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wise; this moment Siamese, the was confined to the regulation of next English, and every now and their foreign affairs and sanctionthen the two combined. After a ing the appointments of their time I grew weary of the assumed elected chiefs, Siam protecting the joviality, and was glad to say Shan States of Ohiengmai, or good-bye, and retreat from the Zimmé ; Lamphang Lakhon, or

Lakon ; Lampoonchi, or Lapoon; Our next call was upon Chow Muang Nan, or Nan; Muang Phrë, Boo-re Rak, the Ohow H00-& or Peh, or Prai, or Phray (these Muang Kyow or head of the Gem four states were comprised in the City,-a man of fine stature, with ancient kingdom of Zimmé, and a keen eye and intelligent mind. Lakon and Lapoon still look up to We did not detain him long, be- Zimmé as their parent state, and cause he was hearing cases in his in a vague manner are controlled house, but went to see the king's by it); and Luang Prabang, or eldest son by a former marriage, Hluang Prabang. In return for who holds the post of Chow Racha Siam's protection against foreign Boot; and afterwards Chow Oo-ta- invaders, these six states agreed to ra-kan, who, if primogeniture ruled send triennial tribute to Siam, in the accession to the throne in the the form of gold and silver boxes, Shan States, would have been King vases, and jewelled necklaces, toof Zimmé. To prevent disturb- gether with curious gold and silances, the King of Siam kept Noi ver trees, valued at from £15 to Maha Prome, his father and the £35 each. eldest son of a former king, at Bang- Trade between British Burmah kok, until the day of his death. and Siam and its Shan States may

Having finished our calls we be said to date from the Anglostrolled homewards, chatting about Siamese treaty of 1855-56. Up the various people we had seen. to that time Europeans, descend

The Siamese judge, or commis- ants of Europeans, Burmese, and sioner, was appointed under the Peguans from British Burmah, Anglo - Siamese treaty of 1874, were not allowed to enter the whereby we recognised the control Siamese dominions for purposes of Siam over the Shan States of of trade, although our native of Chiengmai, Lakon, and Lampoon- India subjects were permitted to chi (Zimmé, Lakon, and Lapoon). do so. Siam's policy was simply This treaty arranged for the polic- that of perfect seclusion from her ing of the frontier, the extradition neighbours. of dacoits, and the appointment of Next day Chow Oo-boon, accomSiamese judges at Zimmé. The panied by her eldest son Chow judges were to decide between Sook Ka Same and her niece, the British subjects having passports only child of the queen, returned and Siamese subjects ; but a pro- our call, and were followed by a viso was made that in case the long train of attendants bearing British subject did not consent to silver-handled umbrellas, and gold the jurisdiction of the court, his betel-boxes, water-jars, and cigaror her case should be tried by the ette platters. The son looked British consul at Bangkok, or the thirteen years of age, and the British officer in the Yoonzaleen niece about two years younger. district of Lower Burmah.

The missionaries said the children, Previous to this treaty the Siam- when grown up, would make an cse authority in the Shan States excellent match, but they were

VOL. CXLVI.-NO. DCCCLXXXVII.

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doubtful whether the queen would future. Not to be balked, as consent to the union, as the father soon as this Burmese was over the of the boy was not of royal blood. border, she selected another, and They were both very well behaved, began philandering with him. and were evidently fond of Dr and The queen was now quite out Mrs M‘Gilvary. Ohow 00- boon of patience, so

of patience, so one dark night, bad been the steady friend of the when the Burman was on his way missionaries at Zimmé ever since to the princess's residence, he was the Mission had been founded. way laid and clubbed to death.

This princess was no ordinary Greatly enraged at this assassinaperson, and her life was a romance. tion, Chow Oo-boon is said to have Highly intelligent, and a capital done her utmost to have the matwoman of business, a great trader, ter brought to trial by the British and the owner of large tracts of authorities, who, however, conland, extensive teak-forests, and sidered it politic to pass it over. numerous elephants, serfs, and Years had passed since then, the slaves, love was yet to her “the sisters were reconciled, and Chow summer's sun, nature gay adorn- Oo-boon gave no more cause for ing." She was very amourously anxiety, but expended her love inclined, and during many years and care upon the education of her had given the queen great anxiety children. and trouble in controlling her After chatting for a little while, headstrong fancies. Her first hus- the princess invited us to dinner band was the eldest son of the on the following 'Saturday, March eldest son of a former king of 1st, and said that, as we should Zimmé, and would have been on be detained waiting for elephants the throne had the rule of succes for two, or perhaps three days, she sion been the same as in Europe. had arranged for two of hers to be Their only child, a daughter, is at our house the next morning to married to Chow Sing Kam, the take us to the pagoda on Loi Soo eldest son of Chow Racha Boot, Tayp; it would be a pleasant exand therefore the grandson of the cursion for us, and I could get a present king.

