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according afford altogether amount ancient annuities appear army assessed attention authority become body branch Britain called capital cent church circumstances civil clergy common consequence considerable consumer continue contribute court cultivation customs debt diminish duties employed England equal established Europe exercises expense fall farmer finally fortune four France frequently fund give greater houses hundred importation imposed improvement increase interest kind labour land landlord least less levied living maintain manner manufactures millions naturally necessarily necessary never obliged occasion officers ordinary paid particular payment peace perhaps person pounds present principal probably produce profit proper proportion provinces quantity raise ranks reduced render rent require respect revenue seems seldom shillings society sometimes sort sovereign sufficient supposed thing thousand tion trade universities whole
Сторінка 218 - The tax which each individual is bound to pay ought to be certain, and not arbitrary. The time of payment, the manner of payment, the quantity to be paid, ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor, and to every other person.
Сторінка 220 - Thirdly, by the forfeitures and other penalties which those unfortunate individuals incur who attempt unsuccessfully to evade the tax, it may frequently ruin them, and thereby put an end to the benefit which the community might have received from the employment of their capitals. . . . Fourthly, by subjecting the people to the frequent visits and the odious examination of the tax-gatherers, it may expose them to much unnecessary trouble, vexation, and oppression...
Сторінка 40 - Civil government, so far as it is instituted for the security of property, is in reality instituted for the defence of the rich against the poor, or of those who have some property against those who have none at all.
Сторінка 142 - But the understandings of the greater part of men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments.
Сторінка 219 - Every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the people as little as possible over and above what it brings into the public treasury of the state.
Сторінка 217 - The subjects of every State ought to contribute towards the support of the Government as nearly as possible in proportion to their respective abilities, ie, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the State.
Сторінка 342 - Fourthly, by subjecting the people to the frequent visits and the odious examination of the taxgatherers it may expose them to much unnecessary trouble, vexation, and oppression; and though vexation is not, strictly speaking, expense, it is certainly equivalent to the expense at which every man would be willing to redeem himself from it.
Сторінка 112 - The endowments of schools and colleges have necessarily diminished more or less the necessity of application in the teachers. Their subsistence, so far as it arises from their salaries, is evidently derived from a fund altogether independent of their success and reputation in their particular professions.
Сторінка 220 - Secondly, it may obstruct the industry of the people, and discourage them from applying to certain branches of business which might give maintenance and employment to great multitudes. While it obliges the people to pay, it may thus diminish, or VOL. iv. u perhaps destroy, some of the funds which might enable them more easily to do so.