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water ran out. Scurvy began to country, pointing to a hole which make its appearance amongst the was made for a drain in the founsailors. Our pilot declared that dation of the building, saying that we should never reach Vigo. We here we proposed to place our gun. therefore proposed to put in to The fanatical portion of the comLisbon, and we entered the river munity having heard these disTagus after a voyage of twenty- courses, felt that this was the beone days. We were all delighted ginning of the end; and although to find ourselves amongst civi- I assured them that we had no inlised people once more.

But our

tention of conquest, yet we were troubles were not yet ended, for obliged to stop our work for the we had to remain in quarantine moment. We then commenced a for fourteen days before we could large building on the reef near the obtain our freedom.

We were

entrance of the harbour, to serve indeed glad to get clear of those as a fortress warehouse and habitasharks of officials, who were always tion. This magnificent edifice wo looking out for fees. After giving finished in 1882, after having spent

, my faithful sailors a few presents, two years in its construction. The they set sail with a fair wind for dressed stones were imported from the Canaries, and I embarked for the Canaries, and the iron and England.

woodwork from England. After In the following year I set out the scare of the priests had died again for Africa in a chartered away, we recommenced building steamer, and renewed my friendly the shore-house, the natives helprelations with the Arabs. Before ing in its construction, and we the close of the year we towed out were able to complete it without a brig to serve as a trading depot. any further interruption. The We anchored this vessel inside the natives on the whole were well Cape Juby harbour, amidst the joy pleased with the progress we were and astonishment of the natives, making : they saw that we meant who flocked in large numbers on to settle in the country, which the beach.

would be a great commercial adI had always felt that the natives, vantage to them, for at our place although nomadic, had a right to they would have a free outlet for the soil. Therefore, previous to all their products, for which they settling definitely in this part of could obtain European wanufacthe world, I obtained a concession tured goods in return. Having of Capo Juby and its port, with a Cape Juby as a port, they need not strip of land surrounding it, for undertake those tedious journeys ever, from Sheikh Mohammed hen of hundreds of miles to the nearBairook, an aged chieftain, who est Moorish port which they had was acknowledged as ruler by the done for ages past. At this period natives of the whole country. of the history of our settlement After carrying on business for peace reigned in the whole country, some time from on board the brig, and we had every prospect of unwe commenced to build a store- bounded success. So much trade house on the shore; but the fan- came to us that we were wholly atical priests interfered, preaching unprepared for it, and we were to the people that an old prophecy obliged to let about £20,000 worth existed which foretold that in the of business pass away from our latter days Christians would come hands in one year. We also refrom the sea and conquer the ceived

ceived most encouraging letters

It runs

from important chiefs in the far two miles wide and 200 feet deep. interior.

From all I could gather it appeared Between the years 1882 and that this river takes its rise in the 1884 I made two expeditions into Atlas Mountains, and forms a great the interior accompanied by a branch of the river Draa. native guard, who, I am very in a southerly direction, sweeping pleased to record, acted most faith- round Tendoof, and then it takes fully. The first journey I made a bend to the west, winding through was to a place called Port Consado, the plain until it reaches the Atwhich is situated about forty miles lantic, at about sixty miles south of to the northward of Cape Juby, Cape Juby. Numerous fresh-water and is supposed to be the site of springs are to be met with up the the ancient Spanish settlement of cliffs which form the river-bank. Diego de Herrera. I found that The date-palm grows here most this port is now almost silted up, luxuriantly, and some portions of and forms a vast depression run the soil were cultivated to great ning for about fifteen miles inland, advantage by the natives. Many covered with salt. The entrance parts of the channel were thickly is blocked up with sand, so that no studded with brushwood, in which vessel could approach it. The sea the wild boar, the leopard, and breaks at a great distance out. other wild animals found shelter. The ruins of the old castle still My Mohammedan guard engaged remain on the beach, but the in prayer on the banks of this great whole building appears to have river, while I stood near, gazing sunk, the tower being the only with much interest on the scenes portion now visible. I found some by which I was surrounded in this native inhabitants at this place, desolate wilderness. When their who live chiefly on fish, of which devotions were ended, a priest there is an unlimited supply. I came up to me and said, “You are may here remark that the portion the only Christian who could stand of country over which we travelled here alive,” at which I felt very from Cape Juby to this place could, much flattered. I


