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though his number of the books does | library at St. James's, which was prenot reach so far as ours, (arising pro- sented by Cyrillus, Patriarch of Conbably from the Jewish manner of di- stantinople, to King Charles the First, viding the Old Testament,) yet, he which he brought from Alexandria. mentions those with which we have We have also several versions in use, particularly to do in proving the truth purporting to have been taken from of Revelation. Isaiah, Jeremiah, Eze-others of more ancient date, in such a kiel, and Daniel, together with the manner, as to stand connected with Holy! Hymns or Psalms, are noticed, | that of Origen. All authors, Heathen, which are all extremely valuable in Jewish, and Christian, who have had their connexion with the subject to be occasion to mention the subject, admit discussed. Let the appeal be now the validity of the translation. These made unto those who doubt the pre-matters unite satisfactorily to prove, existence of the Old Testament, to the that the Old Testament was in being era of Christ, whether it was possible before the commencement of Christianthat such abundant reference could be ity, or date of the Christian Era. made to it by Josephus, if that had not III. The antiquity of the Old Testabeen the case? What renders the ment is provable from the Targums of proof more indisputable is, that Jose- | the Jews. phus did not write with any design to When the Jews were restored from vindicate the cause of Christianity. Babylon, they were under the necessity
II. Another evidence of the anti- of using the Chaldee tongue, having in quity of the Old Testament writings is, a great measure lost their own by assotheir translation into the Greek lan ciating with the Chaldeans. For the guage, during the reign of Ptolomy benefit of those who were thus situated, Philadelphus.
| Targums or Paraphrases of the Old This circumstance is so well authen- | Testament were drawn up to assist the ticated, that the most sceptical can people in obtaining a knowledge of the scarcely call it in question, unless they law. How soon the Targums were dispute the whole system of historical used, is not expressly known; but, it communication. In the affair of the plainly appears, that they were in use Old Testament translation, we do not before the time of Christ. Onkelos on avowedly receive as true the occur- | the Law; and Jonathan on the Prorences which the Jews relate as having phets, are proved by Prideaux to have taken place at the time; such as the been written previous to that period; seclusion of the seventy-two elders in and, the manner in which they explain the Island of Pharos, in separate cells, and translate several notable passages and the perfect agreement of their relating to the Messiah, as agreeing collective translations. These things with the character of our Saviour, seem to have the appearance of fiction, strongly confirming the fact. Now, together with many others which they who can reasonably dispute such plain in their fondness for miracles have and confirmed conclusions as these, handed down to posterity. But, though when it is considered that the works we disregard these disputable pecu- of both Onkelos and Jonathan were liarities, yet the fact, that there was a professedly designed to elucidate the translation of the Old Testament into Old Testament. It would have been Greek, now called the Septuagint, be- completely impossible for such matters fore the time of Christ, is removed to have taken place, had not the Old beyond the reach of doubt by the united | Testament been in existence, and had witnesses of different men. Aristeas, it not been regarded as the rule of the Aristobulus, Philo, Justin Martyr, and Jewish worship. others, all bear testimony to the truth IV. Another source of evidence calof the fact. This is made to appear culated to settle this particular, is the also by the numerous quotations which manner in which the Old Testament Christ and his apostles selected from writers refer to the condition and events the Greek version of the Old Testament of those nations that existed prior to in the instructions they gave to the the Christian era. people. Origen inserted that version in The prophets and historians of the his-large work, called the Hesapla, or Old Testament, in the hints and desOctapla. We have at this day a very criptions they have given of the state of ancient manuscript, called the Alexan. these kingdoms, give the clearest indidrian version, preserved in the King's / cations of real truth without any thing
approaching towards deception or inten- I THOUGHTS ON THE ATONEMENT. tional accommodation. Both the As. syrian and Egyptian monarchies, to Mr. Editor, gether with others, are frequently · The doctrine of the New Tesalluded to, in such a ruanner, as shewstament is, that men are saved in conthat the writers were contemporary sequence of the atonement made by with them. What evinces this in the Jesus Christ. This is a subject of vast plainest manner is, the details they extent; and, the whole of its bearings, give of the power which these nations probably, cannot be seen or imagined, obtained at different times over the till we come to that happy world, where kingrom of Israel; such as the leading that which is in part shall be done of the ten tribes captive-the removal away, and that which is perfect shall of Judah and Benjamin to Babylon- rise to our view in its full glory. I am the taking and sacking of Jerusalem by not going to attempt a discussion of an heathen army—the destruction of this very important doctrine ; but, if à the Temple, &c. Can it be supposed few general thoughts upon it, meet your that persons writing under the impulse approbation, they are much at your of deceivable principles, would record service. with every feature of frankness, events The image of an atonement was so dishonourable to their own nation? rendered familiar to the Old Testament Many other particulars might be point- church, by the sacrifices of the former ed out, calculated to prove an identity dispensations; and, though we may of time between the record and the not be able precisely to say, how far the event, which must shew to every candid Israelites could enter into their real demind, that the Old Testament writings sign, and look through the sign to Ithe were arranged in the periods when these | thing signified; yet, so far as concerns events were transpiring.
