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When Boabdil ruled in the land of Spain.

Two roses grew in a garden rare ; They drank of the fountain's silver rain,

And mingled their scents in the drowsy air,

In Venice, to rest on a golden dome,

Two doves came floating on pinions white ;
And they loved each other, and made their home,

Under the stars on a still May night.

But the changeless laws that our lives involve,

Are tho laws of Death, and cold decay;
So the temple falls, and the pearls dissolve,-

The birds and the roses must pass away.

Yet each, by a strange metamorphosis

Is born anew in some fairer form ;
So the rose may live in red lips that kiss, –

The marble in limbs that are white and warm.

And in hearts of lovers once more may greet

Those doves who dwelt on the dome of gold; And in mouths of velvet the pearls may meet

To gleam more white than those pearls of old.

For how otherwise grew the wondrous birth

Of the strange and sweet affinity,
That warns two souls in this desert of earth,

They must claim each other where'er they be?

They recall, in a new-found ecstasy,

The dreams of their mystic Long-ago; By the marble temple, or stormy sea,

Or Moorish garden where roses blow.

And they feel the flutter of snowy wings

On the golden dome of a stately fane ;And the faithful atoms the wild wind brings

Must find each other, and love again !

So, my heart that within me burns and glows,
Would read your heart, and ask, you

whether You were pearl, or marble, or dove, or rose,

In that fairer world, when we were together?




I HAVE always felt that the ject was afterwards proposed by greatest drawback to the civilisa the French for Tunis, where it tion of the races of Central Africa, was intended to let the waters and the development of the vast of the Mediterranean into the deresources of that continent, is the pressions behind Algeria. I did want of a healthy port on the sea not, however, exclusively base board and a highway into the in- the utility of my project on the terior. It was while contemplating idea of forming a water-highthis subject that it occurred to me, way into Central Africa, as about fourteen years ago, that the overland route was perfectly feaswestern Soudan, a district of the ible. Before any practicable steps highest commercial importance, could be taken to carry out the might be approached with com scheme of letting the sea into the paratively little difficulty from a depressions of western Sahara, a point on the north-west coast of thorough survey would have to be Africa, in the neighbourhood. of made of the whole district; but the Canary Islands. A glance at this could not be attempted witha map will show that this portion out first establishing a commercial of Africa has great commercial settlement on the coast in order to advantages; is situated many show the inhabitants of the desert degrees north of the tropics, within that our object was peaceful tradsixty miles of the Canary Islands, ing, and not the conquest of their and eight days' steam from Eng- country. The proposed station land. A trade-route through such would form the basis from which i healthy country I considered our operations could be carried on would not only attract the present with every prospect of success. traffic between northern Africa Before attempting to carry out and the Soudan, but would effectu- my plans, I felt it was necessary ally destroy the slave trade which that a preliminary examination is carried on between Morocco and should be made of the north-west those interior regions. I had fur- African coast, with a view of findther gathered that possibly a water- ing a suitable

port for the intended highway might be made from the settlement. I urged on the AdAtlantic Ocean into the interior of miralty the importance of making the western Sahara, for there ex the proposed survey; but they reist in those regions vast depres- fused, stating that from the inforsions covered with salt, showing mation they possessed it was clear evident signs of having been at that no harbour could be found on one time covered with the sea. that coast. In 1875 I laid my Some of these depressions were proposals before a meeting which supposed to be under the level of was held at the Mansion House the sea, and I felt that if they under the presidency of the Lord could once more be covered by Mayor, and they were most favourthe waters of the Atlantic, å ably received by the public. I afternavigable water-highway would be wards addressed other meetings opened into the interior of Africa on the same subject. Previous to which would be of great commer- starting for the north-west coast cial importance. A similar pro- of Africa I addressed the British


