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published an outline of his summer work. Some interesting observations were made on the northern coast of Spitzbergen, in Henlopen Straits, and on the southern shore of North-east land. The snow-covered peaks of Gillis land were seen by telescope from the deck of the "Germania." The farthest point reached was 81° 5' N. lat., in long. 16° E., on the evening of Sept. 14, when progress was stopped by pack ice in every direction but the south. No doubt the observations of the party will add many interesting details to our knowledge of the North Atlantic, and the leaders are already desirous of making a new voyage in a better vessel propelled by steam.

So much enthusiasm was shown by Dr. Petermann in projecting this expedition, and in arranging for its departure, that the scientific world will share in this disappointment, and will wish for him ample means to renew and carry forward his Arctic researches.

The expedition projected by M. Lambert under the auspices of the Emperor of the French and a committee of learned men, is to enter the Polar Seas by Behring's Straits. A subscription of 600,000 francs is called for as the material support of this undertaking.

The Swedish Arctic Expedition, according to a letter from Prof. Nordenskiöld (dated at Kobbe Bay, on the northwest coast of Spitzbergen, Sept. 16), went as far north as 81° 9′, where ice stopped it at the end of August. * A week later the sea was clear, and from one of the highest peaks of Parry Island (80° 40' N.E. of "North East Land") traces only of ice further northward could be seen. The exploring steamer then made again for the north, whether to pass a winter in the ice or not is uncertain. The coal ship returned to Sweden with the collections already made.

2. Renewed recommendation of Smith's Sound, by Dr. I. I. Hayes.

Meanwhile, Dr. I. I. Hayes (whose zeal in the prosecution of Arctic researches has never languished, though his plans for another expedition were interrupted by the late civil war) has delivered a lecture before the American Geographical Society of New York (Nov. 12, 1868), in which he proposes the renewal of explorations of the North Polar regions, and makes a statement of the grounds on which he bases his expectations of a successful enterprise. He is very clear and forcible in the advocacy of what may be termed "the American route" northward by the way of Smith's Sound. This is the course (as our readers will remember) by which he discovered in 1854 and revisited in 1861, the most northern land yet known on the * Later reports say that the highest latitude attained in open sea was 82° 40′ N.

globe, and it is the course which he had proposed to follow in 1862 if a third opportunity of exploration were offered to him. While he does not now expressly pledge himself to a fresh expedition, he says that he is no less earnest than formerly for the opportunity to conduct a party over the to him familiar course, and "to try conclusions with his old foe, the Smith's Sound Ice." Whether the American Geographical Society, which is already, through Mr. Henry Grinnell and others, so honorably identified with the progress of Arctic research, will render new aid for these proposed researches remains an open. question.

In connection with a review of the history of Arctic discovery, Dr. Hayes examines briefly the comparative advantages of the four proposed entrance routes, namely: 1. Smith's Sound, which he prefers; 2. Behring's Straits, advocated by Gen. T. L. Kane, and Capt. S. Bent, U. S. N., and adopted also by the French expedition under M. Lambert; 3. Between Spitzbergen and Greenland, the route proposed by Dr. Petermann; and 4. Between Spitzbergen and Nova Zembla, which Dr. Hayes regards as least promising of all.

Two considerations are urged in preference of Smith's Sound: land as a base of operation, and the opportunity to colonize a party of hunters and natives as a permanent support.

The eloquent terms in which Dr. Hayes pleads for a renewal of northern discoveries, and the intrepid spirit which animates him, are well fitted to awaken new zeal in the public and to enlist the support of men of wealth. Dr. Hayes's address has been printed in a pamphlet form by the Society to which it was delivered. (N. Y., 1868, pp. 44.)

3. Capt. Long's Discovery of" Wrangell's Land" (70° 46′ N. lat. and 178° 30′ E. long.). His opinion of the Behring's Strait

route.