our instruction, we see one strong fact; V. To the antiquity of the Old Testa- that the images used by the Lord and ment we have the collective testimony his apostles, and the expressions which of the whole Jewish nation.
they have adopted for the purpose of This people have been, and still re- shewing unto us the way of salvation, main, separate from the rest of man-are, in so many instances, taken from kind. In this situation, they have te- the atonements made under the law, naciously held fast their language and that the inference is unavoidable—they writings, in such a manner, as may be intended us to learn from these things, traced to the time of their dispersion that we are saved through an atoneby the Romans, when their common- ment, and that this atonement was wealth was destroyed. Nothing in all made by the dying of the Lord Jesus the annals of time can be found parallel Christ for us. of this fact, the proofs with this. Though ignorantly, they are very numerous, and will recur to still ground their faith in an expected your readers without our entering into Messiah, on those records they have any detail. Observe, now, the theory preserved from the most early times. of the way of salvation as laid down in They have indesignedly acted as a li- the New Testament; on the ground of brarian to the Christian. Many are the the atonement made by the death of blessings which we have received Christ, those who are interested in it, through the medium of this despised have their sins forgiven; the punishpeople, for which we ought to be un- ment due to them remitted; even as ceasingly grateful; but, next to the under the law, when the required saMessiah himself, who was of the seed crifice was brought to God's altar, the of Israel, is the inestimable treasure of priest made an atonement for the transthe Scripture; a blessing superlatively gressor, and his sins were declared valuable. Whilst we are called to de- forgiven. Every attentive reader of the plore their harriness and unbelief, may law of Moses, will récollect, that this is we be thankful to the Lord who makes the language used in a great variety of the wrath of man to praise him when instances. we see it turning to the account of The method by which we are inproving the antiquity of the Old Testa- terested in the blessings procured by ment, because their attachment to it is the atonement of Christ, is declared to in the way of opposing Christianity. be by faith. By believing in himI am, &c.
relying on his power and faithfulness PHILEMON. I to his promises, that he will save those
who come unto God, seeking their sal-1 1. If an atonement is provided for vation by him.
the salvation of men, it is because you Hence, under another image taken need it. It is in vain, therefore, to exfrom what passed in courts of justice, pect that you can obtain salvation in those who believe in Christ are de- any other method. See, then, that you clared to be justified; freed from con- refuse not him that speaketh, and demnation, and accepted as righteous saith, this is the way, walk ye in before God for Christ's sake. In an- | it. swer to the charge that they are 2. If salvation is proclaimed through sinners, and liable to condemnation, an atonement, it is not men's being they are instructed to plead their in- as good as others, or perhaps a little terest in the death of Christ, through better, that is sufficient to secure everfaith in his blood. As the gospel has lasting life. This is the whole of many made a provision for the redemption of persons' religion; but, it is a false rctransgressors, through one atonement, ligion, and cannot carry them to hcathe benefits of which are secured to ven. The fact, that God has provided those who believe in his name, they | an atonement, is a loud declaration, that can plead a legal reason why they should the foundation of their hope is altonot be condemned; and such a reason I gether vain. as God has promised to accept. Hence 3. If God has provided an atonement, the accusation against them is fully and exhibited it in his word as the met; they are justified from the charge sinner's hope, what excuse can he that, as sinners, they are exposed to make who rejects it? Here is a way condemnation, and are sent from the of salvation set before you; a safe bar of justice, not as persons who were way; the only way that has the sanction falsely accused of being sinners, but of the living God; it is open to all that as those who are freed from con- desire eternal life; it is adapted to the demnation, and accepted of God, in condition of poor sinful man; and the consequence of what Christ has done end is everlasting glory! What reason in behalf of such as believe in him. then, can be given, why men disregard
This general view is supported by a it, but because they love their iniquivast body of evidence. The repre- ties, and desire not that their souls sentations in the divine word are very should be saved: various ; they hold the subject up in 4. If God has provided an atonement, different lights; they draw illustrations what an encouragement it offers to sinfrom many sources, but, they are all ners to come to him in the way of his connected with this grand sentiment, own appointment, that they may obthat the salvation of sinners is the tain mercy! What an obligation is on effect of Christ's dying for them, and them to devote themselves to him that rising again from the dead.
