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its proper proportion, and therefore, in order to get his work on a sheet of suit. able size, he selects some scale. For instance, he may make his drawing on a scale of 1-16 inch to 1 foot, and if so, each 1-16 inch on the drawing represents

a foot on the property which is being mapped out.

This is a reducing scale. Now on the other hand, the draughtsman may be required to make drawings of some very small machine part, per

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haps so small that when all the dimen- The small divisions at the left of this sions are placed upon it, it will be con- scale represent fractions of an inch, each fused, and trouble the workman to work of the smallest divisions representing 1-16 from it.

inch, the next larger 48 inch, the next 14 In this case it is necessary to choose inch, and finally 12 inch. a scale which will enlarge the drawing. Fig. 120 shows a scale of 12 inch equals A scale of 2 inches equal 1 inch is possi- 1 foot, and is a scale that is sometimes bly used, and in this case, when the used, though not so often as the 14 inch drawing is complete, a measurement ou and 18 inch. The 12 inch scale will be it of 2 inches represents 1 inch on the found very handy in making a large piece itself.

drawing of small work, for instance, in Now, in the work which we are follow. making a good sized drawing of the ing, we shall have use for both the re- plans and elevations of the plumbing for ducing and increasing scales, but more a small house. It must be understood especially for the former.

that in Fig. 120, for instance, each fig. In Figs. 118, 119 and 120 we show three ured division represents a full inch on a common reducing scales, and in Fig. 121 drawing which is drawn to a scale of the a common increasing scale.

inch equal 1 foot. Therefore, the full The double scale (Fig. 121) or 142 or length of the scale shown would repretriple scale, will be found of use in the sent 14 inches, on the scale drawing, practice work which we have been give though measuring actually only half that ing, in making an enlarged drawing from amount. a smaller one. If there is a measure. We have chosen to consider lastly the ment of 142 inch on the smaller drawing, two scales which are most important in and the double scale is being used, to this work, that is, the 14 and 15 inch represent that dimension on the en- scales shown in Figs. 118 and 119. In larged drawing, three inches of the dou. the next chapter these two scales will be ble scale must be taken, that is, from 0 considered fully, and examples of their to 3 on Fig. 121,

application given.

HE two scales of most importance shown represents 28 feet. In Fig. 119

to the architect and, therefore, each eighth-inch division represents 1
of most importance to the foot, and the total length shown repre-

plumber are those of 14-inch = sents 56 feet. Thus, in comparing the 1 foot, and 18 inch = 1 foot.

Of these, by far the more commonly used is the scale of 14 inch = 1 foot, which is used for practically all ordinary work, the '98 inch scale being used on large work.

Fig. 124.
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Fig. 122. These two scales were shown in Figs. two scales, we find, as might be expected, 118 and 119 of the preceding article. that when equal lengths are laid off on

In Fig. 118 each quarter-inch division each scale, that the given length reprerepresents 1 foot, and the total length sents on the 18 scale, just twice the di

mension on the 14 scale. In order to show in a practical way the application

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Fig. 127.

Scale loin. =

Fig. 122, the actual length of the sketch to use the information given in this is 412 inches, but it would be entirely book will probably find it almost neceswrong to place that dimension on the sary to procure a scale for the work that drawing. The dimension that should ap- we are about taking up. There are two pear is the dimension that the 412 inches styles of boxwood scales commonly in use, represents on the scale that is being used, which we represent in Figs. 124 and 125. that is, 18 feet.

The triangular scale is the more exThis point may not have needed an ex- pensive of the two, and has a larger num



Scale Yo in. = I ft.

we require is a knowledge of the distance between floors and the depth of floor timbers, and in addition the pitch of the roof in order to know the length of the vertical line of soil pipe. This elevation is obtained by viewing the house from the front, and it will be seen that in this view the two stacks would appear one behind the other. After drawing the cellar wall, to locate the position of the



ber of different scales upon it than the flat scale. At the same time, if a flat architect's scale having a quarter and eighth scales can be procured, it will an swer all purposes.

The flat scale has one great advantage over the triangular, from the fact that one often has to turn the latter several times before finding the scale desired, whereas the flat scale shows plainly at all times.

Now having looked into the subject of the different scales, let us apply it in the making of the several plans for a cottage house, this being the simplest construction that we can use for our purpose. Suppose we have a house to plan whose main dimensions are 36 feet x 24 feet. If we use a scale of 14 inch = 1 foot, the plans' will appear 9 inches x 6 inches, which calls for a larger space than we can afford to give up, although if we were laying out this work on a sheet of paper rather than on the page of a publication where every inch is of value, the quarter scale for work of this kind would be far preferable. Under the conditions we are obliged to show the plans and elevation of this work on a scale of 18 inch = 1 foot, and in much of the large work we should have to resort to a scale even smaller, probably 1-16 inch = 1 foot.

The cellar plan we show in Fig. 126, and such parts of the first and second floors as contain plumbing work are shown respectively in Figs. 127 and 128. In addition to the plans, we show in Fig. 129, a very simple elevation of the work in question. This elevation is of the most rudimentary style, but it gives us as much information in the line of plumbing as an elaborate and finished elevation; all

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