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Genus II. Mycosis. A contagious disease, characterized by fungous excrescences, which manifest themselves principally on the face, hairy scalp, and about the organs of generation. These excrescences, in form resembling the fruit of the mulberry or strawberry, give out a yellow, fetid, and viscous humour ; they occasionally form tumours of considerable size; sometimes they are attended by coryza, hoarseness, ulceration of the tonsils, pains of the bones, &c. &c. .
SPECIES. 1. M. frambesioides, (Frambæsia, Willan ;) 2. M. fungoides, (Molluscum, Willan, Verole of Amboyna, Pian, Pocken; &c. &c. ;;) 3. M. Syphiloides, (le Mal de Fiume, Scherlievo, Sibbens, of Scotland, Fungine of Ireland, &c. &c.)
There can be little doubt that there exists a certain analogy be. tween syphilis and mycosis, which has been described under as many different names as the situation in which it has been observed ; but how far this extends, future and more accurate observations must disclose. From the relative situation in which M. Alibert has placed these diseases, it will be much more easy to appreciate the affinities and relations by which they are allied to other affections.
GROUP VIII.-STRUMÆ. These are chronic affections of the skin of various forms, generally with glandular swellings, which are apt to terminate in ulcerations, and are little affected by any known remedy. The strumc are undoubtedly hereditary, and seem to depend on a certain constitutional diathesis, the nature of which is little understood, but which may show itself in every tissue of the body, and would seem to consist essentially in a disposition to deposit tuber. culous matter...
Genus. I. SCROFULA. An affection which declares itself on one or more parts of the integument by the hypertrophy, induration, and prominence of the lymphatic glands; by the formation of spots, scales, tubercles, and pustules, followed by ulcerations, incrustations, hypertrophies, cellular vegetations of the skin, &c. These tumours or swellings, the result of a morbid change, as yet but little understood, have their special seat in the glands, as the parotid, submaxillary, sublingual, cervical, &c. The genus taken collectively presents itself under two opposite aspects ; in the one, the patient has a florid colour, and the external appearance of a healthy and robust constitution; in the other, the face is thin and pale, the eyes dull, and the whole appearance that of wasting and decay,
SPECIES 1. S. vulgaris vel sporadica ; 2. S. endemica. GENUS II. FARCIMEN. (Farcy or Glanders.) An affection peculiar to domestic animals, especially characterized by the developement of a greater or less number of small tumours, globular or oval, flattened or elongated, circumscribed, resistent, placed im. mediately under, or in the substance of, the skin, at first painful, but becoming indolent after some time.
VOL. XL. NO. 116.
SPECIES 1. F. benignum ; 2. F. malignum. From the observations of Dr Elliotson on farcy and glanders in the human subject, the opinion of M. Alibert, that the farcy in domestic animals performs exactly the same part as scrofula in the human subject,-would appear in some degree questionable. It seems pretty well proved that the disease is contagious, and may be communicated from animals to man, and again from man to animals, and that in man it has proved rapidly fatal, and been attended with symptoms quite foreign to any known form of scrofula ; on the other hand, the deposition of “ grey tubercles,”— the inflammation and swelling of the lymphatic glands and vessels,
-the suppuration and peculiar appearance of the ulcers in the chronic farcy-are certainly favourable to the opinion of the scrofulous nature of the affection, and at least render the question worthy of further examination.
Group IX.-Psorodes. These diseases are especially marked by a severe sense of itching, which, though not peculiar to the psorodes, is in them so much more constant and important a symptom than in any other of the DerMATODES, that it has been justly selected to characterize the group. The form of the eruption is various and uncertain, and is sometimes accompanied by the presence of pediculi. These diseases are almost peculiar to the filthy and ill-fed ; they are little inclined to cure spontaneously, but, except in certain forms, yield readily to treatment.
