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CHAPTER XV N the preceding chapter we showed To clearly demonstrate this point, we

elevations of the work of a three show in Fig. 75 a floor plan of the same flat apartment building, including work that we showed in connection with

the kitchen fixtures, pantry sinks the work of the preceding article, the layand refrigerators. Owing to lack of out of the floor plan being identical, and space we omitted the elevation of the the only difference being a change in the bath room work, and this we now show in location of the sink and laundry tubs Fig. 74.

to another side of the kitchen. Now then, In showing an elevation of the three- in Fig. 76 we give an elevation of the flat apartment work, we brought out the entire plumbing work of the apartment

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FIG. 75. point that it often occurs that a complete shown in Fig. 75. It will be observed elevation of the plumbing work of any ex- that in order to obtain this elevation the tent cannot be shown to the best advan- work must be viewed looking in the directage by taking a view of all parts of the tion in which the arrow B points. In work from one direction, and that it is this particular layout of the work the enoften best, and indeed almost necessary tire elevation is clearly shown from one to a clear understanding of the drawing, view, and it does not become necessary to make separate views of different sec- to make separate elevations of the differtions of the work, viewing each section ent lines of fixtures viewed from differfrom the most advantageous position. ent directions. It is somewhat unusual

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there is nothing in the elevation to show that the refrigerator occupies a position in front of the bath room and kitchen fix tures, and nothing to show this point in relation to the pantry sink excepting the fact that the waste and vent stacks serving the pantry sink cross the pipes of the other fixtures in front of them. Furthermore, even this latter fact is of little importance, for it does not show how far in front the pantry sink is. To ascertain this fact, and the location of the refrigerator, we must look to a plan of the work, that is, to Fig. 75. This goes to show that from no single view can all the facts relating to the work be found, and this is true of the most simple object we can think of. For instance, we can place a board directly in front of us, and at once observe its length and its width, but in order to know its thickness, we must look down upon its edge, in order to get at its thickness. This is a most important fact to understand thoroughly, and a proper understanding of this feature of the work will go a long way to aid in understanding just how important to each other the plan and the elevation are, and why one is as necessary as the other.

Thus far we have been speaking of the elevation shown in Fig. 76, which is taken looking in the direction of arrow B. Now suppose we had viewed the work from the direction of arrow A. We should get the result shown in Fig. 77, which to say the least is very unsatisfactory to a clear understanding of the work. Looking in the direction of A, the fixtures in the bath room, and in the kitchen are one behind the other, and as they must be shown in this way on the elevation, the result is very confusing and of little value as com. pared with the elevation of the same work shown in Fig. 76. If the kitchen fixtures had been shown in this elevation (Fig. 77) the confusion of lines would have been still greater. Even the bath trap shows very poorly, and as for show. ing the vent from this trap, it is almost impossible to do so clearly in this view. The only way in which it could be done with even a moderate amount of success is to work out the view on a much larger scale than is practicable. We believe

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As far as practice work on this article It is not our intention to present Fig. is concerned the student will do well to 77 as a practice exercise. As we have take as his exercises Figs. 74 and 75 and, mentioned previously, if the student is if he chooses, Fig. 76 also, but he should inking his drawings, he should remember work on a scale of about twice the size to draw in his curved lines before doing of the drawings which we show.

anything with the straight lines.

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Fig. 78—Cellar Plan, Double House. from the plumber who is able to make

struction are omitted, our aim being to such drawings, but though he

present chiefly the details necessary to should seldom put his knowledge of the the plumber. It will be good practice subject into actual use, the insight he has for the student to draw up these plans gained concerning the relation of plans

on a larger scale. We have not drawn and elevations will help him wonderfully

them at any given scale, but when we in the figuring of work. This leads us to

come to the figuring of work, a definite state that we shall soon take up in con

scale will be necessary. From the cellar

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