Capt. Thomas Long, of the bark "Nile," who has been well known in years past as a most successful whaling master, published rather more than a year ago a letter addressed to Mr. H. M. Whitney, the editor of the Pacific Commercial Advertiser, dated Nov. 5, 1867, giving an account of his discovery of land hitherto unknown in the Arctic Ocean, and Capt. G. W. Raynor, of the ship "Reindeer," at the same time published his notes of observations of land in the same vicinity. Both writers refer also to the testimony of Capt. Bliven who, while cruising near Herald Island (71° 20′ N. lat., 175° W. long.), eight miles southeast of Wrangell's Land, saw the mountain ranges extending northwest as far as the eye could reach. As the position of this land is attracting much attention, we place on record the essential portions of the two letters.

Capt. Long writes:

HONOLULU, November 7, 1867.

During my cruise in the Arctic Ocean this season, I saw land not laid down on any charts that I have seen. The land was first seen from the bark Nile on the evening of the 14th of August, and the next day at 9 o'clock a. M.; the ship was eighteen miles distant from the west point of the land. I had good observations this day, and made the west point to be in lat. 70° 46′ N., and long. 178° 30' E.

The lower parts of the land were entirely free from snow, and had a green appearance, as if covered with vegetation. There was broken ice between the ship and land; but as there were no indications of whales, I did not feel justified in endeavoring to work through it and reach the shore, which I think could have been done without much danger.

We sailed to the eastward along the land during the 15th and 16th, and in some places approached it as near as fifteen miles. On the 16th the weather was very clear and pleasant, and we had a good view of the middle and eastern portion of the land. Near the center, or about in the longitude of 180°, there is a mountain which has the appearance of a distinct volcano. By approximate measurement I found it to be 2,480 feet high. I had excellent observations on the 16th, and made the southeastern cape, which I have named Cape Hawaii, to be in lat. 70° 40′ N., and long. 158° 51′ W. It is impossible to tell how far this land extends northward; but as far as the eye could reach, we could see ranges of mountains until they were lost in the distance, and I learn from Capt. Bliven, of the bark Nautilus, that he saw land northwest of Herald Island as far north as 72°.

Capt. Raynor writes:

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HONOLULU, November 1, 1867.

I send a short account of a large tract of land lying in the midst of the Arctic Ocean, hitherto but little known. This island has heretofore been considered to be two islands, one of which has been marked on the English charts as Plover Island, which is laid down to the W.S.W. of Herald Island. The other is simply marked "extensive land with high peaks." On my last cruise, I sailed along the south and east side of this island for a considerable distance three different times, and once cruised along the entire shore, and by what I considered reliable observations, made the extreme southwest cape to lie in N. lat. 70° 50', and E. long. 178° 15'. The southeast cape I found to lie N. lat. 71° 10', and W. long. 176° 40'. The south coast appears to be nearly straight, with high rugged cliffs and entirely barren. The northeast coast I have not examined to any extent, but it appears to run from the southeast cape in a northwesterly direction for about fifteen or twenty miles, and then turns to the north and northeast. I learned from Capt. Bliven that he traced it much further north, and has seen others who traced it to the north of lat. 72°. I think there is no doubt that it extends much further to the north, and that there is

another island lying to the east of it, say in long. 170° W., and to the northwest of Point Barrow, with a passage between it and the land I have just described. My reason for thinking so is this: We always find ice to the south of the known land, further to the south than we do the eastward of it. The current runs to the northwest from one to three knots an hour. In the longitude of 170° W. we always find the ice barrier from fifty to eighty miles further south than we do between that and Herald Island, and there is always a strong current setting to the northwest between those localities, unless prevented by strong northerly gales (for in such shoal water as the Arctic Ocean the currents are changed easily by the winds), which would indicate that there is a passage in that direction where the waters pass between two bodies of land that holds the ice, the one known, the other unknown.

I would add that the southwest cape of this island, described above, lies twenty-five miles distant from the Asiatic or Siberian

coast.

