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Gloucester, with Keble and Pusey; myth and legend, history and while externally a beautiful tower, allegory. with enriched and embattled para- The castle proper stands along pet and a crown of lofty pinnacles, the western side of the rectangular rises high above the buildings of enclosure. Its front shows a fine the town, proclaiming the pious specimen of the domestic architecmunificence of

merchant- ture of the middle ages, with the prince of the fifteenth century, chief features of its original workwhen already the port of Cardiff manship carefully preserved and was acquiring wealth and fame. the decayed portions skilfully re

And on the northern side of the produced in accordance with the great road, opposite to the church old. If the roofs and parapets which brings down to us the eccle- and angle-towers wear the look of siastical life of the middle ages, modern work, they are still a fitis the superb monument in which ting framework around the three something of the feudal life of projecting semi-turrets with their those days still survives. The traceried openings grey with age shops and houses of the street are which form bay-windows to the built against the turreted angle banqueting-hall and library; the of the castle walls, where once the whole being surmounted by a lofty moat defended them; and a little tower and spirelet which rises in farther is the chief entrance-gate, the centre. flanked with a Norman tower; and Beyond these domestic buildings then the restored curtain-wall of and at the north-west angle of the the remaining portion of the castle- courtyard, rises the keep. It is a front, the encumbering buildings lofty tower of ten sides, with a being cleared away, and the site of projecting turret on its southern the moat spread over with turf front, built upon artificial and garden-beds; and at the far- mound and encircled by an inner ther angle, overtopping the adja- moat. The keep remains at present cent antiquities, rises the lofty in its half-ruined condition; but clock-tower, rich with the glories the steep flight of steps leading of modern medievalism, the twelve downward from its entrance has signs of the zodiac, with Mars and been renovated, and a wooden Jupiter and the rest of their pre- bridge crosses its moat in place of siding deities standing in arched the ancient drawbridge. From niches on its several sides, and this there was a line of walls and all depicted in gold and glowing buildings with a second gateway, colours. Still more gorgeous are passing obliquely across to the Northe splendours of painting and man tower at the outer entrance, sculpture and costly marble, and and thus dividing the enclosure pictured glass and inlaid wood- into two wards or bailies: The work, and elaborate metal-work western or inner ward was thus that appear within ; for the chief shut in on all sides by the buildings rooms of the castle itself, the of the castle; while the outer and library and banqueting-hall, the much larger ward beyond the private sitting-rooms and the ora- division is surrounded on its other tory, the entrance-hall and the three sides by an embankment grand staircase, are all adorned thrown up against the outer walls with the same magnificence as the which defend the entire fortress. rooms of the clock-tower, and made The old tower standing beside resplendent with portraitures of the great entrance - gateway is

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the most interesting of the his- probability the Norman strongtorio portions of the castle ; for hold occupied the site, as it carin its basement is a dismal dun ried on the traditions, of the fort geon, lighted only by a small of Aulus Didius. aperture high in the stone vault

In those days we may suppose above, and formerly descending that the west front of the castle some feet below the level of the stood near to the shore of the present floor and of the surround estuary, though now between the ing ground. It is the room in buildings and the contracted stream which Henry I. confined his rival of the Taff large gardens intervene. brother, Duke Robert of Nor They are the site of the monastery mandy, under custody of Earl Ro- of the Black Friars, which perhaps bert of Gloucester, the lord of the was built upon an island between castle ; and here the vanquished the channels of the stream. Along captive died after twenty-eight these gardens, and also along the years of incarceration, bequeathing northern wall of the castle, a porto his prison the name which it tion of the outer moat still

prestill bears of Duke Robert's Tower. served, fed by a stream derived But the line of walls which con from a higher point up the river ; nected this tower with the keep is and the stream which thus served only traceable now by its carefully for medieval defence, and now fills preserved foundations, and the the moats for ornament, is at shire-hall which stood in the outer the same time converted to utilicourt a century ago is swept away, tarian purposes by being made to and the wards are thus thrown carry its water into the dock. It together into a green, park-like passes beneath the highroad at enclosure, The surrounding bank the south-eastern angle of the is planted with forest-trees, many castle, where we note the latest of of them of massive growth and the additions which the series of bent with age, while between them buildings is receiving; for at this and the low embattled wall which point another great tower is rissurmounts them there is a shaded ing, which in its completion is to promenade, connecting them with rival the existing clock-tower at the mound of the keep, which is the south-western angle. orergrown with the same luxuri

Opposite to the entrance of this The moat of the keep has princely abode, and at right angles. become ornamental water, to the ancient street which passes peopled by swans and rare birds before it, the chief modern street of varied plumage ; whilo numer of Cardiff leads directly down to ous brilliant peacocks lead their the railway station and the custommates and their broods beneath house and other public offices, and the trees and across the green the vast docks beyond.

