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The whole number counted in 4h 24m was 5670, of which number 121 were reported as not conformable to the radiant in Leo. But as the observers were all without previous experience in such work but little reliance can be placed on the number of unconformable meteors recorded.
Almost all the brighter meteors left trains of various lengths, and frequently several trains would be visible upon the sky at one time. These presented the usual appearance of clouds of luminous smoke, which gradually changed their form, and floated toward the north. Many meteors were so brilliant as to cast a light on surrounding objects, which was plainly visible even when the meteor itself was hidden from view by some intervening object. Very many were brighter than Venus, which was visible in the east during the latter part of the watch.
3. At Boston, Mass.-Mr. T. W. Tuttle, from a window looking north, saw as follows: From 3h 7m to 3h 22m 92 meteors. From 5h (m to 5h 4m 20 meteors.
55 14h 4
54 5h 0
52 34 26 47 20 20 20
8 17 8
14 29 14
20 31 20
27 25 27
30 12 30
38 10 Total in 2h 2m 453
* 11 45
4. At New Bedford, Mass.—Mr. R. Taber reports the following numbers for three observers : From 10h Om to 10h 30m
From 1h 30m to 2h om 237 meteors, 52
2 30 101 11 45 * 12 0 53
2 20 2 0 212 25 1 0 170
3 0 2 30 271 1 0 1 30 215
For one observer: From 3h 30m to 4h om 190 meteors. From 4h 30m to 5h 155 meteors. 0 4 30 159
5 0 " 6 207 The flights were in general unusually bright, leaving in many cases long trails, which remained visible sometimes two, and four, and in one instance eight minutes ; gathering apparently in knots and waves, with an apparent motion of its parts and curving like a trail of smoke in a light wind. One of these examined by the telescope, showed plainly a difference in the intensity of its light, being much more luminous on the knots, so to speak; yet not enough to dim the intensity of the third magnitude star which shone through it.
5. At Williamstown, Mass.-Messrs. Benjamin J. Gilman, W. D. Granger and F. B. Wilder, saw between 11h 35m and 12h 35m
450 meteors. 12 35
250 3 0
950 4 0
830 Total in 3h 45m 2480 by three observers.
6. At Stamford, Conn.—Mr. E. A. Fuertes was occupied principally in locating the tracks of the meteors upon the chart. He estimates the number seen by him at more than a thousand. The sky was magnificent, the belts of Jupiter appearing with a brownish red color which he has only seen in remarkably fine nights with his glass, of six feet focus and 41 inches aperture. He thinks that in the earlier part of the evening the meteors were green, and gradually changed to blue as the night advanced.
7. At Poughkeepsie, N. Y.--Miss Mitchell reports from five observers 3,766 meteors. The hour most fruitful was that from two to three o'clock, in which 900 were counted. The most fruitful minute was from 2h 24m to 2h 25m. The other hours from 12h to 53h were much alike. Flashes of light for which they could not account by any meteor above the horizon were frequent, and Miss Mitchell was confident that the evening of Nov. 13th was lighter than common for a moonless night without aurora.
8. At Palisades, N. Y.—Mr. W. S. Gilman, Jr., gives the following summary of the numbers of meteors seen by himself and Mr. Thomas P. Gilman. The latter was constantly counting, but the former was occupied principally in noticing the peculiarities of the more remarkable ones, and mapping the paths upon the chart. He judged that the numbers were 25 or 30 per cent of the true number visible. A few meteors of great beauty were seen before 11 o'clock.
Wind. 111h to 12h
Fresher; west. 51
Light N.W. wind. “I could distinctly, and with the utmost ease, distinguish the little companion of Sirius in my 4-inch glass with a power of only 40, at 36 A. M., which shows remarkable clearness and steadiness of atmosphere. I noticed blue trains at first, afterward more greenish ones. The radiant point seemed to me to be near , Leonis this year, say R. A. 152°, N. Dec. 18°."
Mr. Gilman has furnished many valuable observations upon individual meteors and trains, which will be of special value when compared with those made at other places upon the same bodies.
9. At Philadelpha.-Mr. Pliny E. Chase counted from a window, between sh and 26 A M., 155 meteors; between 2h and 3b, 163; between 3h and 45, 206; between 4h and 5h, 221; and between 51 and 5b 28m, 105. The successive hundreds
1 2 3 4 5
32 182 294 304 290 238 122
Barometer. Therm, Sky.
were counted in 35, 47, 32, 22, 39, 27, 25, and 26 minutes, and the remaining fifty in 15 minutes. Among the number seen were 15 couplets and 1 triplet. Only 25, or 3 per cent, were nonconformable.
10. At Haverford, Pa.-Prof. S. J. Gummere furnishes a report of observations made at Haverford College under his direction, though he could himself watch only from a window. The report is by Mr. E. B. Taylor.
Counting was begun at 1134n, and the time of finishing the even hundreds, and the numbers per minute, are as below:
Time. Entire no. No. pr m. 12h 4m 08 200 6.7 34 0 400
6.7 46 3 500 8:3
58 18 600 8.2 1h 17
800 10-7 34 13 1000 116 41 55 1100 13.0 47 13 1200
18-9 55 25 1300 12:2 2h 1
16.7 8 57 1500 13:3 23 25 1700 138 31 12 1800
Time. Entire no. No. pr m. 2h 39m 26s 1900 12.1
46 40 2000 13:8
53 3 2100 15.7
17 34 2400 11.7
58 13 3000 14.6
14 29 3200 13:5
Time. Entire no. No. pr m. 4h 38m 149 3500 13.1
43 0 3700 41.9 46 38 3800 27.5 50 31 3900 25.7 53
4000 32:1 55 27 410C 550
59 26 4200 25.1 5h 25 33 4700 19:1 30 55 4800 186
45 4900 20-7 40 17 5000 29-1
Several hundred more were counted, but the times were not observed.
