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The last Likeness of the Duke of York.


In the rude block aspiring talent sees
Its patron's face, and hews it out with ease;
Ere fail'd the royal breath, the marble breath'd,
And lives to be by gratitude enwreath'd..

Towards the close of the year 1825, the and his royal sister, the princess Sophia, duke of York commenced to sit for this bust were equally delighted with the true and at his late residence in the Stable-yard, St. spirited likeness, and gratified by its posJames's ; and, in the summer of 1826, con- session, as

work of art. tinued to give sittings, till its final comple- The duke of York, on giving his orders tion, at the artist's house, in Dean-street, to Mr. Behnes, left entirely to him the Soho. The marble was then removed, arrangement of the figure. With great for exhibition, to the Royal Academy, judgment, and in reference to his royal and from thence sent home to his royal highness's distinguished station, the artist highness, at Rutland-house. The duke has placed armour on the body, and thrown

Voli 1.-4.


a military cloak over the shoulders. This some of the most vivid illuminations which judicious combination of costume imparts blaze through the records of our national simplicity and breadth to the bust, and eloquence. assists the manly dignity of the head. The The touches of a master-hand giving duke's fine open features bear the frank and vent to the emanations of a mighty mind good - natured expression they constantly are, perhaps, no where more palpably wore in life: the resemblance being minutely traced, than throughout those scenes of the faithful, is as just to his royal highness's historical play of Richard II., where Ed. exalted and benevolent character, as it is mund of Langley, duke of York, (son of creditable to Mr. Behnes's execution. The king Edward ÎII.,) struggles mentally bepresent engraving is a hasty sketch of its tween sentiments of allegiance to his weak general appearance. His royal highness and misguided sovereign on the one hand, kindly permitted Mr. Behnes to take casts and, on the other hand, his sense of his other from the sculpture. Of the many, there- nephew Bolingbroke's grievous wrongs, fore, who experienced the duke of York's and the injuries inflicted on his country by friendship or favour, any one who desires a system of favouritism, profusion, and opto hold his royal highness's person in re- pression. membrance, has an opportunity of obtaining Equal skill and feeling are displayed in a fac-simile of the original bust, which is as the delineation of his son Rutland's devotlarge as life.

ed attachment to his dethroned benefactor, Mr. Behnes was the last artist to whom and the adroit detection, at a critical mothe duke sat, and, consequently, this is his ment, of the conspiracy, into which he had last likeness. The marble was in the pos- entered for Richard's restoration. session of his royal highness during his long In the subsequent play of Henry V., illness, and to the moment of his death, in (perhaps the most heart-stirring of this inArlington-street. Its final destination will teresting series,) we learn how nobly this be appropriated by those to whom he was very Rutland (who had succeeded his most attached, and on whom the disposition father, Edmund of Langley, as duke of of such a memorial necessarily devolves. York) repaid Henry IV.'s generous and

unconditional pardon, by his heroic conTo the ample accounts of the duke of duct in the glorious field of Agincourt, York in the different journals, the Table where he sealed his devotion to his king Book brings together a few particulars and country with his blood, omitted to be collected, preceded by a few

Shakspeare has rendered familiar to us notices respecting his royal highness's title, the intricate plans of deep-laid policy, and a correct list of all the dukes of York from

the stormy scenes of domestic desolation, their origin, and, first, with an interesting through which his nephew and successor, paper by a gentleman who favoured the Richard, the next duke of York, obtained Every-Day Book with some valuable gene- ing to strictness, he was legitimately enti

a glimpse of that throne, to which, accordalogical communications.

tled just before

“ York overlook'd the town of York." SHAKSPEARE'S DUKES or YORK, &c. For the Table Book.