Government on the subject of my Diego and his enthusiastic followproposed visit, asking for its kind ers landed without much opposiassistance in my behalf. By the tion on the part of the Moors, and good offices of the Secretary of in a short time built a castle on State for Foreign Affairs the an arm of the sea which they Spanish Government offered me named Santa Cruz de Mar every assistance at the Canary Pequeña, or the Holy Cross of the Islands. The Morocco Govern. little sea. The Spanish settlement was also approached in order ment was not, however, long that the Sultan, as commander of established before the Moors the faithful of the West, might ex- began to show signs of hostility, tend to me his support amongst coming down in great hordes; and the Arabs; but in reply his She- after several fierce engagements reefian majesty pointed out that they succeeded in sweeping the the portion of Africa I proposed Spaniards from their shores and devisiting was about one hundred molishing their castle. Diego did miles south of his territory, and not live to carry on a war against that he could not be of any assist the Moors; he died and was ance whatever. Although the in- buried in the monastery of Buenahabitants of those districts were ventura, which he founded in the Mohammedans, they refused to ac- capital of the island of Fuertavenknowledge him as their lord and tura. Don Diego having been the master. His Majesty pointed out first Christian who attempted to the danger to which I should be make a settlement on the northexposed in carrying out my pro- west coast of Africa,. it may be posal for a Spanish subject some ;

of interest to give a translation of years before, while endeavouring the inscription on the tablet over to trade with the north-west coast his tomb: of Africa, had been captured by

“Here lies the generous knight, the native chief and kept prisoner Diego Garcia de Herrera, lord and for seven years, and only liberated

conqueror of these islands and kingon the payment of £5000 as a dom of Grand Canary and lesser sea

I was favoured at the of Barbary, third of the order of same time with a private letter Santiago, of the Council of King from the British minister at the Henry IV., of the Catholic sovereigns

Ferdinand and Isabella, twentyCourt of Morocco to the same

fourth of the city of Seville, founder effect.

of this convent, son of the generous I may

here remark that the first Lord Pera Garcia de Herrera (marshal attempt to establish European in- of Castille, lord of the town of Ampudia fluence on the north-west coast of and of the House of Agula Merina, Africa was made about four hun. major of Quepazava, of the King's dred years ago by the renowned Council, and Doña Maria de Agula Spanish knight, Diego de Herrera, nine kings of Teneriffe and two of

y Sarniiento, his wife), conquered lord and conqueror of the Canary Grand Canary, making them vassals Islands. After Diego de Herrera under him, passed over with his army settled in the Canary Islands, he to Barbary, took many Moors captive, organised an expedition and passed and made on the coast of Africa the over to the coast of Africa (which castle of Mar Pequeña, which he was only seventy miles distant), shereefs. He was at war at the same

maintained and defended agaiust the with the view of establishing time with three nations-Portuguese, Spanish authority among the bar- Gentiles, and Moors ; and of all he barians of that region. Don became victor without the aid of any



kings. "Married to Doña Ines Peraza obtain the support necessary for de Las Casas, lady of these isles; died his enterprise, as ill-fortune would on the 22d June 1485."

haye it, he embarked with his wife The sovereignty over the terri- and daughter on board a treasuretory acquired by Diego de Herrera ship. The crew mutinied on the on the Barbary coast was proudly way home, and murdered the capadded to the crown of Spain. And tain and officers. Captain Glas's after the death of this valiant wife and daughter, in order to esknight, Alonzo Fernando de Lugo cape from the brutality of these

appointed by Charles V. criminals, threw themselves overGovernor-General of the Canary board and were drowned. Thus Islands and that part of the wes- perished Captain Glas's noble protern coast of Africa lying between ject for establishing commercial reCape Geer and Cape Bojador. lations with the Arabs of northHe thought it incumbent on him west Africa. to prove the Spanish right to their It was in the year 1876 that I assumed possession by re-erecting took my departure from England the castle of Santa Cruz de Mar for the African coast.