More recently, Capt. Long has announced this discovery in a letter to the Geographical Society of Paris, which is printed in their journal for Sept., 1868. He has also written for the Pacific Commercial a letter strongly advocating the Behring's Strait route for Arctic discovery. For copies of these very interesting letters of Capt. Long we are indebted to a merchant in New London, Conn., Henry R. Bond, Esq., who has watched very closely the progress of all the Polar discoveries. He informs us that the summer of 1868 has been what is termed "an icy season" in the Arctic Ocean, and that the whaling fleet has probably been unable to go as far north as in 1867, which was a peculiarly open season.

In view of all that is said at home and abroad on this subject, we copy the statement of Capt. Long in respect to the Behring's Strait route for Arctic research.

The route I would recommend as the best would be to follow the Asiatic shore from Behring's Strait as far as Cape Kekurnai or Cape Schelagskoi. The ice melts earliest near the shore, and the melting of the snow upon the land forming innumerable streams of water, impels the ice from the shore, leaving an open lane of water near the shore, through which a ship can pass without difficulty, especially when assisted by steam in calms and adverse winds. After passing Cape Jakan, there being no land to the north, the ice is driven from the shore by these streams and scattered in fragments in the open sea seen by Wrangell, with sufficient openings for the safe navigation of a ship. In the month of August, 1867, the bark Nile passed over a position within ten miles of the point where Wrangell saw the open sea in March. From some point between Cape Kekurnai and Cape Schelagskoi the course would be from north to northwest, as the ice would permit, until north of the Läächow Islands, when the ef

Capt. Long writes :

HONOLULU, November 7, 1867.

During my cruise in the Arctic Ocean this season, I saw land not laid down on any charts that I have seen. The land was first seen from the bark Nile on the evening of the 14th of August, and the next day at 9 o'clock A. M.; the ship was eighteen miles distant from the west point of the land. I had good observations this day, and made the west point to be in lat. 70° 46′ N., and long. 178° 30' E.

and

The lower parts of the land were entirely free from snow, had a green appearance, as if covered with vegetation. There was broken ice between the ship and land; but as there were no indications of whales, I did not feel justified in endeavoring to work through it and reach the shore, which I think could have been done without much danger.

We sailed to the eastward along the land during the 15th and 16th, and in some places approached it as near as fifteen miles. On the 16th the weather was very clear and pleasant, and we had a good view of the middle and eastern portion of the land. Near the center, or about in the longitude of 180°, there is a mountain which has the appearance of a distinct volcano. By approximate measurement I found it to be 2,480 feet high. I had excellent observations on the 16th, and made the southeastern cape, which I have named Cape Hawaii, to be in lat. 70° 40' N., and long. 158° 51′ W. It is impossible to tell how far this land extends northward; but as far as the eye could reach, we could see ranges of mountains until they were lost in the distance, and I learn from Capt. Bliven, of the bark Nautilus, that he saw land northwest of Herald Island as far north as 72°.

Capt. Raynor writes:

HONOLULU, November 1, 1867.

I send a short account of a large tract of land lying in the midst of the Arctic Ocean, hitherto but little known. This island has heretofore been considered to be two islands, one of which has been marked on the English charts as Plover Island, which is laid down to the W.S.W. of Herald Island. The other is simply marked "extensive land with high peaks." On my last cruise, I sailed along the south and east side of this island for a considerable distance three different times, and once cruised along the entire shore, and by what I considered reliable observations, made the extreme southwest cape to lie in N. lat. 70° 50', and E. long. 178° 15'. The southeast cape I found to lie N. lat. 71° 10', and W. long. 176° 40'. The south coast appears to be nearly straight, with high rugged cliffs and entirely barren. The northeast coast I have not examined to any extent, but it appears to run from the southeast cape in a northwesterly direction for about fifteen or twenty miles, and then turns to the north and northeast. I learned from Capt. Bliven that he traced it much further north, and has seen others who traced it to the north of lat. 72°. I think there is no doubt that it extends much further to the north, and that there is

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