The licentious indulgence, the hard

hearted selfishness, the reckless cruelty, The elastic huoyancy of spirits, joined which history indelibly stamps as the chawith the rare affability of disposition, which racteristics of his son and successor, Edprominently marked the character of the ward, who shortly afterwards seated himprince whose recent loss we deplore, ren self firmly on the throne, are presented to dered him the enthusiastic admirer and us in colours equally vivid and authentic. steady supporter of the English stage. I The interestingly pathetic detail of the hope I shall not be taken to task for allud- premature extinction in infancy of his ing to a trifling coincidence, on recalling to second son, prince Riehard, whom he had recollection how largely the mighty master invested with the title of York, is brought of this department, our immortal Shake before our eyes in the tragedy of Richard speare, has drawn upon his royal highness's · III., with a forcible skill and a plaintive illustrious predecessors in title, in those un energy, which set the proudest efforts of rivalled dramatic sketches which unite the preceding or following dramatic writers at force of genius with the simplicity of defiance. nature, whilst they impart to the strictly To “bluff king Hal,” (who, during the accurate annals of our national history lifetime of his elder brother, Arthur, prinee

of Wales, had next borne this exclusively British throne, there is a name in the royal title of duke of York,) ample justice genealogy of the Guelphs connected with is rendered, in every point of view, in that the title of York. production, as eminent for its gorgeous

Until the time of Gibbon, the learned pageantry as for its subdued interest, in were inclined to ascribe to Azo, the great which most of our elder readers must have patriarch of the house of Este, a direct been sufficiently fortunate to witness the male descent from Charlemagne: the briltranscendant merits of Mrs. Siddons, as

liant result of this able investigator's reQueen Catherine, surpassing even her own searches prove, in Azo's behálf, four ceraccustomed excellence,

tain lineal ascents, and two others, highly Had, contrary to the wonted career of probable, the triumph of human intellect, a Shak

from the pure well of Italian undefiled." speare enraptured and adorned the next generation, what studies would not the Azo, marquis or lord of Tuscany, marcharacters and fates of the martyred Charles ried Cunegunda, a daughter of a Guelph, I., and his misguided son, James II., have who was also sister of a Guelph, and heira afforded to his contemplation. Both these ess of the last Guelph. The issue of this sovereigns, during the lives of their respec- alliance was Guelph I., who, at a time betive elder brothers, bore the title of duke of fore titles were well settled, was either York.

duke or count of Altdorff. He was sucThe counties of York and Laticastèt are ceeded by his son, Henry the Black, who the only two in England from which the married Wolfhildis, heiress of Lunenburgh, titles conferred have been exclusively én- and other possessions on the Elbe, which joyed by princes of the blood toyal. It descended to their son, Henry the Proud, may be safely asserted, that neither of these who wedded Gertrude, the heiress of Saxa designations has ever illustrated an indivi- ony, Brunswick, and Hanover. These dual, who was not either son, brother, large domains centered in their eldest grandson, or nephew of the sovereign of son, Henry the Lion, who married Maud, this realm.

daughter of Henry II., king of England, Richard, duke of York, killed at the and, in the conflicts of the times, lost all battle of Wakefield, may, at first sight, his possessions, except his allodial territostrike the reader as an exception to this ries of Lunenburgh, Brunswick, and Hanoassertion, he being only cousin to Henry ver. The youngest son of this marriage VI.; but we ought to bear in mind, that was William of Winchester, or Longsword, this Richard was himself entitled to that from whom descended the dukes of Brunsthrone, of which his eldest son shortly after- wick and Lunenburgh, in Germany, prowards obtained possession, under the title genitors to the house of Hanover. His of Edward IV.

elder brother, Otho, is said to have borne By the treaty of Westphalia, concluded the title of York. at Munster, in 1648, which put an end to This Otho, duke of Saxony, the eldest the memorable war that desolated the son of Henry the Lion, and Maud, was fairest portion of the civilized world during afterwards emperor of Germany; but prethirty years, it was stipulated that the vious to attaining the imperial dignity, he bishopric of Osnaburgh, then secularized, was created earl of York by Richard I., king should be alternately possessed by a prince of England, who, according to some authoriof the catholic house of Bavaria, and the ties, subsequently exchanged with Otho, protestant house of Brunswick Lunen- and gave him the earldom of Poictou for burgh. It is somewhat remarkable, on the that of York. Otho's relation to this kingscore of dates, that the Bavarian family dom, as earl of York, and grandson of enjoyed but one presentation between the Henry II., is as interesting as his fortunes death of Ernest Augustus, duke of York, were remarkable. in 1728, and the presentation of his great, The emperor, Henry VI., having died, great, great nephew, the lamented prince and left his son, Frederick, an infant three whose loss, in 1827, is so deeply and justly months old, to the care of his brother deplored.