died for them, and rose again! How Some, however, will object and say, powerful is the consideration, that there whether this is a just view of the is not a single human being, where the method of salvation or not, signifies gospel comes, that is not interested in little; all this is nothing but dry syste- the proclamation it makes known! matic theology, neither impressive nor Not one that can assert the doctrine of edifying. But, we reply, take these the atonement says nothing that conconsiderations away, and the systein of cerns him, and makes no appeal to him. the gospel is gone. Christianity is like It comes home to us all, and having a large and noble edifice. The parts made known the way of life, it conwhich most strike the eye, the orna- cludes with the forcible question, “How ments which most impress the senses, shall we escape, if we neglect so great are not the massive walls which lie at salvation ?" the foundation ; yet, without them, the We might add still more; we might whole would instantly become a ruin. say, what a distinct and awful warning But, it is not true, that these senti- this doctrine gives to those who prements are unimpressive, systematic de- sume on the divine clemency? If in tails ; for, from him arise the most providing niercy, God required from his powerful appeals to the understandings own Son the sufferings he endured, as and consciences of men, that the heart an atonement for those whom he came can feel, or the mind appreciate. to save, what has the presumptuous For
simner to expect, but a fearful looking VOL. VIll.
for of judgment! We might add, that/ “ that he might be feared;" and, if the consequence of this doctrine is Christ hath redeemed tis, it is, “ that clear, froin the broad angle it makes to he might deliver us from all iniquity, the eye of the serious Christian, when and purify unto himself a peculiar peohe reads the New Testament. It en ple, zealous of good works." ters into the various parts of the cha- The importance of holiness is seen racter and conduct of Christ, and is the from the high regard which God him. explanation of all that is beautiful, im- self entertains for it. The history of pressive, and grand, in the system of his providence, in all ages, is sufficient the gospel. We might add, it is not to prove how dear this quality is lo him. merely a doctrine acknowledged on No sooner had sin appeared amongst earth; it is recognized in heaven; the the angels of God, than they were song of the heavenly host is, “thon | instantly expelled from the divine prewast slain, and hast redeemed us to sence, and are now reserved in everGod by thy blood !" But, we must lasting chains, under darkness, to deconclude. May God grant that we monstrate Jehovah's utter abhorrence may know, by our own happy ex- of all iniquity, and as a dreadful beacon perience, the influence of this doctrine to warn the universe against their perin supporting and purifying the heart! nicious example. Consider a deluged We shall then with clearness see its world - Sodoin and Gomorrah desevidence, and rejoice in its glory! troyed by fire from heaven-the awful I am, Mr. Editor,
calamities befalling at various times Yours, &c.
the children of Israel—and the desolaPHILANDER.
tion of renowned cities, and great emNoo. 1821.
pires, mentioned in the prophecies, when their wickedness had increased to the utmost; and, it will be seen,
that for the vindication of his holiness, ON SANCTIFICATION.
God has frequently and terribly “risen
up out of his holy habitation." But, Mr. Editor,
| let it be ever remembered, that the Tue request of your correspon- death of Christ had for its highest dent, for an Essay on Sanctification, has object the manifestation of this exinduced me to send you the following cellence. So dear was it to him, that, dissertation on that subject; and, I rather than it should be in any degrec shall be thankful, if, to his spiritual tarnished by the pardon of his offen. advantage, or to that of any of your ding subjects, he gave up his only bereaders, the observations it contains, I gotten Son to the heaviest suffering shall be found subservient. To every and woe. Let those, then, who think mind instructed into the evil and danger lightly of holiness, go to the cross of of sin, the subject of sanctification will Christ, and begin there to learn a be interesting. For, what is the chief lesson, which can never be fully learnt, desire of the regenerated soul-what is of the infinite regard, which God has the unceasing object of his prayers ? | shewn to that which they despise, It is, that God would free him from We should remember, also, that hapevery sin, and fully conform him to piness is ever connected with purity. his own likeness. That we might con- | When God commands us to be holy, sider this subject with greater interest, he shews his benevolence. His laws it may not be improper, first, to illus- are all so excellent, that had none of trate its vast importance. Any one his creatures ever violated them, peace who attentively marks the various forms and joy would have ever pervaded the under which the grace of God is ex- l'universe. What a happy world would pressed towards his people, will see that this be, if every individual in it loved the design of them all is to lead to God with all his heart and soul, and his holiness. If he has predestinated us, neighbour as himself; and why in the it is, “ that we should be conformed to kingdom of heaven is there such unthe image of his Son.” If he has alloyed felicity? It is because this adopted us, it is that, “as dear chil- blest rule is inflexibly maintained and dren, we might be followers of God." | rejoiced in by every member of its If he has called us, “it is to be saints.” glorious population. Do not Christians If there is forgiveness with him, it is, I find, that the more they possess of the
power of godliness, the more they have said Jesus Christ, " which do hunger of real enjoyment? But, boliness im- and thirst after righteousness, for they parts also true honour. What makes shall be filled.” Without this relish in us most like God, the true source of all the heart for the will of God, all athonour and glory, certainly makes us tention to duties is insufferable bonmost honourable.
