
Central time-Union Pacific, Kansas Div. (East of Ellis).
Mountain time-Union Pacific, Colorado Div. (West of

El Paso, Tex.
(See also Rio Grande, T'ex.)

(Mountain time is used locally.) Central time-Galveston, Harrisburg & San Ant.

Texas & Pacific.
Mountain time-Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé.

El Paso & Northeastern.
City of Mexico timeMexican Central.

Hoisington, Kan.

(Central time is used locally.) . Central time-Missouri Pacific (East of Hoisington). Mountain time-Missouri Pacifi (West of Hoisington).

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