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spere's invention, and may have been suggested by Diana, who, as King James I. informs us, “amongst us was called the Phairee," though Simrock (ii. 34) derives the same from Titti (children), the stealing of whom is a favourite pursuit of the elfin spirits.' Both the German critic and the English historian had apparently forgotten that the name is traceable to Ovid, and that as used by him it has a very distinctive significance. So far as I know, however, Mr. Keightley is the only critic who has connected the name with Ovid; and he does so very generally, without bringing out in any detail the meaning and value of the fact. His statement is that Titania occurs once in the • Metamorphoses' as a designation of Diana. But in reality the name occurs not once only, but several times, not as the designation of a single goddess, but of several female deities, supreme or subordinate, dlescended from the Titans. On this ground it is applied to Diana, to Latona, to Circe, to Pyrrha, and Hecate. As Juno is called by the poets Saturnia, on account of her descent from Saturn, and Minerva, en less obvious or more disputed grounds, is termed Tritonia, so Diana, Latona, and Circe are each styled by Ovid Titania. This designation illustrates, indeed, Ovid's marked power of so employing names as to increase both the musical flow and imaginative effect of his verse.

The name Titania, as thus used, embodies rich and complex associations connected with the silver bow, the magic cup, and the triple crown. It may be said, indeed, to embrace in one comprehensive symbol the whole female empire of mystery and night belonging to classical mythology. Diana, Latona, Hecate are all goddesses of night, queens of the shadowy world, ruling over its mystic elements and spectral powers. The common name thus awakens recollections of gleaming huntresses in dim and dewy woods, of dark rites and potent incantations under moonlit skies, of strange aerial voyages, and ghostly apparitions from the under-world. was, therefore, of all possible names the one best fitted to designate

queen of the same shadowy empire, with its phantom troops and activities, in the Northern mythology. And since Shakespeare, with prescient inspiration, selected it for this purpose, it has naturally come to represent the whole world of fairy beauty, elfin adventure, and goblin sport connected with lunar influences, with enchanted herbs, and muttered spells. The Titania of Shakespeare's fairy mythology may thus be regarded as the successor of Diana and other regents of the night belonging to the Greek Pantheon. Sbakespeare himself appears to support this view in a line over which a good deal of eritical ink has been shed. It occurs in the invocation to the Fairies in the Merry Wives of Windsor :'

Fairies, black, grey, green, and white,
You moonshine revellers, and shades of night,
You orphan heirs of fixed destiny,

Attend your office, and your quality.
The deities of the Greek mythology were instruments of destiny

current belief of the Middle Ages, still firmly held in Shakespeare's day, the beings of the Northern mythology were the representatives and successors of the old Greek divinities. Shakespeare indirectly favours this relation not only by the selection of the name Titania for the fairy queen, but in giving to Oberon the designation consecrated by Ovid to Pluto. • Umbrarum dominus,' 'umbrarum rex,' are Ovid's phrases for the monarch of the lower world, and Oberon is by Shakespeare styled · King of Shadows. But the great Pan was long since dead, and with him the Titanic brood and Olympian circle of pagan deities. In this point of view, as offshoots of the Greek mythology, and in relation to their traditionary parents and predecessors, the fairies might well be called orphan, while, as still representing the dark powers and primary forces known as Fate, they might be appropriately styled “heirs of fixed destiny. Ariel, in the

Tempest,' it will be remembered, says explicitly, 'I and my fellows are ministers of Fate.'

Reverting to the name Titania, however, the important point to be noted is that Shakespeare clearly derived it from his study of Ovid in the original. It must have struck him in reading the text of the • Metamorphoses,' as it is not to be found in the only translation which existed in his day. Golding, instead of transferring the term Titania, always translates it, in the case of Diana, by the phrase • Titan's daughter,' and in the case of Circe by the line

Of Circe, who by long descent of Titans' stocke am borne. Shakespeare could not therefore have been indebted to Golding for the happy selection. On the other hand, in the next translation of the Metamorphoses' by Sandys, first published ten years after Shakespeare's death, Titania is freely used. Sandys not only uniformly transfers the name where it occurs in the original, but sometimes employs it where Ovid does not. In Medea's grand invocations to the powers of night, for example, he translates * Luna' by “Titania. But this use of the name is undoubtedly due to Shakespeare's original choice, and to the fact that through its employment in the Midsummer Night's Dream'it had become a familiar English word. Dekker, indeed, had used it in Shakespeare's lifetime as an established designation for the queen of the fairies. It is clear, therefore, I think, that Shakespeare not only studied the

Metamorphoses' in the original, but that he read the different stories with a quick and open eye for any name, incident, or allusion that might be available for use in his own dramatic labours. The names, incidents, and allusions which he derived from his study of Ovid being, however, numerous, will require some space, and their detailed illustration must therefore be left over for a separate paper.

Thos. S BAYNES.

MR. GLADSTONE IN SCOTLAND.

A

are all under water. The political landscape has assumed a new aspect. Ministerial self-assertions and apologies have gone down under the torrents of Mr. Gladstone's indignant eloquence. It seems hard to believe, that only a few weeks ago, Lord Salisbury and Mr. Cross were acclaimed by triumphant thousands in Lancashire. Sudden and absolute victories, like those won by the greatest orator of this generation in Midlothian and Perthshire provoke not rarely a reaction. We confess we have watched for signs that Conservatism had found its voice and its hardihood again. Sooner or later the old landmarks will re-emerge. Mr. Cross

