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winter months when the refrigerators may possibly not be in use, the danger of the evaporation of the seal in the sink trap may be lessened. As to the sub-soil drainage, in some sections of the country it is hardly ever used, but in others, where there is a damp soil, nearly every house or building must be supplied with it. The dotted lines showing the subsoil drain represent porous tile with loose joints, and it will be noticed that this drain is carried into the well formed for the cellar drainage. Other lines of

the work. Probably most of our readers will agree that in figuring such a job as this one, it would be the easiest thing in the world to forget to figure in the Y branch and bend making up this offset. With a drawing, even if it is not elabor. ately drawn, this and a score of other little points are brought to one's attention, and “forgetting to figure” fittings, etc., will not happen so often.

Probably by this time those of our readers who have been carefully preserv. ing this book will see at a glance that the

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FLOOR PLAN

Six FLAT APARTMENT HOUSE sub-soil drain may be run out into the elevation of Fig. 112 is taken looking in center of the cellar if desired.

the direction of the arrow G in Fig. 111. In Fig. 112 is shown an elevation of This brings the stack and the vent line the plumbing work of the kitchens. As one behind the other, and for that reason will be seen from the floor plan, the the work does not show as clearly as kitchens belonging to the two apartments might be desired. The vent line it will on each floor are at opposite ends of the be noticed, does not connect at its foot building, and therefore require separate back into the stack, but' as shown, ends in stacks, and as these stacks run in re- a hub ferrule, to which the two fixture cesses in the wall, they require offsetting vents connect. below the first floor, as we show. This To be brief and to the point, we show matter of the offset will perhaps show in in Fig. 112, and also in Fig. 113, only the a slight way the benefit of a drawing of work on the lower, and upper floors, and

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In Fig. 113 we show an elevation of the bath room work of the apartment building under consideration. On this work, the bath rooms on each side of the house are served by a single stack, as our drawing shows.

It will be observed that this view of the work is obtained by looking upon it from the rear (see arrow F). As we saw in the case of the kitchen stacks, the bathroom stack runs up through the wall, and of necessity must be offset in order to lead into the main drain. In this drawing, the main line of vent appears in front of the stack, and therefore shows plainly. Just below the first floors two lines of vent are connected into the main vent, these pipes being the vents from the refrigerator drip sinks in the cellar. The work shown in all four drawings of this chapter are given the student for practice work, which will be found easier if made on a larger scale. We have said but little on scale drawings thus far, but before one can take up the figuring of work from drawings, it becomes necessary to understand this matter. Therefore, in our next chapter we shall take the subject up to a sufficient extent to enable the student to use a scale in his work.

It has probably been noticed that we have for some little time been showing lines on floor timbers in our drawings, which represent wood. This is not a necessity by any means, but a reference to Figs. 112 and 113 will convince the reader, we believe, that it sets off a drawing to quite an extent, and adds to its appearance.

Likewise, the section lines of the division wall shown in Fig. 113 are of benefit, as well as the lines showing brick and stone work.

The cross section lines take quite an amount of time to put in in proper shape, to be sure, but the lines showing wood and stone are very quickly put in.

Some of the detail work connected with the six flat apartment building which we have been considering, we shall show in the next chapter.

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CHAPTER XXII
S will be seen by reference to the All modern ordinances prohibit direct

floor plan of the six-flat depart- connection of the refrigerator with the
ment building shown in tứe drainago system, and reference to our

last chapter, each flat is sup sketch will show that the line is disconplied with a refrigerator and each line of nected at the sink, simply carrying the refrigerators on the two sides of the build. drip from the refrigerators into the sink,

and the sink being trapped and vented in the usual manner as shown here.

A note on Fig. 114, and also one on Fig. 113, call attention to the fact that the vent from this sink is carried into the bath room main vent line. The üz of a note, as in this case, often saves the labor and space involved in showing such work as it actually exists. In Fig. 115 we give a sketch showing in detail the connection of one of the rain leaders

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ing is served by a line of waste or drip pipe. This pipe is usually of galvanized wrought iron, as stated by the note attached to Fig. 114, which shows the refrigerator work of the building under consideration. As the connection of each of the two refrigerators on the second and third floors into the main line of waste is the same as that on the first floor, we simply show the latter, with the drip sink and its connections below.

into the drainage system. It will be noticed that the leader is not provided with a trap. As a general thing, wherever there is a main trap no separate traps

are placed on the rain leaders. If there were no main trap on this system, how ever, it would be necessary to trap sepa rately each line of rain leaders.

Fig. 116 gives a sketch in detail of the cellar drainage. It represents a well formed in the concrete cellar bottom, with the hub end of a P trap cemented into the bottom of the well, and connected with the main drain. Into this well the various lines of sub-soil drain are carried. In some cities it is required by ordinance to carry the water supply di.

onductor Pipe

Ellar Wall

Cellar Bottom

rect to the cellar drainage well, so that in the event of a drought and the consequent evaporation of the trap seal, the seal may be renewed.

With the main trap, however, this dan. ger is not so much to be feared, for the main trap acts as a safeguard to the entrance of sewer gas through the cellar drainage system.

The sketch shown in Fig. 117 shows the work connected with the drainage sys. tem usually found at the front cellar wall. In order to economize space, in. stead of carrying the fresh air inlet up to a proper height, we have carried it low, and by cutting off the cellar wall, the fact that the full height is not shown is made known. The concrete is shown with a well formed about the cleanouts on the main trap, so that easy access may be had to them. Cast iron soil pipe is shown carried two lengths or ten feet outside the cellar wall, where it is entered into the tile drain.

This provision is made in most ordinances, to provide against the leaching back into the cellar of sewage that might escape from the tile drain if for any reason broken at some future time. The fresh air inlet is represented as carried underground twenty feet out into the lawn, and brought up to the surface, ending in a ventilating cap. The carry. ing of the inlet twenty feet away from windows and doors is a sanitary provision required by many ordinances.

Although not so difficult to execute as much of the preceding exercise work, it will do the reader no harm to practice on the work shown in these four sketches.

As we intimated in our last article, we have come to a point now where it is necessary to use an exact scale, both in laying out drawings and in taking dimensions from drawings.

It will no doubt already be known to most of our readers what the purpose of scale drawings is.

As an example, let us suppose that the civil engineer is getting out a map of property covering several acres. It is obvious that it is utterly impossible to make such a drawing full size. The draw. ing must, however, show everything in

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