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be so.

When the exorcist, spirit-doctor, If his answers agree with those of or witch-finder, is called in and the sick person, he is condemned asked whether he considers the and held responsible for the acts patient is suffering from a Peo- of his ghost. Kah, he puts on a knowing look, The case is then laid before the and after a cursory examination of judge of the court, the verdict is the person, generally declares it to confirmed, and a sentence of banish

His task is then to find ment is passed on the person and out whose Pee-Kah is devouring his or her family. The condemned the sick person.

person is barely given time to sell After calling the officer of the or remove his property. His house village and a few headmen as wit- is wrecked or burnt, and the trees nesses, he commences questioning in the garden cut down, unless it the invalid. He first asks, “Whose happens to be sufficiently valuable spirit has bewitched you ?”. The for a purchaser to employ an exorperson may be in a stupor, half cist, who for a small fee will renunconscious, half delirious from der the house safe for the buyer ; the severity of the disease, and but it never fetches half its cost, therefore does not reply. A pinch, and must be removed from the or a stroke of a cane, may restore haunted ground. If the condemned consciousness. If so, the question person lingers beyond the time is repeated ; if not, another pinch that has been granted to him, his or stroke is administered. A cry. house is set on fire, and, if he still of pain may be the result. That delays, he is whipped out of the is one step towards the disclosure; place with a cane. If he still refor it is a curious fact that, after fuses to go, or returns, he is put the case has been pronounced one to death. of, witchcraft, each reply to the The late King of Zimmé, on question, pinch, or stroke, is con- hearing from the villagers of the sidered as being uttered by the Karen village of Ban Hta, that Pee-Kah through the mouth of the their headman was bewitching bewitched. person.

them and would not leave the A person pinched or caned into village, allowed the people to club consciousness cannot long endure him to death. About three years the torture, especially if reduced before my visit another case came by a long illness. Those who have to the knowledge of the missionnot the wish nor the heart to in- aries, where two Karens were jure any one, often refuse to name brought to the city by some of the wizard or witch until they their neighbours, charged with have been anmercifully beaten. causing the death of a young man

On the ‘sick person naming an by 'witchcraft, The case was a individual as the owner of the clear one against the accused. The spirit, other questions are asked, young man had been possessed of such

as, “How many buffaloes has a musical instrument, and had rehe?"" How many pigs ? ” “How fused to sell it to the accused, who many chickens ?" “ How much wished to purchase it.

Shortly money ?" &c. The answers to the afterwards he became ill, and died questions are taken down by a in fourteen days. At his cremascribe. A time is then appointed tion, a portion of his body would to meet at the house of the ac not burn, and was of a shape simicused, and the same questions as lar to the musical instrument. It to his possessions are put to him. was clear that the wizards had put

revenge is

the form of the coveted musical used the ruins of the teniple for instrument into his body to kill levelling the ground, and buried him. The Karens were beheaded, the image under the débris. One notwithstanding that they pro- day during some alterations it was tested their innocence, and threat- dug up, and the people svarmed ened that their spirits should re into the compound to pay their turn and wreak vengeance for their respects to it, although it had lost unjust punishment. Witches and its head. The missionary then wizards in the Shan States are took an axe and knocked it to free agents, and have made no com- pieces before the people, who were pact with the devil. The old Bur naturally horrified and offended man custom for the trial of witches at the, to them, sacrilegious deed. was similar to that practised in The people were still more disformer times in England : the gusted by seeing the pedestal upon thumbs and toes being tied to which the image had been seated gether, the suspected person was turned into a garden seat, and the thrown into the water, and sinking fragments of the image made into was a proof of innocence, floating a rockery. of guilt.

Another cause of friction arose In Mr Wilson's opinion, the in 1869 from two new converts charge of witchcraft often arises neglecting to aid in repairing the from envy, or from spite ; and sick- palisading round the outer city ness for the

purposes
of

when instructed to do so by the. sometimes simulated. A neigh- officials. The missionaries believed bour wants a house or garden, and that the affair arose merely from a the owner either requires more misunderstanding. Anyhow, the than he wishes to pay, or refuses two converts were seized, and fasto sell it. Covetousness consumes tened with ropes passed through his heart, and the witch-ghost is the holes in their ear-laps to the brought into action. Then the upper beams of a house, and next covetous person, or his child, or a day clubbed to death. The misneighbour, falls ill, or feigns illness; sionaries complained to the King the ailment baffles the skill of the of Siam, and a Siamese official was physician, and the witch-finder is sent up to inquire into the case. called in. Then all is smooth sail- The King of Zimmé, being bound ing, and little is left to chance. to Siam only so far as tribute and

