The Political Economy of Welfare Reform in the United States
Edward Elgar Publishing, 1 січ. 2007 р. - 232 стор.
The welfare system in the United States underwent profound changes as a result of the groundbreaking welfare legislation passed in 1996 entitled The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). The Political Economy of Welfa
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3 Traditional public interest model
4 The public choice perspective
5 Government and its bureaucracy
6 The origins of the new welfare law a historical overview
7 The genesis of the new welfare law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 PL 104193
8 Institutional analysis
9 An econometric analysis of the variables affecting changes in welfare caseloads
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activities administration AFDC aﬀected aﬃliated beneﬁt levels bill block grant budget caseloads cash beneﬁts child Christian Coalition Clinton committee Congress Congressional conservative Contract With America costs deﬁcit deﬁned Democratic diﬀerent diﬃcult economic eﬀects eﬃciency eﬀorts employment F-statistic families federal ﬁnal ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁve ﬁxed funds Governors House Ibid ideology illegitimacy implemented incentives income increased individual inﬂuence inﬂuential institutions interest groups issues labor legislative process lobbying major marginal median voter median voter theorem Medicaid million Moreover oﬀ oﬀer oﬃce oﬃcials organizations outcome Pareto Pareto optimal party percent political poor poverty President production possibilities frontier proposed public choice public choice theory rational ignorance reﬂected rent seeking Republican result role sector Senate signiﬁcant social policy speciﬁc staﬀ TANF theory tion Trattner unwed variable voting waivers welfare beneﬁts welfare law welfare legislation welfare policies welfare programs welfare recipients welfare reform welfare system
Сторінка 35 - By preferring the support of domestic to that of foreign industry, he intends only his own security ; and by directing that industry in such a manner as its produce may be of the greatest value, he intends only his own gain; and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention.
Сторінка 50 - Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both: (a) to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged, consistent with the just savings principle, and (b) attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity.
Сторінка 50 - Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all.
Сторінка 100 - Our merchants and master-manufacturers complain much of the bad effects of high wages in raising the price, and 86 Wealth of Nations thereby lessening the sale of their goods both at home and abroad. They say nothing concerning the bad effects of high profits. They are silent with regard to the pernicious effects of their own gains. They complain only of those of other people.
Сторінка 47 - In order to carry out a market transaction it is necessary to discover who it is that one wishes to deal with, to inform people that one wishes to deal and on what terms, to conduct negotiations leading up to the bargain, to draw up the contract, to undertake the inspection needed to make sure that the terms of the contract are being observed, and so on (Coase (1960, p.
Сторінка 51 - The general outlines of the theory of justice in holdings are that the holdings of a person are just if he is entitled to them by the principles of justice in acquisition and transfer, or by the principle of rectification of injustice (as specified by the first two principles). If each person's holdings are just, then the total set (distribution) of holdings is just.
Сторінка 47 - It is necessary to know whether the damaging business is liable or not for damage caused since without the establishment of this initial delimitation of rights there can be no market transactions to transfer and recombine them.
Сторінка 48 - But the governmental administrative machine is not itself costless. It can, in fact, on occasion be extremely costly. Furthermore, there is no reason to suppose that the restrictive and zoning regulations, made by a fallible administration subject to political pressures and operating without any competitive check, will necessarily always be those which increase the efficiency with which the economic system operates.
Сторінка 30 - Workers, shall have as their objectives the promotion of employment, improved living and working conditions, so as to make possible their harmonisation while the improvement is being maintained, proper social protection, dialogue between management and labour, the development of human resources with a view to lasting high employment and the combating of exclusion.
Сторінка 50 - Now the basis for the priority of liberty is roughly as follows: as the conditions of civilization improve, the marginal significance for our good of further economic and social advantages diminishes relative to the interests of liberty, which become stronger as the conditions for the exercise of the equal freedoms are more fully realized.