Formerly sward, where once the courtyard this street led also to St Mary's was trodden by the horses and Church, a large cruciform strucarmed retainers of the old feudal ture of Norman date, standing belords, and where the chieftains of tween the south gate of the town a still older period had borne rule and the river, some distanoe below before them ; for the antiquaries the “ key ” of those days. of the last century discovered a flood swept this church away in coin of Trajan and the hypocaust the beginning of the seventeenth of a Roman mansion in the sanie century, and its site, like that of courtyard — showing that in all the old quay, has been absorbed

VOL. OXLVI.-30. DOCCLXXXVIII.

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in the great network of modorn Down the valleys of these rivers docks and wharves. It is a curious the various lines of railway concontrast which the two extremities verge also; tho central one of the of the mein street of Cardiff now district being that along the Taff, present to us : on the one hand from Merthyr-Tydfil to Cardiff

, the ancient castle, the abode of which has attained the patriarchal Welsh and Roman and Saxon and age of fifty years. And down the Norman lords, each in his day, the same valleys, running alongside the scene of their fierce fighting and rivers, and sometimes carried in their barbaric splendours; then half aqueducts over them, are the canals ruined and almost forsaken, and which were the predecessors of the then again re edified in such superb railways-constructed for the most magnificence for a quiet country part at the close of the eighteenth home, with its peaceful courtyard, century, when the coal and iron by the skill and taste of the present works of the hills were rapidly de Marquis of Bute; and then down veloping. It was in the middle of the busy street the hurry of active that century that they were first life in the chief coaling-port of the becoming important, when the first world, with the docks upon whose smelting - furnace was erected in construction the late Marquis of the neighbourhood of Merthyr, by Buto staked all his wealth, and Mr Anthony Bacon, who contractbrought himself ainost to poverty ed with Government for the supply while laying the foundations of a of guns to the arsenals during the colossal fortune for his son, and a American war. And so valuable future of vast prosperity for his for the purpose at the present time town. Father and son alike will is the coal-supply of that metropohand down their names to pos- lis of the industry, that even Spain terity as the makers of Cardiff. sends her iron hither to be smelted

Cardiff lies near the extremity in the furnaces of Merthyr. of a tract of level ground which Between the valleys of the Ely extends westward along the shore and the Taff, backed by the bare of the Severn sea all the way from summit of the great Garth mounthe rocks about the estuary of the tain, a thickly wooded ridge slopes Wye. Thus its surroundings, over gradually down to the borders of which the homes of its dense pop- the plain. Beneath the front of ulation are continually spreading, this ridge, where the descending must formerly have been a dismal rivers approach together before swamp. Beyond the level, and diverging across the level ground, diverging thence at an angle to- lies the quaint village-city of Llan. wards the south, the sea-coast con- daff, two miles to the north-west tinues in a line of rocky cliffs com- of the great seaport town, though mencing with the bold promontory now the numerous villas and manof Penarth; while to the west and sions of their separate suburbs have the north are ridges of hills stretch- almost linked them into one. ing back into the more distant There may or may not be scraps mountains. Across the marsh is of history in the old ecclesiastical the outflow of three converging legends, which tell that in the secrivers,—the Rhymney a short dis- ond century Lleurig ap Coel, the tance eastward, bordering the first Christian king in Britain, county ; the Taff at Cardiff itself; known as Lucius or Lever Mawr, the Ely, almost uniting with it the "Great Light” of his people, immediately under the hills upon founded the primitive “Llan-Daff," the west.

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fice of Christian worship in the deed has no ancient font-perhaps land ; that St Fagan and St Dyfan, the natural well continued to be who have left their names, one at used for ages—but there is one the adjoining village of St Fagan's of late date and poor design; and on the Ely, the other at Merthyr- this is now superseded by a modern Dyfan, a few miles westward, were one, sculptured with symbolical sent by the same king to be ordained adornments of almost more than priests by St Eleutherius at Rome; medieval quaintness--for it has that another Christian native, St the story of Noah's deluge in conMellon, who was Bishop of Rouen ventional designs upon its eight a century later, has left his name panels, in one of which, for exalso to the village of St Mellon's, ample, there is a casement-window near the mouth of the Rhymney. opened in heaven through which But there can be little doubt that an angel is pouring water from a Llandaff, nestling in the corner of pitcher upon the earth beneath. the valley, and having these rivers Passing on from legends and confor its lines of communication with jectures, we find that the church the hills, was a place of chief im- which now encloses the sacred portance to the district when Car- spring has a long history. For diff did it service as a haven through here it was that St Dyfrig, the which it could hold communication son of 'Brychan, king of Breckwith the world beyond.