In the early days of the Mission his foreign relations were at Zimmé, Christians were very cerned, answered the commissioner unfavourably looked on by the by stating that it was his affair officials. This may partly have and not Siam's; and that he inarisen from what I consider to have intended to kill as many of his own been, under the circumstances, an people as he chose. It was not injudicious act of a missionary. till nine years afterwards, in the An old temple-ground was handed present king's reign, five years over to the idissionaries as a com after the appointment of the Siampound for their houses and schools. ese commissioner at Zimmé, that The temple was in ruins, but a a proclamation, issued by the Sisandstone image of Buddha, five amese government, declaring that feet in height, was intact, and was any of the Siamese Shans might much reverenced by the people, change their religion with imwho placed offerings of fruit and punity, was allowed to be placflowers before it. The missionaries arded up in the Court of Zimmé.

con

On ap

At the time of my visit the mis- built close to the tree, and {wo sionaries had made nearly 200 con- men squatting near it. verts, and were much respected by proaching them he noticed that the princes and the people. one was holding two small chickens

Besides converting the people, over the flames, whose feathers and opening schools for their educa- were already balf consumed. The tion, the missionaries have been other had a bundle of bamboo doing their utmost to conquer the splints, which he was sticking into belief of the people in witchcraft; the ground to support a platform, and I was glad to hear that it had upon which the fowls, when roastbecome a custom with several of ed, were to be offered to the spirits. the princes of Zimmé and the This was too much for the emneighbouring states, as well as bodied missionary, who, much to other intelligent people, to call in their dismay, insisted upon their the aid of the physician attached taking their offerings out of his to the Mission, in cases of serious compound. illness in their families. Another When visiting Dr Peoples, the blow has been given to supersti- physician attached to the Mission, tion by the missionaries sheltering he told me of a strange case of those who lie under the accusation hysteria, which arose from the of witchcraft. At the time of my belief of the Shans in evil spirits. visit sixteen accused families were

There was

å man living in the residing in the Mission grounds, northern quarter of the city who some of whom had been converted possessed a garden of areca palms to Christianity; and most of the and plantains. In the garden was children were attending the schools. a well, the abode of a Pee-Hong,

The people account for no harm or headless spirit: all deceased having happened to the mission- nurderers, adulterers, and other aries through their harbouring people who have been, executed

. witches, by saying that the Pee- becomo Pee-Hong. In its way to Kal are afraid of Europeans, and and from this well the Pee-Hong clamber up the tamarind-trees near passed through a grove of trees, the gate of the Mission when the which the owner, against the witches go in, and wait until they wishes of his neighbours, who leave the yard to enter them again. feared the wrath of the dewión,

One of the trees outside the determined to cut down. A short compound was much dreaded by time after the trees had been depeople who had to pass near it. stroyed he became very uneasy and The cries of the spirits were often unwell; and, whenever thinking heard from its branches at night. or talking on the subject, figures At times the spirits descended to appeared on his limbs and body, in the ground and confronted passers- the form of regular welts, shaped by. One of them resembled a like leaves and trunks and whole child about a year old, then, in a trees, sometimes resembling plansecond, its form would expand and tain-trees, at others areca palms. grow until it was taller than the Having tried every form of exortree, when it would vanish, after cism, he applied to Dr Peoples for forcing a scream of horror from help through his medical assistant, the affrighted beholder. This but refused to display the spirit ghost for some reason assumed the manifestations before him, saying appearance of a missionary. that they would not appear before

One day Mr Wilson saw a fire Christians. The doctor prescribed

ear.

for the man, and went to visit him the junior Siamese assistant-comthe next day at his house, but he missioner, a bright, gentlemanlyhad left his family and started for loaking young man, about twentya famous shrine. Many months four years of age.