Philip, duke of Suabia ; the minority of W.P. Frederick tempted pope Innocent to divest

the house of Suabia of the imperial crown, OTHO, EARL OF YORK.

and he prevailed on certain princes to elect

Otho, of Saxony, emperor: other princes More than five centuries before a prince reelected the infant Frederick: The conof the house of Brunswick sat on the tention continued between the rival candi.


dates, with repeated elections. Otho, by. bis brother, the duke of Gloucester; and, flattering the clergy, obtained himself to be an historian of the period calls him “a soft crowned at Rome, and assumed the title of prince.” It is certain that he had few stirOtho IV.; but some of his followers having ring qualities, and that passive virtues were been killed by the Roman citizens he me- not valued in an age when they were of ditated revenge, and instead of returning to little service to contending parties. In Germany, reconquered certain possessions 1402, three years after the accession of usurped from the empire by the pope. For Henry IV., he died at his manor of Langthis violence Otho was excommunicated ley, and was interred in the priory there. by the holy father, who turned his influ

II. ence in behalf of the youthful Frederick, and procured him to be elected emperor Edward Plantagenet, second duke of instead. Otho had a quarrel with Philip York, was son of the first duke, grandson Augustus, king of France, respecting an old to Edward III., and great uncle to Henry wager between them. Philip, neither be- V., by whose side he valiantly fought and lieving nor wishing that Otho could attain perished, in the field of Agincourt, October the imperial dignity, had wagered the best 25, 1415. city in his kingdom against whichever he

III. should select of Otho's baggage horses, if he carried his point. After Otho had Richard Plantagenet, third duke of York, achieved it, he seriously demanded the city nephew of the second duke, and son of of Paris from Philip, who quite as seriously Richard earl of Canıbridge, who was exerefused to deliver up his capital. War cuted for treason against Henry V., ensued, and in the decisive battle of restored to his paternal honours by Henry Bovines, called the “ battle of the spurs," VI., and allowed to succeed to his uncle's from the number of knights who perished, inheritance. As he was one of the most Philip defeated Otho at the head of two illustrious by descent, so he became one of hundred thousand Germans. The imperial the most powerful subjects through his dragon, which the Germans, in their wars, dignities and alliances. After the death of were accustomed to plant on a great armed the duke of Bedford, the celebrated regent chariot with a guard chosen from the of France, he was appointed to succeed flower of the army, fell into the hands of him, and with the assistance of the valorous the victors, and the emperor himself barely lord Talbot, afterwards earl of Shrewsbury, escaped at the hazard of his life. This maintained a footing in the French territobattle was fought in August, 1215; and ries upwards of five years. The incapacity Otho, completely vanquished, retreated of Henry VI. incited him to urge his claim upon his devotions, and died in 1218, to the crown of England in right of his without issue.*

mother, through whom he descended from The wager, in its consequences so dis- Philippa, only daughter of the duke of astrous to the Germans, and so illustrious Clarence, second son to Edward III.; to the French arms, was made with Philip whereas the king descended from the while Otho was passing through France on duke of Lancaster, third son of that mchis way from the court of England. Col- narch. The duke's superiority of descent, his lectors of “engraved British portraits,” and valour and mildness in various high em. the portraits of persons who “come into ployments, and his immense possessions, England," should look to this. How many derived through numerous successions, gave illustrated " Grangers are there with a him influence with the nobility, and proportrait of Otho IV., earl of York?

cured him formidable connections. He levied war against the king, and without

material loss slew about five thousand of THE DUKES OF YORK. ; the royal forces at St. Alban's, on the 22d I.

of May, 1452. This was the first blood

spilt in the fierce and fatal quarrel between Edmund Plantagenet, surnamed De the rival houses of York and Lancaster, Langley, from his birth-place, fifth son of which lasted thirty years, was signalized by king Edward III., was first created earl of twelve pitched battles, cost the lives of Cambridge by his father, and afterwards eighty princes of the blood, and almost created duke of York by his nephew, annihilated the ancient nobility of England. Richard II. He was much influenced by After this battle, the duke's irresolution, and

the heroism of Margaret, queen of Henry • Hist, of House of Austria. Rapin. Favine. VI., caused a suspension of hostilities.