will begin to ask once more how it would have been possible for statesmen much wiser than his colleagues to have avoided compromising the discretion of Great Britain in the circumstances in which they found themselves. Lord Beaconsfield will be appealing to the arrogant instincts always ready in every nation to obey a summons to fight. Lord Salisbury will affirm that Great Britain must be a despot or a slave, and bid her make her choice. If Liberals assume that victory has been attained once for all, because for two weeks there has been a silence as of death in the Conservative camp, only broken by a confused murmur of a few Ministerialists groping for their scattered household gods, they will be laying up danger for their cause. If they study the records of that fortnight's campaign from November 24 to December 3, for the actual effect of its incidents, not on their own minds, still less on the minds of their antagonists, but on the judgment of that vast indifferent body, the British nation, they will have made themselves masters of a tremendous arsenal of weapons both of defence and of offence. No chief, even Mr. Gladstone, can win the victory singlebanded for his party; but they can mark how he fights, and keep the breach

open

which he has rent in the hostile fortress. Mr. Gladstone attempted much more sparingly than is his custom to construct new and ingenious theories. He had set himself to speak to a people; and he worked on broad and deep lines. There is not much which is new in his exposure of Ministerial crimes; but never before has the whole tale been written on a single broad sheet for its uniformity of short-sighted adventurousness to be discerned at a glance. By no other Liberal leader have the suspicion and mistrust, which have been gradually swelling in the popular mind, as the Government continually burdened the national future with new mortgages, been given such clear and articulate expression. The avowed object of this extraordinary crusade was to

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current belief of the Middle Ages, still firmly held in Shakespeare's day, the beings of the Northern mythology were the representatives and successors of the old Greek divinities. Shakespeare indirectly favours this relation not only by the selection of the name Titania for the fairy queen, but in giving to Oberon the designation consecrated by Ovid to Pluto. • Umbrarum dominus,' 'umbrarum rex,' are Ovid's phrases for the monarch of the lower world, and Oberon is by Shakespeare styled · King of Shadows. But the great Pan was long since dead, and with him the Titanic brood and Olympian circle of pagan deities. In this point of view, as offshoots of the Greek mythology, and in relation to their traditionary parents and predecessors, the fairies might well be called orphan, while, as still representing the dark powers and primary forces known as Fate, they might be appropriately styled heirs of fixed destiny. Ariel, in the Tempest,' it will be remembered, says explicitly, 'I and my fellows are ministers of Fate,

Reverting to the name Titania, however, the important point to be noted is that Shakespeare clearly derived it from his study of Ovid in the original. It must have struck him in reading the text of the

Metamorphoses,' as it is not to be found in the only translation which existed in his day. Golding, instead of transferring the term Titania, always translates it, in the case of Diana, by the phrase “ Titan's daughter,' and in the case of Circe by the line

Of Circe, who by long descent of Titans' stocke am borne. Shakespeare could not therefore have been indebted to Golding for the happy selection. On the other hand, in the next translation of the Metamorphoses' by Sandys, first published ten years after Shakespeare's death, Titania is freely used. Sandys not only uniformly transfers the name where it occurs in the original, but sometimes employs it where Ovid does not. In Medea's grand invocations to the powers of night, for example, he translates • Luna' by “Titania.' But this use of the name is undoubtedly due to Shakespeare's original choice, and to the fact that through its employment in the Midsummer Night's Dream'it had become a familiar English word. Dekker, indeed, had used it in Shakespeare's lifetime as an established designation for the queen of the fairies. clear, therefore, I think, that Shakespeare not only studied the “Metamorphoses' in the original, but that he read the different stories with a quick and open eye for any name, incident, or allusion that might be available for use in his own dramatic labours. The names, incidents, and allusions which he derived from his study of Ovid being, however, numerous, will require some space, and their detailed illustration must therefore be left over for a separate paper.

Tros. S BAYXES.

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Tiz.

MR. GLADSTONE IN SCOTLAND.

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FLOOD has swept over Scotland, and Conservative landmarks

are all under water. The political landscape has assumed a new aspect. Ministerial self-assertions and apologies have gone down under the torrents of Mr. Gladstone's indignant eloquence. It seems hard to believe, that only a few weeks ago, Lord Salisbury and Mr. Cross were acclaimed by triumphant thousands in Lancashire. Sudden and absolute victories, like those won by the greatest orator of this generation in Midlothian and Perthshire provoke not rarely a reaction. We confess we have watched for signs that Conservatism had found its voice and its hardihood again. Sooner or later the old landmarks will re-emerge. Mr. Cross will begin to ask once more how it would have been possible for statesmen much wiser than his colleagnies to have avoided compromising the discretion of Great Britain in the circumstances in which they found themselves. Lord Beaconsfield will be appealing to the arrogant instincts always ready in every nation to obey à summons to fight. Lord Salisbury will affirm that Great Britain must be a despot or a slave, and bid her make her choice. If Liberals assume that victory has been attained once for all, because for two weeks there has been a silence as of death in the Conservative camp, only broken by a confused murmur of a few Ministerialists groping for their scattered household gods, they will be laying up danger for their cause. If they study the records of that fortnight's campaign from November 24 to December 3, for the actual effect of its incidents, not on their own minds, still less on the minds of their antagonists, but on the judgment of that vast indifferent body, the British nation, they will have made themselves masters of a tremendous arsenal of weapons both of defence and of offence. No chief, even Mr. Gladstone, can win the victory singlebanded for his party; but they can mark how he fights, and keep the

open which he has rent in the hostile fortress. Mr. Gladstone attempted much more sparingly than is his custom to construct new and ingenious theories. He had set himself to speak to a people; and he worked on broad and deep lines. There is not much which is new in his exposure of Ministerial crimes; but never before has the whole tale been written on a single broad sheet for its uniformity of short-sighted adventurousness to be discerned at a glance. By no other Liberal leader have the suspicion and mistrust, which have been gradually swelling in the popular mind, as the Government continually burdened the national future with new mortgages, been given such clear and articulate expression. The avowed object of this extraordinary crusade was to

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