fine view of the country from the Since her first widowhood the enclosure. princess had made several mésal Whilst we were talking, two of liances with people not of the her ladies-in-waiting were crouched royal family, much to the annoy- at her feet ready to hand her ance of the queen, who not only cigarettes or her betel-box, whilst refused to acknowledge the mar others were seated on the staircase riages, but removed the objects of near the edge of the verandah, and her affection beyond her reach. a few were following the children, At length Chow Oo-boon sought who with young M'Gilvary were to foil her sister by selecting a racing about the house and enjoywealthy Burmese timber - trader, ing themselves. Before the prinover whom she thought the queen cess left, I brought out some Maldare not exercise authority, as he tese jewellery, and said I should be was a British subject. Here she much pleased if she would accept was mistaken.

The queen had it as a present. She admired the him apprehended, and escorted to filigree work, and was evidently the frontier, where he was told much gratified, and asked me if I that it would be well for him to had a sister or a wife, as she would keep away from Zimmé for the like to have embroidered shirts

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made for them if I thought they of gingerbread nuts, a Chinese would be pleased with them. I cosey - covered teapot, and said that my sister would be de- enamelled iron cup and saucer on lighted to accept one, as she was each of our seats, and our lunch very fond of beautiful things; and packed away under them, we Shan embroideries, particularly the started, and after crossing the specimens seen at her house, were river above the bridge, followed certainly exquisite in their design the road which skirts the northern and workmanship.

moat of the city. In half an hour When our visitors had gone, we passed the White Elephant Mrs M‘Gilvary told me that the Gate, the chief entrance to the queen as well as the princess city; and after traversing ricefrequently visited her, and that fields for about an hour, reached her daughter, Mrs Cheek, at their the foot of the hill and commenced request had made them full suits to ascend the spur by a path which of European dress, and that they runs between the aqueduct that looked very well in them. I should supplies Zimmé with water, and think, however, that their hand-. Huay Kao the parent stream. The some native costumes suit them .foot of the hill lies four miles from much better, and it would be a the east end of the bridge. pity to hide their feet in shoes or To the north of the city, immeboots, for, like their hands, they diately bordering the road we had are delicately formed-small and traversed, lay the remains of the narrow, and decidedly pretty. ancient city of Kiang Yuen, which

Next morning two male ele- has perhaps given rise to the phants, with silver trappings and Zimmé Shans being known as roofed howdahs, with beautifully Yuen Shans by the Burmese. I carved frames, were led up to the had no time to inspect the ruins, verandah for us to mount. Mine but noticed several large temples was a very large one, measuring and pagodas. One of the latter, fully ten feet from the top of the known as the Chinese pagoda, is shoulder to the ground, but rather peculiar in shape, being formed awkward in its gait, which made of fivo flattened balls of brick it unpleasant to ride ; Dr Cushing's masonry, each diminishing at the was slightly smaller, and more top and placed one above the other. agreeable for riding. Ease in gait It has no umbrella or htee at the is one of the great considerations top, and is said to have been erectwhen hiring or purchasing an ed by a Chinese general named elephant to ride, for there is as Utau, when besieging the city some much difference in their gait as centuries ago. there is in that of horses. One Some distance beyond the city with pleasant paces and a swift the road crosses the ramparts and walk always fetches a high price, moats of a large fort, which had and should walk fully four miles been erected by the Burmese when an hour, or double the pace of an they last besieged the city in 1776. ordinary elephant. Females are This fort is now known as Muang very often easier for riding than Soon Dok, the town of the flowerthe males, but it is considered garden. To the south of the forty derogatory for a noble to be seen and between the city and Loi Soo on one.

Tayp, are the ruins of Muang La Having comfortably settled our. Maing, the ancient capital of the selves in our howdahg, with a tin Lawas, of which nothing but the

ramparts and ditches remain. It sure containing the religious buildis upon the site of this city that ings. The avenue of pines was Kun Ngu, the third son of Kun most likely planted by the Burmese Lung, the chief of Muang Mau, is when they built, repaired, or added said to have built his capital. to, the pagoda in 1760. We found Kun Lung, according to the story an inscription giving this date for of Muang Mau, which was trans- the erection of the pagoda, on a lated by Mr Ney Elias, descended board in a corner of one of the from heaven by a golden ladder buildings. The Shan history of into the Shweli Valley near Bhamo Zimmé gives the date of the in A.D. 568.