the with little labour, be brought under danger arose from the fanatical cultivation. Now it yields pas character of the people. On my ture to Arab flocks. The second return journey I visited the only journey I undertook was to the Arab settlement that is to be found southwards, starting from Cape near Cape Juby. It is called by Juby. I passed along the sea-coast the natives Dowrah. As we apuntil I reached a dry river-bed, proached it we observed two buildwhich is called by the natives ings with square towers, having the Sagia el Hamra. After examin- appearance of castles. One of these ing the delta, I followed the chan- buildings we found inhabited by nel for some considerable distance robbers, who from the towers into the interior, The country brandished their guns as a sign of rose gradually until it reached 500 hostility. We naturally prepared feet above the sea-level. There for war. However, after a brief were no mountains or high lands palaver, peace was established bevisible. On penetrating some dis- tween us; for they found that tance into the interior, I observed several of my followers were also that the waters were rising on highwaymen. We passed the night account of heavy rains inland. in the same building with these The channel of the river was about wild sons of the desert, who seemed

pleased with our hospitality. • It as we know it, is traversed by chains appeared that these castles were of mountains covered in some places built at the head of the plain to with perpetual snow, hard-baked guard some excellent springs near earth instead of sand, and many the spot. There were also other parts are to be found thickly houses in the neighbourhood, but peopled by industrious inhabitants without inhabitants, the natives ruled over by kings.; and we find having left it with their flocks to that for ages past the Sahara has find better pasture in other places. been used as a great highway for The plain of Dowrah showed every commerce between the Meditersign of fertility, and had been ranean ports and the far interior quite recently under cultivation of Africa. We observed caves underground The numerous empires and kingwhich had been used for the stor- doms of which the eastern and age of grain. This district, if pro western Soudan are composed, perly cultivated, would sustain a have a population estimated at very large population; the wells about forty millions. These people would supply abundance of water have always received their supply for irrigation. The natives are of European merchandise by these very anxious that the place should routes; and it was in order to give be improved, and they have often the Arab traders a shorter and asked if we could help them. I more convenient means of comhope the day is not far distant munication with the civilised world when the Dowrah may become a that the commercial settlement at prosperous and peaceful settlement. Cape Juby was established—a pro

On our way back to Cape Juby ject which we believed would very we passed several large depressions materially increase the present of great depth, showing evident traffic, and might ultimately lead signs of having been under the sea to great and beneficial changes in at no very remote period. The those interior regions. The encoursides of these depressions rose in agement which we received at the almost perpendicular cliffs of about starting of our settlement was soon 250 feet in height. There are clouded through opposition from several of these dried - up sea- several quarters.. Spain began to beds in the desert covered with think that she ought to occupy her thick layers of salt, but their old settlement on the coast. In extent is as yet unknown. We 1883 a Spanish and Moorish comafterwards entered into a fer mission examined the coast from tile district called Aftot; which Agadeer to Cape Juby with a view stretches from the interior to with to find out the site of the castle of in four miles of Cape Juby. The Diego de Herrera.' They wished soil is exceedingly good, and could to proceed by land from our place easily be brought under cultivation. to Port Consado, but our old Arab In fact, the idea that is conveyed chief would not permit it. The too the mind by the words, "the commission then returned back, desert of Sahara,” is really very and so the whole matter came to misleading It is usually repre- an end, notwithstanding the many sented by geographers as a great years of agitation by the Spanish wilderness of moving sand, with press. Spain, however, occupied oases here and there to serve as the river Oro, a point about 300 resting places for the weary and miles south of Cape Juby. (I exthirsty travellers. But the Sahara, amined the whole of this river

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to its source in 1880.) They also cousin,' two governors, and some annexed about 500 miles of coast- soldiers. At a meeting which we line from Cape Bojador to Cape held, I explained to them under Blanco. Many of the Spanish what conditions we settled at Cape settlers were killed by the natives, Juby, with which they appeared and others were taken prisoners. to be satisfied, but privately they I am happy to say that the hostil- tried to turn the people against ity of the Spanish authorities to us, but in vain ; so they had to Cape Juby, which was shown in the return to their master without early part of the undertaking, has accomplishing anything, and the now ceased,