GENUS I. SCABIES.-An eruption common to man and many domestic animals. This disease, in its true form, is eminently contagious; it is marked by vesicles, pointed at the top, wide at the base, generally distinct, yielding a fuid commonly serous, but sometimes purulent; especially characterized by violent itching. This disease attacks alike either sex, and every age; it extends over the whole body, except the face, but is most common about the interstices of the fingers, the inner surface of the wrists, the folds of the elbows and knees, under the axilla, on the lateral parts of the abdomen, on the thighs, &c. .
SPECIES 1. S. exquisita ; 2. S. spuria ; 3. S. pecorina.
Genus II. PRURIGO.-A non-contagious eruption, characterized by papulæ, occupying one or more parts of the integuments, varying in number and extent, sometimes red, but more frequently of the colour of the skin, and often interspersed with small black scabs produced by scratching. The appearance of these papulæ is always attended by an acute sensation of itching, which must be in this case regarded as a special and characteristic symptom.
Species 1. P. lichenoïdes vel furfurans ; l. P. formicans ; 3. P. pedicularis ; 4. P. latens.
I am at a loss to conceive why M. Alibert should have placed this group in the situation it now occupies between the Strumæ and Hæmatodes, with which it does not appear to have the most distant
affinity. I should be inclined rather to place it between the Tinec and Serpigines, to which it appears much more naturally related.
GROUP X.-Hæmatodes. This group is composed of a peculiar class of affections, charac. terized by discoloration of the skin, caused by an effusion of blood under the epidermis. On what this curious phenomenon may depend, is yet a mystery ; but it seems probable that it arises either from disease of the minute blood-vessels, or perhaps more likely from a morbid state of the vital fluid itself.
Genus I. PelioSIS.-(Purpura, Willan.)-An affection characterized by spots of a red, purple, or livid colour, occasionally of a very considerable size, sometimes but small, arising from the effu. sion of blood between the cuticle and true skin, and accompanied by hæmorrhagies which are excited by the slightest causes. These spots are sometimes distinct, sometimes in groups; they are rarely attended with fever.
Species l. P. vulgaris ; (Purpura simplex, Willan ;) 2. P. hæmorrhagica ; 3. P. contusa.
Genus II. PetECHIA.-An affection characterized by small spots scattered over the surface of the skin, generally of a red colour, though often livid, violet, or black; sometimes resembling fleabites, sometimes small freckles; with or without fever ; remaining a longer or shorter period ; varying much in size, sometimes forming an almost imperceptible point.
Species 1. P. primaria vel idiopathica ; 2. P. secundaria vel . symptomatica.
Group XI.--DYSCHROMATA. This group includes a number of rather curious than important affections, characterized solely by anomaly either of excess or defect of the colouring matter of the skin ; they may be congenital or accidental.
Genus I. PANNUS.-An affection characterized by one or more spots, disseminated or collected together in a greater or less quantity on the surface of the human skin, of which the form and colour are more or less anomalous.
SPECIES 1. P. lenticularis, (Freckles); 2. P. hepaticus ; 3. P. me. laneus ; 4. P. carateus.
GENUS II. ACHROMA.-An affection characterized by white spots, quite different from the natural colour, generally oval, of various extent, sprinkled over the body like drops of rain. The power of sensation is frequently either partially or entirely lost in the affected parts. The decoloration is sometimes universal.
Species 1. A. vitiligo ; 2. A. congeniale.
GROUP XII.-HeterOMORPHEA. Under this group are included a number of affections which appear to bear no definite relation to any other known diseases,
nor to possess any affinity with each other, and which are therefore arranged together merely for the sake of convenience.
Genus I. Ichthyosis.-An affection which appears on one or more parts of the integument, in the form of scales, more or less hard and resistent, of a pearly or grey colour, imparting to the human body the appearance proper to the skin of fish or serpents. The epidermis often assumes a horny consistence.. .
Species 1. I. nitida ; 2. I. serpentina ; 3. I. cornea.