pagoda as 1790; but this evidentThe ascent of the hill as far as ly refers only to further additions the waterfall, which lies about a or repairs. mile and a half from the foot of The enclosure on the summit of the hill, was easy, and from thence the knoll is square, and surrounded onwards the slope became rather by a roofed shed which faces insteep. The aqueduct takes its wards, and has an entrance-gate in water from the Huay Kao just the centre of each side. The paabove where the stream plunges goda is Burmese in design, about over a ledge forming the crest of 50 feet high, covered with copper the fall, and a shelter for many plates heavily gilded, and sursmall images that have been placed rounded by a copper-sheathed iron under it by pious pilgrims. A railing. The pedestals at the four small temple, containing a solitary corners of the basement of the paimage of Gaudama, has been erect- goda are coated with a glass mosaic ed near the head of the fall. of various colours ; and facing each

Continuing the ascent along the side of the pagoda is a temple conbank of the torrent, which rushed taining an image of Guadama. glistening and foaming down its The walls and posts of the temples channel of bar3 granite rock, at are richly decorated with designs eleven o'clock we reached the rest in gold and vermilion. houses at the foot of the knoll on form of the enclosure is 1993 feet whose crest the Mya Sapeet chedi, above the plain, and_3001 feet or pagoda of the Emerald Rice above mean sea-level. The summit bowl, is erected. The journey from of Loi Soo Tayp appeared to be the east end of the bridge had about 3000 feet higher than the taken us four and a half hours, crest of the knoll. the distance being a little over From the entrances facing the eight miles.

plain, on a clear day the view must Weary with the incessant rolling be magnificent; but at the time of and jolting we had suffered from our visit the hills on the other side our long-legged, cumbersome beasts, of the plain were shrouded in haze, we felt relieved from suffering as and we could only see the country we stepped off the elephant's head for two or three miles beyond the on to the verandah railing of one town. The city and villages were of the rest-houses, and threw our hidden by the foliage, and the selves down on the floor for a whole plain, as far as we could see, stretch whilst our breakfast was looked one great orchard of palm being prepared.

and fruit trees, with here and there After our meal we ascended a a narrow slip of rice plain. Nothlong flight of steps, bordered by ing can be more deceptive than fine large pine trees, to the enclo travelling through such a country;

The piat

the great hedges of fruit-trees and casts, but their posterity must reclumps of handsomo bamboos that main so during the dispensation of fringe the fields continually hiding 'Guadama Buddha, embracing a pe. the extent of the cultivation. In riod of 5000 years after his death, the fringes surrounding the fields, which is said to have occurred and in the beautiful groves that B.c. 543. Pagoda slaves may not are scattered about, lie the houses be employed in any other work of the villagers, making it simply than keeping the shrine in order, impossible, without a census, to and are obliged to present tithe3 arrive, or even make a near guess, of all they produce for the use and at the population.

maintenance of the pagoda and its Seeing one of the Ka - wat, or monks. On our return the jourpagoda slaves, sweeping up some ney took only three hours and a fallen leaves, Dr Cushing asked half, as the elephants went quickly him to relate the legend of the pa down the hill, and were in a hurry goda, and the origin of its name. to get home for their evening's In reply he told us that, long, long feed. ago, a company of Pee, or spirits, In the evening I besieged Dr brought five of the bowls which M'Gilvary, endeavouring to perare used for begging by the monks, suade him to accompany us to and offered them at the shrine. Kiang Hsen. I assured him that These were each of different colours the journey should be no expense - red, yellow, white, blue, and to his Mission, either for food or green, cut out of precious gems, and for elephants; that he would be of fitted one within the other,-the very great use in collecting inforgreen or emerald bowl containing mation from the people; and that the rest. The pagoda is therefore it would be delightful, both for Dr named “The Pagoda of the Em- Oushing and myself, to have his erald Rice-bowl.” He further as company.

He said that he was sured us that the right name for really unable to go with us on that Loi Soo Tayp was Loi Soo Tee, its journey, as his year's supply of name having originated from a

boots were

on their way from white elephant that ascended the Bangkok, and the ones he had mountain, bearing sacred relics, would fall to pieces before he reexclaiming, as he reached the turned. I replied that I had two top, “Soo Teo,” or “the place pairs of Walkingphast's boots, ends."

which were quite new, and I should The pagoda slaves are looked be so pleased if he would try them upon as outcasts by the remainder on; that they were spare ones; and of the people, and are either the that I should certainly not need descendants of pagoda slaves, or more than one pair besides those I have been dedicated to the service had in use ; that his doing so would of the pagoda by their master on be an actual relief to me, as I felt account of the merit accruing to that I was carrying about useless the deed, or have been so dedicated baggage. He was very shy of the as & punishment for crimes they offer at first; but I succeeded in have committed. Not even a king talking his wife over, and she mandare free a pagoda slave ; for if he aged to persuade him not to disdid so, he would after this life in- appoint us, and that the trip was fallibly have to descend to the bot- exactly what his health required. tom of the most fearful hell. They I shall ever remember this good are nc: only pagoda slaves and out- lady and her husband with pleas

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