dage, and mere pharisaic obedience. Now, though we cannot approach | This is the leaven which leaveneth the him in his natural, we may in his moral whole lump; and, although in this perfections. The saints above are holy world, this disposition be not fully saas he is holy. It is this excellence, tisfied in the real attainments of the which pervading all his attributes, causes soul, it shall certainly possess a full them to shine through the universe accomplishment in the purity and bliss with ineffable glory. Hence, the more of heaven. This disposition is sincere. holy, the more godlike shall we be, and The true Christian is not actuated by a the more shall we possess of true dig selfish principle in his attachment to nity. Holiness is the order and beauty God's will. He utterly disclaims the of God's kingdom-is the excellence of motive of expecting to merit the favour angels and perfect spirits-is the music of the divine Being by his obedience, and joy of heaven-is the eternal ma- He sees a beauty in the service itsclf, jesty of God. But, let us ever remem- | independently of all advantages which ber, that, unless the principles of sanc might be connected with it, or distification are implanted in our minds, advantages which might result from it is impossible we can enter the king. not regarding it. He loves the will of dom of God. It is evident, that with God, because it is the will of God. that total aversion to spiritual excel “ This," says he, “is what my healence and beauty, which exists in every venly Father would have mc to do; unregenerate mind, the pursuits and and, therefore, not only because this enjoyments of heaven would be an is best for me, but because he has apintolerable burden. The word of God, pointed it will make it the object of however, clearly states, that “without my earnest pursuit." "With my whole holiness, no man shall see the Lord;" heart,” said the Psalmist,“ have I and, into the heavenly city, “ there sought thee: () let me not wander shall in no wise enter any thing that from thy commandments," from which defileth, neither whatsoever worketh it plainly appears, it was his delight in abomination, or maketh a lie."
God which caused him to be so anxious Let us now enquire into the nature of to follow his will. sanctification. Holiness is a perfect. The sincerity of this disposition is conformity to the will of God. Its shewn by the hatred of sin which atnature is plainly intimated by the Holy tends it. He who possesses a right Spirit in the covenant of grace. “This relish for spiritual good, has also an is the covenant that I will make with aversion to all impurity. It is imthem after those days, saith the Lord, possible that a man can have his will I will put my laws into their hearts, engaged at the same time towards and in their minds will I write them." things so different, as the service of
What can the meaning of these words Christ, and the service of Satan. “ Ye be, but that in the mind of every par- cannot serve God and mammon," said taker of God's rich grace, there is the Redeemer. “ The friendship of the established a sincere, universal; and world is enmity with God.” He who supreme taste for God's law? Where. truly decides for Gold, renounces all ever this relish, this disposition, is im- his former sinful delights. “ If, thereplanted in the mind, there exists the fore, thine eye be single, thy whole principle of sanctification, which gra. body shall be full of light.” If we can dually operating, controuls the secret say to God, “ thy law do we love," we springs of action, produces a revolution can also add, “ we hate vain thoughts." in the imaginations and thoughts of This taste for God's will is universal. It the heart, and renders the service of does not fix on some of God's precepts, God unspeakably delightful. This taste and reject others. A sanctified mind, for the law of God is as necessary for a whilst it mortifies evil concupiscence, state of sanctification, as an appetite does not crave indulgence for covetousfor daily food is to a healthful state of ness. It aims at the destruction of all the animal system. “Blessed are they," the works of the flesh. It does not