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E have already stated, there on his own line of work that he can look

are two views of any pro- to for help.
posed piece of work that Indeed, in a great many cases he does

the plumber will need, if not need any further help. On the other the work is to be shown fully. hand, in a great many cases there is These views are known as the plan abundant use for a special drawing on and the elevation, and each is equal the plumbing work of a building, and ly valuable. The plan is sometimes called such a thing would often be of service the top view, that is to say, this view, by to the plumber and to the architect and whichever term it may be known, is ob- owner as well. If the architect had to tained by looking down upon the object work out in a drawing the way in which or the work, that is to be shown. Now the different pipes, vent and waste would in Figs. 20, 21, 22, and 23, we show draw. have to run, it would be the means of ings for an ordinary cottage house, such his giving more attention to the location

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Fig. 20—Showing Cellar Plan. Scale 18-inch to 1 foot. Wd are usually drawn up by the architect of his fixtures, the laying out of bath daving the work in charge, and such, no rooms, the running of floor timbers, etc., Qoubt, as most of our readers are entire- and as a result, the plumber would find 1 familiar with.

himself able to put in his work to better These views are what the plumber us- advantage, with less cutting, etc., than ually figures his work from, and as a he is usually able to do under present general thing he has no further drawing existing and undesirable conditions.

Fig. 20 shows a cellar plan, with the pipes running as they are to be put in. This is a view that is very important,

the plumbing system as we are supposed to do when making this view, we shall see only the ends of pipes that run ver

Fig. 21Showing Bathroom Connections on Second Floor. Scale 48-inch to 1 foot. one that will almost always be required tically, and as may readily be seen, these when drawings of the plumbing work are ends will appear circular. Now when desired.

we come to study the first and second That two stacks that pass up through floor plans, each gives, or should give,

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Fig. 22-Showing First Floor Plan. Scaie 48-inch to I foot. the house, and through the roof, are the location of all fixtures on that particshown in this view or in any other plan ular floor, also the location of any stacks view by circles, for in looking down on that may pass up through said floor.

In comparing these floor plans with Now if any of our readers wish to enthe cellar plan, if it is found that the large these plans as we have suggested, position of the stack as the circle shows and draw them on a larger scale, it can it, is located directly over its position in easily be done. If it is desired to make the cellar, it is clear that the pipe runs the drawings four times the size shown vertically without offset.

by us, they would then be on a scale of If the positions do not show this, but 12 inch to the foot, and every measureit is found that the locations vary, then ment on our drawings would have to be we know that there is an offset.

It would be first-class practice for any one following these articles, to take the set of plans which we illustrate, and work out the same on a larger scale, or better still, to change the layout and locate the stacks in their proper positions on the several floors.

The drawing of a cellar plan, with the pipes showing, as we submit in Fig. 20, is especially desirable work for the beginner, and not too difficult for him. We therefore suggest that he give particular attention to perfecting that view. It will be noticed that these four views are each drawn on a scale of 18 inch to the foot. To those who do not understand clearly what is meant by a scale drawing, we would make the following explanation: It is obviously impossible to lay out any view of an object of as large size as a house in its actual size. In this event, it is customary to choose some certain measurement, and let such measurement on the drawing represent some larger measurement on the object itself. Thus, in these floor plans, if we find a certain measurement to be 5/8 inch, we know from the scale that we are using, that the same measurement on the house itself is 5 feet. Various scales are in use, depending on the size of the building usually.

On ordinary work, the scale generally used is 14 inch to the foot. On large work 18 inch to the foot is common. This brings to mind the fact that in working or figuring from plans care

Fig. 23—Showing Elevation. Scale 18-In. to 1 ft. must be taken to do such work with the made four times as large in the new scale that the drawings are made on. drawing. The writer has heard several times of Fig. 23 we have scarcely referred to people who have made such a mistake as yet. It represents a very simple eleas figuring the work from plans drawn vation of the house shown in plan on the on a 18 inch scale at 14 inch scale, thus three other views, and is not meant to figuring only one-half the necessary represent in any way, the finished elevalengths os pipes a fifty per cent. loss. tion that the architect usually prepares.

It simply shows the heights between floors, etc., and really represents all that the plumber needs so far as the eleva. tions generally given by the architect are concerned. From the elevations given by the architect, unless indeed, they are


zontal nor vertical, but as some angle between, may best be described from Figs. 24 and 25. Suppose in Fig. 24 the line A B has been drawn, and it is desired to draw a second line parallel to it. To do this, place one of the triangles in the position which No. 1 has, with one of its edges matching up with the line AB. Then place another triangle No. 3 against No. 1 triangle, as shown. Now, holding triangle No. 3 firmly in place, move No. 1 along to a second position, shown by No. 2, when line C D can be drawn parallel to A B. Any number of parallel lines can be drawn in this way.

It does not matter how the triangles are put together, so long as one can move along on the other. Thus in Fig.

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FIG. RA elevations of the plumbing work itself, the plumber gets no other help than the several heights which will help him in figuring his vertical lines of pipe, etc. Now, before bringing this chapter to an end, there is one bit of instruction that we should give, and it will be helpful in laying out a part of the work shown in the cellar plan. The point to which we refer, is the running of lines at an odd angle, so that they shall be parallel to each other, as for instance, either line of conductors, which run at an angle with the main line. Of course horizontally and vertically, it is not difficult to get lines parallel, for all that is necessary is to move the tee square or triangle from one position to another, at the required distance apart from the first line. The way in which the result is reached when the lines are neither hori.

FIG. 25.

25, the two triangles are placed differently, but the lines E F and G H can be drawn parallel in just the same manner. This method of drawing parallel lines should be kept in mind, for it is the practical way of doing such work.

HIS method would be made use position away from the line just drawn.

of in representing runs of pipe This new position is shown by No. 1.
at oblique angles with the main. Now holding No. 1 firmly in its new

After having shown such a line position, place No. 2 triangle in the posiof pipe, it is necessary to show the hubs tion shown by No. 3, with one of its on pipe and fittings, and the lines repre- edges at right angles to the line of pipe, senting the hub are of course at right as it must of necessity be. angles to the direction of the pipe.

It will be clearly seen that by sliding Referring now to Fig. 26, let us sup- No. 3 along No. 1, lines at right angles to pose the two parallel lines representing the direction of the line of pipe can be the pipe have been drawn at some odd drawn at any desired point. It has taken angle, and it is desired to put in the per quite a few words to explain this method, pendicular lines showing the hubs. We simple as it is, and it is a good example will suppose that the lower line on the of the difficulties in carrying on a course pipe has been drawn by placing the triof this kind in any other way than by angles. No. 2 and No. 4 together, and oral demonstrations. An instructor could following the method explained above. explain a great deal to the pupil before Still holding No. 2 in position, draw No. him very quickly, whereas the writing of 4 along the edge of No. 2 into a new the same explanation demands of the one


Fig. 26.

NO 2.


Method of Drawing lines Perpendicular to Each Other at Right Angles,

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