nock, built his church at the close Here is a secluded hollow, over- of the fifth century; and when he shadowed on the south and west became Archbishop of Caerleon, by a steeply rising bank, with a St Teilo was his successor here; tributary streamlet of the Taff and he, becoming archbishop in flowing a few yards below; and his turn, kept his primatial see a little well springs up in the here at Llandaff, which is often 'nook beneath the bank. This is called from him Bangor Teilo, the the Llan, or sacred enclosure, of great choir of Teilo. Medieval art the Taff

, which has given its name has adorned the west front of the to the city. It may be that in the existing church with sculptured mythology of the primitive races figures of these early founders ; this was a holy well dedicated to the one in a niche at the summit the spirit which animated the 'of the lofty gable, the other on a beneficent life of the river. Still curious pendant dividing the arch more probably, it may have been 'of the central doorway. For the the spot at which the primitive church of former days gave place Christian missionary brought his to one of - superior design when converts to the baptismal water. Urban became bishop in the early One might conjecture also, that in years of the eleventh century; and early days a separate baptistery. a Norman arch, richly ornamented may have been erected over the with chevron moulding and flowerspring; for the church, even in ed circlets, still remains between the Norman period, stopped short the choir and the eastern Ladyat some distance east of this : but chapel to show the elaborate charat any rate the builders of later acter of Urban's work. Two other days have enclosed the little well richly sculptured Norman arches within their walls, and there it is form the principal entrances of springing still beneath the tower the church on its northern and at the south-western angle, while southern sides, dating from the the font in which its water is used second half of the eleventh censtands beside it. The church in- tury, .though these are said to

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have been removed from their which are recently filled with original places when the aisles pictured glass of good design; and were rebuilt at a later date. Then, in the same decorated period, the in the simple and even choir was completed in its present transition style, which seems like form, and a panelled reredos painta reaction from the profuse orna- ed with angels and lilies was erected mentation of the Norman period, behind the altar; but this having a chapter - house of square form been disfigured and mutilated, is with pointed roof is added on the now set aside as a curiosity of the south side of the choir, perhaps past, giving place to a modern early in the thirteenth century. design of three gabled panels, enAnd of a little later date is the riched with paintings of considermain fabric of the church, its able excellence David slaying western front being adorned with Goliath, the Magi at the Nativity, two arcades and lancet-windows, and David as the royal harperand with the figures of the first but the whole fitting in somewhat and second bishops above and be incongruously beneath the early low; while internally it has a arch of Bishop Urban. series of lofty piers, with sculp- The latest of the ancient por tured capitals surmounted by tions of the cathedral is its northwell - moulded arches, carrying western tower, built by Jasper what seems to be an ordinary Tudor in the closing years of the clerestory with lancet-lights out. fifteenth century. It is surmounted side, though these lights are com- with corner turrets and elaborate bined, inside with a continuous parapets, and possesses a character arcade, as if the architect had which renders it a fitting adjunct taken the triforium and clerestory to the works of previous periods ; which most large churches possess, though now, indeed, after its four and had thrown them into one, centuries of existence, the marshy lest he should sacrifice the dignity nature of the soil has loosened its of the principal arcade below. foundation, and some portion of Then there is the Lady - chapel, it needs rebuilding. The second extending beyond the eastern end, tower had been of earlier date looking bare and cold, as if the and of humbler character; and in dreary taste of the eighteenth the old days when the fabric was century had robbed it of its life, neglected, it had been destroyed but substantially restored in recent by a tempest; but lately it has years to the chaste beauty in been built anew, decorated with which its fabrio was erected late richly sculpturod ornament, and in the thirteenth century; for this crowned with a tapering spire, so was the work of a kinsman of the that it now surpasses the older great lords of Abergavenny, Bishop tower as this had surpassed its de Braose, whose tomb, or rather predecessor. coffin-lid, still lies within it-a The absence of transopts must fine effigy in low relief, holding prevent this from taking equal his staff with a cluster of well-cut rank with most of the chief foliage for its crook, and canopied churches of our land; while, on with a flat trefoil arch. Benefac- the other hand, its twin towers, tors of the next age raised the its chapter - house, and its Lady. walls of the aisles, inserting win. chapel extending beyond the choir, dows of three lights with traceried mark it at once as & structure heads in the fully developed style worthy of its ancient dignities; of the decorated period, some of while the length and grandeur of

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