11. At Magnetic Observatory, Toronto, Canada.-Communicated by the director, Mr. G. T. Kingston. Nearly 3000 were counted between 10h 45m and 186 Om of Nov. 13th, Toronto astronomical time. With the exception of about one per cent their courses were from the constellation Leo.
Owing partly to the remarkably favorable state of the sky during most of the night many of the meteors appeared very large and brilliant, some exceeding Sirius in apparent magnitude, and often exhibiting a variety of colors. Most of them were followed by trains which often left tracks that continued visible from two to four minutes. Two observers were constantly watching excepting from 10h 45m to 111 Om and from 11h 50m to 12h 10m, when only one was engaged. From 125 10m to 17" On a third observer was frequently though not constantly assisting
The annexed table shows the number seen at different points of the night together with the corresponding state of the sky.
State of the sky. Nov. 13. 10 45–12 0
173 Very clear. 12 0 13 0
329 13 0 14 0
583 14 0 15 0
489 Occasional very light haze.
375 16 0 17 0
572 Haze increasing. 17 18 O 365 Clouds 0.4, and very hazy.
. Total, 2886
12. At Marathon, N. Y.-Mr. Lewis Swift, after half past one o'clock, counted 896 meteors, all but five from Leo." At a little after three o'clock a train in Cancer was visible for seyeral minutes which floated to the north,
13. At Bloomington, Ind.-Prof. T. A. Wylie reports observations by some of the students of the Ind. State University. He had made no arrangements himself for observing as he had watched during the whole of the preceding night, judging, with good reason, that there was more probability of a display on the morning of the 13th.
The whole number observed by the students was 2,500. The numbers increased gradually from 11 o'clock to 3 o'clock, when it reached 20 per minute, at which rate it continued until a quarter before four. The sky then became hazy, and by 4h 40m quite cloudy. At four minutes past five they began regular counting with these results. From 5h 4m to 5h 7m 50 meteors. 7
10 50 10
15 56 15
18 50 18
Cloudy near horizon.
50 The trajn of one meteor at 5b 25m remained ten minutes in sight, moving slowly eastward. The meteor passed through the bowl of the great dipper.
Prof. Kirkwood and Mr. Maxwell thought they saw one meteor in the forenoon of the 13th, and suspected two or three others. They were looking from a shaded place, in the direction of the radiant. Prof. Kirkwood, however, in view of the fact that no considerable fall seems to have commenced until several hours later, thinks it quite probable that there was some optical deception.
14. At Vevay, Ind.-Mr. Charles G. Boerner reports the following numbers seen by himself and two assistants in successive intervals, beginning at 1h 4” and ending at 5b 37m;
59 6 6b 11
From 1h 4rn to 3h.
From 3h to 4h 37 m.
From 4h 37m to 5 37m. In 15m 138 meteors. In 13m 161 meteors. 15 114
10 156 15 162
16 147 15 119
15 102 66 18 10
6 25 19 174
Total in 4h 37m, 1926
15. At Des Moines, Iowa.-Mr. J. E. Hendricks counted in an hour and a quarter, from four o'clock, 250 meteors, only one being nonconformable.
16. At Manhattan, Kansas.-Prof. B. F. Mudge with one assistant counted 833 from half past four to half past five o'clock. The time per hundred varied from seven to nine minutes, the last hundred being counted in eight minutes.
As Prof. Mudge was 15 35'n west of New Haven (long. 96° 40'), and as this number for two observers corresponds to about 1,700 for eight observers, his numbers indicate that there was no diminution, but rather an increase in the intensity of the display just after dawn at New Haven,
17. The above abstract of observations is confined principally to the numbers seen on the morning of Nov. 14th. The most palpable peculiarities of the display are its uniform intensity through several hours, and its appearance twelve or eighteen hours later than might have been expected.
We are indebted to Commodore Sands, Prof. Rockwood, Mr. W. S. Gilman, Miss Mitchell, Mr. Fuertes, Mr. Tuttle, Prof. Gummere, Mr. Swift, Mr. Wm. C. Taylor of Philadelphia, Prof. Twining, and others, for valuable observations upon particular meteors remarkable for brilliancy or duration of train. These, together with a few observations on other nights, and some general considerations respecting the display, will furnish matter for a continuation of this article in another number of the Journal.
Meanwhile we respectfully request any persons within two hundred miles of New Haven, who may have observations upon particular meteors, to communicate them to us, or exchange them with ours.
Especially desirable would be any additional observations upon the remarkable meteor which passed about 80 miles north of Philadelphia, and disappeared at an altitude of about 50 miles at a point over Schuylkill Co., in Pennsylvania, at 1h 16, New Haven time. The portions of its train floated in different directions, and continued visible nearly or quite threefourths of an hour. It was seen and its place noticed, at Williamstown, New Haven, Poughkeepsie, Palisades, Haverford, and other places.
For several communications we are indebted to the courtesy of Prof. Henry, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
Η. Α. Ν.