On my arPequeña, and this was done ; but rival in the Canaries, the authorithe king of Fez and his subjects ties of these delightful islands rein overwhelming numbers allowed ceived me in the most kindly spirit it but short duration. They again possible, offering me every assistdemolished it as they had done ance, that I might need. I afterwith its predecessor, and those of wards crossed over to the African its brave defenders who were for- continent, and examined about tunate enough to escape from death 200 miles of its coast. or cruel captivity made their way Cape Juby was the only safe back to the Canary Islands. No harbour I could find; all other further attempt appears to have points seemed very much exposed been made by the Spaniards to fix and quite unsuitable for a station, themselves in a country which I therefore selected Cape Juby for proved so hostile to their rule, and the future settlement. The port all that now remains of the proud is formed by a reef which juts out Spanish dominion is the ruins of from the Cape southwards, runHerrera's castle half buried in the ning parallel with the shore, thus sand. Time has dealt unkindly to forming a very fine basin of water the port itself, for it is silted up to inside, quite safe for small vessels ; such a degree that it is perfectly but should the port rise to any useless for boats of any descrip- importance; the place could be tion,

made at moderate expenditure of The second attempt to establish money suitable for vessels of any relations with this part of Africa size. The natives received me in & was of a more commercial char-friendly spirit; and the announceacter. . In the early part of this ment that we were English inspired century, Captain Glas (a Scotch the inhabitants of the desert with mariner) visited this coast with confidence, and we were eagerly the object of founding a trading asked to return and settle amongst settlement; but on his return them. I then returned to Engjourney to England, in order to land, and laid the result of my



1 A full account of Herrera and the conquest of the Canary Islands will be found in Historia General de las Islas Canarias,' por Viera Y. Clavijo.

explorations before the Foreign assurance to the British consul that Office, who took a kindly interest she would not be put in quaranin the enterprise. Although the tine. This act was clearly done work I had undertaken was of the to oppose my operations on the most peaceful and beneficent char African coast. I appealed to the acter, yet I was not permitted to authorities on behalf of my poor proceed without serious opposition. sailors, who had wives and families The Spanish press began to think depending upon them, as there was that England had some intention a probability that we might all of taking possession of the north- perish in our small craft, for she west coast of Africa, and that she was ill fitted to make a long might ultimately extend her rule voyage. One of her masts was over the Canaries. They looked rotten, and she had only one cuit upon myself as a paid agent of the of sails. My pleadings, however, British Government. They urged fell on deaf ears. The Canary on the Spanish Government to authorities, after various consultatake immediate steps to prevent tions, decided to despatch us to the English from obtaining any Vigo, there to perform quarantine, foothold on the coast, pointing although there was a lazaretto in out at the same time that the Teneriffe. The British consul protreaty of 1860 with Morocco gave tested against their action, but in Spain the right of re-establishing vain. For myself, I could have & settlement on the site of the old abandoned the vessel and taken castle of Diego de Herrera, which passage for Liverpool; but I dewas abandoned about four hundred termined to remain with my years ago. The Spanish Govern- sailors, as I was evidently the ment, in order to pacify the public cause of the danger to which mind, sent an expedition to the they were exposed. To make African coast, with a view to find matters worse, the poor men hau out the situation of their ancient never been out of their colony ; but nothing was accom islands. The authorities were in plished.

great baste to get us off, and if it I visited Cape Juby again in had not been for the kindness of 1878, and had very friendly in- the British consul, MrC. S. Dundas, tercourse with the natives, who we would have been forced to leave appeared anxious that we should without provisions. A pilot was establish a trading ‘settlement at sent to take command of the vessel. this place. After spending some I would not, however, permit him time with the Arabs, I took my to set his foot on board until we departure for England in order obtained food for our journey. to make preparations to found the When we made such arrangesettlement. As I sailed in a ments as circumstances would persmall vessel that I had chartered mit, we set sail for Vigo in the from the Canary Islands, it was month of November, the worst necessary that I should proceed to part of the year.

After a few that place and discharge her, and days' sailing, we were caught in a then take my passage home ; but great storm off the coast of Por. on my arrival at the Canaries, I tugal, which lasted several days. found to my astonishment that my Five sailing-vessels were lost durvessel would not be admitted on ing this tempest. Our poor craft any consideration, although the broke down several times, and our civil governor had previously given scanty store of provisions and

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