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self into a more than ordinary heat with his captive; and, having heightened his master's curiosity to know what Obadiah had done to deserve such usage, Leigh, folding his arms with a ridiculous stare of astonishment, replied: “Upon my shoul, he has shange his religion ! The allusion was caught up and ran around like wild fire; the theatre was suddenly in an uproar of applause. The play was stopped. Some of the audience rushed from the theatre, in open riot, to revile Obadiah Walker under his own windows. Afterwards lampoons abounded, and satirical ballads were publickly sung; the most popular of which began :

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This adventure was the first intimation the king received of the disaffection of his Oxford subjects to the popish proceedings he had set on foot there. He caused Leigh to be severely reprimanded; and, for fear of the worst, sent down a regiment of dragoons to keep the Protestant town and gown' in check. It is not impossible that Addison may have assisted in this riot; for he had entered as a student at Queen's College about a year before it happened.

Page 148. Would there not be some danger on coming home late, in case the Mohocks should be abroad? It had been for many previous years the favourite amusement of dissolute young men to form themselves into clubs and associations for the cowardly pleasure of fighting and sometimes maiming harmless pedestrians, and even defenceless women. They


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took various slang designations. At the Restoration they were Muns and Tityre-Tus; then Hectors and Scourers; later still, Nickers (whose expensive delight it was to smash windows with showers of halfpence), Hawkabites, and lastly Mohocks. These last took their title from a sort of cannibals in India who subsist by plundering and devouring all the nations about them.' | Nor was the designation inapt ; for if there was one sort of brutality on which they prided themselves more than another, it was in tattooing; or slashing people's faces with, as Gay wrote, new invented wounds.' Their other exploits were quite as savage as those of their predecessors, although they aimed at dashing their mischief with wit and originality. They began the evening at their clubs, by drinking to excess in order to inflame what little courage they possessed. They then sallied forth sword in hand. Some enacted the part of

dancing masters,' by thrusting their rapiers between the legs of sober citizens, in such a fashion as to make them cut the most grotesque capers.

The Hunt spoken of by Sir Roger was commenced by a 'view hallo!' and as soon as the savage pack had run down their victim, they surrounded him, to form a circle with the points of their swords. One gave him a puncture in the rear which naturally made him

**Pish, this is Nothing. Why, I knew the Hectors, and before them the Muns and Tityre-Tus: they were Brave Fellows indeed. In those Days a Man could not go from the Rose Tavern to the Piazza once, but he must venture his life iwice.' - The Scourers, by Shadwell.

+ Spectator, No. 324.

wheel about, then came a prick from another, and so they kept him spinning like a top, till in their mercy they chose to let him go free. An adventure of this kind is narrated in No. 332 of the Spectator. Another savage diversion was thrusting women into barrels, and rolling them down Snow or Ludgate Hill: Gay sings

their Mischiefs done
Wherefrom Snow Hill black steepy torrents run ;
How Matrons hoop'd within a Hogshead's Womb
Were tumbled furious thence; the falling Tomb
O’er the Stones thunders; bounds from Side to Side :
So Regulus to save his Country dy'd.'

At the date of the present Spectator, the outrages of the Mohocks were so intolerable, that they became the subject of a Royal Proclamation, issued on the 18th March, just a week before Sir Roger's visit to Drury Lane. Swift, who was horribly afraid of them, mentions some of their villanies. He writes two days previously, that “Two of the Mohocks caught a Maid of old Lady Winchelsea's at the Door of her House in the Park, with a Candle, and had just lighted out Somebody. They cut all her Face, and beat her without

any Provocation.' The proclamation had little effect. On the very day after our party went to the play, we find Swift exclaiming, · They go on still, and cut people's faces every night! but they shan't cut mine; I like it better as it is.'

Page 150. The same Sword that he made use of at the Battle of Steenkirk. This battle was remarkable in the

annals of fashion, for giving the name to a modish neck-cloth. At the beginning of August, 1692, while William the Third was in Flanders at the head of the allies, he discovered an enemy's spy in his camp, and to facilitate a project of surprising the French, his majesty caused him to give his master false information. The king then set upon the enemy at day-break, while they were asleep, and routed them. The French generals however rallied, and formed their troops on favourable ground, turned the tables, and finally conquered. The allies were so crest-fallen and disunited by this defeat, that William broke up the Campaign and retired to England. The French were as much elated. Their generals, amongst whom were the Prince de Condé and the Duke de Vendôme, were received in Paris with acclamation, and the roads were lined with jubilants. The petits mâitres shared in the general exultation, and although at that time it was their pride to arrange their lace cravats with the utmost elaboration and care; yet, when they heard of the disordered dress in which the generals appeared in the fight, from their haste to get into it, they suddenly changed the fashion, and wore a sort of lace negligé, which they called a “Steinkirk.' The fashion soon extended to England, and for several years the 'Steinkirk' was your fop's only wear.

Chap. XXIV. Sir Ruger at Vauxhall.

No. 383. Tuesday, May 20, 1712. By Addison.
Page 151. I had promised to go with him on the Water to

Spring-Garden. Fox-hall or Vauxhall Gardens were a substitute for Old Spring Gardens, Charing Cross, when the latter ceased to be a place of public entertainment, and began to be covered with private residences. The name was derived from a 'Spring' which supplied a jet, Óby a wheel which the gardener turns at a distance, through a number of little pipes.' (Hentzner's Travels.) The jet was concealed, and did not spurt forth until an unwary visitor trod on a particular spot, when there came a self-administered shower bath. This, with archery, bowls, a grove of warbling birds,' a pleasant yard and a pond for bathing, furnished the amusements. • Sometimes,' says Evelyn, they would have music, and sup on barges on the water.'

At the Restoration, builders invaded Spring Gardens, and its name was transferred to Vauxhall Gardens, which formed part of the estate of Sir Samuel Morland, who had already (in 1667) built a large room there. Except the Spring, the amusements were nearly the same as in the old garden. The close walks' were an especial attraction for other reasons than the nightingales, which, in their proper season,

warbled in the trees. • The windings and turnings in the little wilderness,' quoth Tom Brown, “are so intricate, that the most experienced mothers have often lost themselves in looking for their daughters.' We hear little of Vauxhall from the year of Sir Roger's visit (1712) till 1732, when it was resuscitated by Mr. Jonathan Tyers : he termed it Ridotto al Fresco, collected an efficient orchestra, set up an organ, engaged Hogarth and Roubillác to decorate the great room with paintings and statuary, and issued silver season tickets

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