A few minutes had passed since then, but nothing later, the Siamese commissioner, further had heen heard of the an iron - grey - haired, well - built demoniac.

man above the average height of The belief in the transmigration Siamese, and very plausible and of the soul into the bodies of courteous in behaviour, came in, animals is apt to give rise to a and after shaking hands, offered peculiar form of hallucination. In us cigars and tea. one of the Siamese books a tale is Amongst the Siamese the dress told of a wife plotting the death of the two sexes is exactly alike, of her affectionate husband with but the women are shorter and her paramour, and, on the success more brazen-faced than the men, of the plot, marrying the latter. and wear a love-lock above each Soon afterwards the wonuan noticed

Both have their hair cut a snake in the house, which she short at the back and sides of the thought must be her late husband, head, and wear it either swept as she imagined it looked lov. back from the forehead, or parted ingly upon her. After killing the in the middle. It is very thick, snake she had a cow which she coarse, und intensely black. killed for the same reason. Then Their dress consists of a panung she had a dog, which followed her or waist-cloth, and a jacket. The everywhere with affectionate watch- panung is a plaid-shaped cloth fulness, and she, thinking her hus- about 7 feet long and 21 feet band's soul must be in it, killed it. broad, and made of cotton or of After the dog's death a child was silk. It is passed round the body, born, who, because it looked at her held together tight in front, where with loving eyes, she thought must a twist in the top is made, and be her husband. Not daring to tucked in. The two trailing ends cut short its life, and unable to are then picked up, passed under bear the sight of it, she gave it out the legs, and tucked in at the to be rursed. When the child small of the back. grew

up, it is said to have remem- classes wear stockings, often of bered the various migrations of its gay colours, and elastic-sided boots soul from the time that it was the or shoes; and girdle themselves husband of its owu mother, and to with a cricketing belt, or with have told the story to its grand- one fastened by a buckle set with mother.

precious stones. In the afternoon Dr M Gilvary The average height of the went with me to call on the Si- Siamese men is five feet and amese commissioner, who resides three inches, or three or four in a large, two-storeyed, white- inches less than that of the washed brick house. near the west Zimmé Shans. The women selhank of the river. We were shown dom exceed four feet and nine into an airy upper room, which inches in height. They seemed

an audience - chamber, to me to be a cross between the and is furnished with a large Khas and the Shans, made more round table, surrounded by a repulsive' by a dash of the Malay number of chairs. On our entry; and Chinese. They have broad, ve were welcomed by Chow Don, flat, lozenge-shaped faces; high

The upper

serves ag

cheek · bones ; small bridgeless doubt he would receive them in noses; low foreheads; small, black, a few days; in the meantime, he pig-eyes; wide mouths; thick, non would gladly do all he could to protruding lips; a yellowish-brown aid me in my project. complexion ; and, generally, a sul I'then asked him to aid me in len expression.

gathering information about the I had been warned before leav- trade and population of the couning Burmah that Siamese officials try, and to give me a letter to the are deceitful above all things, and various princes in the district, askthat I must not rely upon a single ing them to aid me to the utmost atom of information I got from in their power. This he promised them. From personal intercourse, to do, and the conversation became I found that the gentleman who general. When I received the warned me was strictly correct in letter, it proved to be so milk-andhis judgment. In answer to your watery that it was worse than questions, they tell you the most worthless, and Dr M‘Gilvary adplausible lie that trips to their vised me to keep it as a curiosity, tongue, and if you chance to test and not to show it. All his other their accuracy by reverting to the promises were merely pie-crustsubject in the same or a future made to be broken. conversation, contradict them Just as we were preparing to selves most flatly. If you trouble go, Phra Udon, the senior assistyourself to point out the incon- ant-commissioner, came bounding sistency of their statements, they in like a clown at a circus, greeting are ashamed — but only of not us all boisterously with, “How do having played their game better. you all do? So glad you've come.

After a little preliminary con All well, I hope ?” then he hurried versation, I told the commissioner round from one to the other, and that Prince Prisdang, the Siamese shook hands in an affectionately ambassador in London, had pro- jovial manner. I had heard about mised about seven months before this individual before I came, and to write to the King of Siam was therefore more amused than about my mission, and had writ- surprised at his manner. There ten to Mr Colquhoun as follows: was no ceremony about him. We “I have no hesitation in inform were jolly companions every one, ing you that any well - digested and he would be delighted to be scheme which has for its object the tomfool of the party. It is the improvement of the commercial surprising how such a mountebank position of Siam, and the consoli- could have got even into the dation of the kingdom, will receive Siamese service. From subsethe attentive consideration of his quent inquiry I learnt that he Majesty and my Government; and was a native of Ceylon, who, with that his Majesty will allow all other monks, had come over to facilities to be given for any pur- Siam many years ago at the invitaposes of exploration, or of gaining tion of tho king, and who, managaccurate knowledge, by properlying to curry favour at Court, threw qualified persons, of the nature off the yellow robe, and entered the of the country proposed to be Government service. traversed by the railway.”

Conversation now passed into a He told me that he had received shower of questions from Phra no instructions whatever on the Udon, amid which our answers subject from the king, but no could barely be squeezed odgo

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