Genus II, Tylosis. (Corns.) -An affection characterized by dry, hard, lamellated callosities, moveable or fixed, formed in the cellular layer of the skin, mostly occurring about the sole of the foot and on the toes. They are almost always brought on by the pressure of tight shoes, which pressure, if continued for any length of time, inflames the skin, and renders it exceedingly painful. · Species 1. T. gomphosa ; 2. T. indurata ; 3. T. bulbosa.
Genus III. VERRUCA.-An affection characterized by sessile or pedunculated excrescences, sometimes moveable, sometimes fixed, and nearly of the natural colour of the skin. Their surface is hard, rugged, and almost indolent. This kind of vegetation is for the most part scarcely susceptible of inflammation.
Species 1. V. vulgaris; 2. V. acrochordon. .
Genus IV. ONYGOSIS.-An affection characterized by inflammation, with pain, redness, and swelling of the matrix of the nail, and malformation, induration, or other morbid change of the substance of the nail itself.
SPECIES 1. O. acuta ; 2. O. chronica; 3. O. per incarnationem; 4. O. per fodidatem.
Genus V. DERMATOLYSIS.--An affection characterized by an unnatural extension of the skin, arising from a peculiar change in the contractile power of this membrane.
Species 2, D. palpebrarum; 2. D. faciei; 3. D. collaris ; 4. D. abdominalis; 5. D. genitalium.
Genus VI. NÆVUS. -A congenital affection, characterized by spots, most frequently solitary and scattered, by vesicles, cysts, warty or steatomatous excrescences, of an infinite variety of forms and colours.
This group is from its very nature imperfect. But though it may, and probably will, frequently undergo modifications and changes, these will in no degree affect the general principles on which the method is founded,
Art. II.--Anatomical and Physiological Description of the
Otic Ganglion. Extracted from Arnold's “ Kopftheil des vegetativen Nervensystems beim Menschen,” (The Cephalic part of the Vegetative Nervous System in Man.) Translated from the German by WILLIAM Salmox TYLEE, Esq. Devizes. *
| HE ganglion oticum sive auriculare, called also by Professor Tiedemann, Ganglion Arnoldi, is situated at the internal side of the third branch of the trigeminus, (vid. plate,) immediately under the foramen ovale, at the spot where externally the nervi temporales profundi, the nervus maxillaris, and buccinatorius branch off, a little above the point where the superficial temporal nerve is given off, where the small portion of the fifth pair unites more closely with a branch of the larger, and where the third branch, after passing through the foramen ovale, forms a slight swelling. Internally the ganglion is covered by the cartilaginous part of the Eustachian tube and the origin of the tensor palati, behind it borders on the arteria meningea media, and its external surface is situated on the internal side of the third branch of the fifth pair. I found sometimes a variation with regard to its position, in as inuch as it was not so closely united with the internal side of the latter nerve, and projected partly over the anterior border of the same, being situated more forward and within than is generally the case. The ganglion oticum has an oval form, flattened on either side, and a little elongated horizontally. Its diameters are therefore very different, for in the last direction it measures on an average from 2 to 21 lines, from above downwards from 1 to 2 lines, and in thickness only a to at most line. I once observed in a subject that had been idiotic a variation from the general form. The ganglion had here a remarkable resemblance to that in ruminating animals, viz. it was more semilunar in form, the superior border concave and rather thin, the inferior thicker and convex.
With regard to colour and other properties, this ganglion is characterized by its reddish appearance, verging a little towards gray, and its soft consistence. It is a fact well worth attention, and doubtless of importance in a physiological point of view,
.“ Der Kopftheil des vegetativen nervensystems beim Menschen, in anatomi. scher und physiologischer Hinsicht; bearbeitet von Dr Friedrich Arnold, Prosector und privatdocent an der Universität zu Heidelberg, Mit zehn Kupfertafeln und eben so viel dazu gehörigen Linearzeichungen. Heidelberg und Leipzig, neue akademische Buchhandlung von Karl Groos, 1831."