The leaders on both sides assented to meet York, eldest son of the last, prosecuted his in London, and be solemnly reconciled. father's pretensions, and defeated the earl The duke of York led the queen in solemn of Pembroke, half brother to Henry VI., procession to St. Paul's, and the chiefs of at Mortimer's Cross, in Herefordshire. one party marched hand in hand with the Shortly afterwards, queen Margaret adchiefs of the other. It was a public de- vanced upon London, and gained a victory monstration of peace, with secret mutual over the Yorkists under the earl of War. distrust; and an accident aroused the slum- wick, at the second battle of St. Alban's, bering strife. One of the king's retinue ine and, at the same time, regained possession sulted one of the earl of Warwick's; their of the person of her weak husband. Pressed companions fought, and both parties in by the Yorkists, she retreated to the north, every county, flew to arms. The battle of and the youthful duke, remarkable for Bloreheath, in Staffordshire, 23d Septem- beauty of person, bravery, affability, and ber, 1459, was won by the Lancastrians. every popular quality, entered the capital At the battle of Northampton, 10th July, amidst the acclamations of the citizens. 1560, the Yorkists had the victory, and the Elated by his success, he resolved to openly king was taken prisoner. A parliament, insist on his claim, and treat his adversaries summoned in the king's name, met as rebels and traitors. On the 3d of March, Westminster, which the duke of York at- 1460, he caused his army to muster in St. tended; and, had he then seated himself on John's Fields, Clerkenwell; and after an the throne in the House of Lords, the harangue to the multitude surrounding his deadly feud might have been ended by his soldiery, the tumultuary crowd were asked being proclaimed king; but his coolness and whether they would have Henry of Lanmoderation intimidated his friends, and en- caster, or Edward, eldest son of the late couraged his enemies. His personal cou- duke of York, for king. Their “sweet rage was undoubted, but he was deficient voices” were for the latter; and this show in political courage. The parliament de- of popular election was ratified by a great liberated, and though they declared the number of bishops, lords, magistrates, and duke's title indefeasible, yet they decided other persons of distinction, assembled for that Henry should retain the crown during that purpose at Baynard's Castle. On the life. They provided, however, that till the morrow, the duke went to St. Paul's and king's decease the government should be offered, and had Te Deum sung, and was administered by the duke, as the true and with great royalty conveyed to Westminlawful heir of the monarchy; and in this ster, and there in the great hall sat in the arrangement Richard acquiesced. Mean- king's seat, with St. Edward's sceptre in while, queen Margaret, with her infant son, his hand. On the 29th of March, 1461, he appealed to the barons of the north against fought the fierce and bloody battle of Touthe settlement in the south, and collected ton, wherein he issued orders to give no an army with astonishing celerity. The quarter, and there were above thirty-six duke of York hastened with five thousand thousand slain. This slaughter confirmed troops to quell what he imagined to be the 'him king of England, and he reigned upbeginning of an insurrection, and found, wards of twenty years under the title of near Wakefield, a force of twenty thousand Edward IV., defiling his fame and power men. He threw himself into Sandal castle, by effeminacy and cruelty. The title of but with characteristic bravery, imagining York merged in the royal dignity. he should be disgraced by remaining between walls in fear of a female, he descended

V. into the plain of Wakefield on the 24th of December, and gave battle to the queen,

Richard Plantagenet, of Shrewsbury, who largely outnumbering his little army, fifth duke of York, son of Edward IV., was defeated and slew him; and his son, the murdered in the tower while young, with earl of Rutland, an innocent youth of seven

his elder brother, Edward V., by order of teen, having been taken prisoner, was mur

their uncle, the duke of Gloucester, after. dered in cold blood by the lord de Clifford. wards Richard III. Margaret caused the duke's head to be cut

VI. off, and fixed on the gates of the city of York, with a paper crown on it in derision Henry Tudor, sixth duke of York, was of his claim. He perished in the fiftieth so created by his father Henry VII., whom year of his age, worthy of a better fate. he succeeded as king, under the title of IV.

Henry VIII., and stained oar annals with Edward Plantagenet, fourth duke of heartless crimes.

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