Sultan's expedition turned out a When the Sultan of Morocco complete failure. He promised heard that, notwithstanding the that a port should be opened in dangers which his Majesty pointed the southern parts of his empire, out I should encounter in land so that the people might forsake ing at Cape Juby, the settlement us, but this has never been carried was actually established and opera- out. His Majesty having found tions progressing, he then feared all his efforts against us thwarted, that such a port in the hands turned to bribery and corrupof the English, where all kinds of tion, and threatened those traders merchandise could be exported and who resorted to our port with imported without any restrictions, death-offering at the same time would eventually injure the com a large sum of money to any one merce of his empire, and also in- who would murder myself. terfere with the supply of slaves All this opposition and various which the inhabitants of Morocco other difficulties by which we were receive from the Soudan, The surrounded, had very materially trade in European and native injured our business relations with merchandise between the western the natives and brought our trade Şoudan and Morocco is estimated to a standstill. We had also the at £300,000. With a view to misfortune of losing our aged thwart our operations, the Sultan chief, who had been our strong despatched a mission by land to friend throughout these difficulties. Cape Juby, with the object of In writing to me of the decease of endeavouring to turn the chiefs the chief, one of his brothers said : against us, but without avail. His “Know, O Christian, that what Majesty afterwards complained to has happened to my brother is the British Government, stating destined to happen to all living that we had established ourselves creatures. He has gone to the within his dominions; but he was mercy of God and his vast Parareferred to his previous declaration, dise. Mohammed ben Bairook in which he pointed out that Cape was succeeded by a young son, but Juby was situated a long way south being opposed by his uncles who of his empire. In 1882 the Sul. were in the pay of the Sultan, and tan took stronger measures to having to encounter other enemies carry out his designs against Cape as well, he was obliged to leave Juby, proceeding with a large ex- Cape Juby. The place was now left pedition to the southern districts without a government of any kind, of his country to bring the rebel and a few of the Sultan's soldiers tribes under his control. At that came to menace our position. time his Majesty cent to me a These troubles calminated in 1888, Epocial mission, composed of his in the murder of our manager and

the wounding of some of our ser- rocco and all evil-disposed persons vants. The British Government, to the best of their ability. I was however, took the matter in hand a party to these arrangements, as very promptly, and a heavy indem representing the English Company, nity has been paid to the widow and I have every hope that tranand those who were wounded. It quillity for the future of Cape Juby was at this critical moment that is to some extent assured. Trade my co-directors of the North-West commenced and the place assumed African Company requested me to a busy appearance.

We are now proceed to Cape Juby and investi- building a house for our new chief, gate the state of affairs at that El Bashir woold Mohammed ben place, with a view to endeavour to Bairook, and shelter for the merre-establish friendly relations with chants. the natives, and open trade once With regard to the policy which more if possible. I left England wo adopt towards the natives, we in August of last year, accom- always keep our engagements, and panied by Col. Baron Lahure and never take advantage of them in Lieutenant Fourcault, who were any way. We do not sell spirits intrusted with a mission from or permit them to be supplied to Belgium, whose object was to re- them, and we do all that is posport on the suitability of Cape sible to treat them with respect. Juby as a sanatorium for the Red This I find the most suitable Cross Society in connection with plan for keeping on friendly rethe Congo State. On our arrival lations with the inhabitants of at Cape Juby we found the place north-west Africa. in a most deserted condition, the Regarding the natives themnatives having left it on account selves, I may remark that the of the late troubles. Very soon, inhabitants in the district around however, people began to come Cape Juby, and the interior as from the interior, with whom I far as the Soudan, are inostly had friendly interviews. In the Arabs, others half negroes. They meantime Baron Lahure, his com- divided into many tribes, panion, and myself, visited several with several chiefs for each. The places in the interior and on the strong help the weak for a concoast. These gentlemen made also sideration, which is paid as a tribplans of the harbour, and the ute. They are governed by the Baron made sketches of various chiefs, who have the power of places of interest in this neigh- electing a head chief to rule over bourhood; they also gave me every them. Law is administered by possible assistance while they re- shereefs or priests, who also make mained with me. Baron Lahure, marriage contracts and write bills on his return to Brussels, made a of divorce. All the inhabitants most favourable report on Cape profess the Mohammedan religion, Juby, which he laid before his and in some parts of the interior Majesty the King of the Belgians. they are very fanatical; but in This year I paid another visit to the immediate 'neighbourhood of Cape Juby, and met a large num- Cape Juby the natives are now ber of chiefs, who assembled to- more liberal on account of their gether to appoint a chief to rule long contact with ourselves. In over them, and they also agreed their religious exercises the naamong themselves to protect Cape tives use two books, the Koran, Juby against the Sultan of Mo and the Daleel, composed by vari- .


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