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It was hard to realise, when highest speed attained was 66 miles looking at the splendid machine per hour, and the lowest when runreposing itself at the platform, ning through Bedford, where the with no evidence of stress or speed is limited to 15 miles an fatigue, that it had raced and hour. climbed over by far the heaviest The speed in each case was regradients of any railway running corded by one of Stroudley's patent out of London, for the distance, indicators, which gave very accuand with so little variation of rate results. speed. It will be seen that the
TO THE EMPRESS FREDERICK.
Ag! Sorrowing Lady! In thy native land,
May all the beauty of this smiling plain,
And, as time travels on, may Heaven, that gave
HOMBURG, August 2, 1889.
MY FIRST VISIT TO ZIMMÉ.
It was January 15, late in the trees, and the panorama we passed cold season, when I left Maulmain, through was delightful. Temples & seaport in Burmah, for the Shan decorated with dark red and gold, city of Zimmé, in order to make and picturesque monasteries, were that city the base for my explora- set like gems in the beautiful tions in Northern Siam and the fringes of foliage that skirted the Shan States, which Mr Colquhoun banks. Women and girls, gaily and I hoped would result in prov- attired in a striped petticoat, or ing that it was practicable at one of a small tartan, and a silk a reasonable expense to connect scarf thrown over the left shoulder, Burmah with Siam and China 'by tripped along barefooted on their railway.
way to the market with baskets After crossing the hills which of flowers and garden - produce. separate Maulmain from Muang Here a group of men and women Haut, a town on the Meh Ping in sat squatting on the sands, having the Siamese Shan States, I en- à chat before crossing the ford. gaged two boats, and proceeded There men, women, and children, up-stream for 82 miles to Zimmé. with their garments tucked up When within 4 miles of the walled above their knees, laughed and city, I halted for the night at joked as they waded the stream. the monastery which is attached Groups of children playing in the to the beautiful pagoda of Chedi water dashed it about and splashed Leeum, the largest seen by me in each other. Cattle were lowing the Shan States.
on the banks on their way to This pagoda, which is 60 feet pasture. The sun was lighting up square at the base and 120 feet the bald pates and yellow garments high, may be said to mark the of the monks and acolytes, who southern extremity of the suburbs were passing in procession carryof Zimmé. It is peculiar in shape, ing their begging bowls through and resembles a rectangular church the streets. Women and children steeple, rising in five steps or tiers, were reverently awaiting the apcut off from the tower and placed proach of the monks, and heaping on the ground. Each side of each little cups of rice and saucers of tier has three niches, and each fish and condiments into their niche contains a statue of Gaudama bowls; whilst the monks—at least Buddha larger than life. At each the young ones, who have the corner of each tier is a pedestal reputation of being a jovial crewfinished off with a flame-like orna- peeped over their fans, which were ment at the top.
intended to veil fair women from Rain fell heavily during the their sight. night, washing the face of Nature, On we went past numerous sandburnishing the trees, clearing the banks, which were now covered air, and thus brightening the whole with vegetable gardens, past the landscape. The cool fresh morn- American Presbyterian Mission ing air, that bathed our hands and establishment, which was hidden face as we started soon after day, amongst the trees, until we reached break, was scented with the frag- the wooden bridge which spans rance of flowering shrubs and the river, and halted to inquire
as to the position of the Mission- chard contains fine shady clumps house.
of bamboos, cocoanut, mango, tamIn the meantime Dr M Gilvary, arind, pomegranate, custard-apple, hearing that our boats had passed, pomelo, guava, orange, citron, pahad hurried off a servant to follow paw, and coffee trees. The passionthem and conduct us to his house. flower grows in great luxuriance, The house is built in a large pali- and affords a luscious fruit, which saded garden, which is separated can either be eaten as a vegetabl, from the east bank of the river by or like a papaw or a melon. a cart-road.
After the constant strain upozz Entering the garden, where Eng- my attention during the journey, lish roses were growing amongst I greatly enjoyed reclining in a the glorious flowers and flowering long-armed chair in the front vershrubs of the tropics, and the air andah of the house, and watching, was scented with the sweet blos. whilst I lazily puffed at my cigar, soms of orange and pomelo trees, the ever-changing expression of the we were met by Dr and Mrs great mountain at the back of the M'Gilvary and their little son, city. The lights and shades swiftly who gave us a hearty welcome, flitting across its forest-clad slopes, and insisted upon our enjoying as the clouds coursed betwixt it their hospitality during our stay in and the sun; the beautiful bijou Zimmé. Nothing could be more views in the early morning, as the agreeable to us. Pleasant friendly mist opened out and closed in when faces, lovely flowers, beautiful fruit- dissolving under the influence of trees, a fine, large, commodious the sun; the foreground formed house, a splendid view of Loi? Soo by suburbs on the other side of Tayp, and the best possible posi- the river, embosomed in orchards, iion for collecting information amongst which the areca-nut, palwhat more could be desired? The myra, and cocoanut palms reared house was constructed for the ac their graceful stems and beautiful commodation of two families of plumes; the stream of ever-varying missionaries. One-half was unoc and ever-picturesque life moving cupied, as the Rev. Mr Martin along the road and river; tho and his wife were on their way music formed of the murmur of from Bangkok, so no one would distant voices; the clearer notes be cramped by our taking up our of those that were near, and the quarters there; besides which, Drs clash and clatter that proceeds M'Gilvary and Cushing were old from the busy haunts of men,friends. We therefore gladly ac the whole was like a pleasant cepted the offer.
dream, such a one as Ole Luk Oi, The Mission-house is built of in Andersen's ‘Fairy Tales,' showed teak with a shingle roof, in the the good little boy when he had ordinary style of bungalows in thrown dust in his eyes and led Burmah. A staircase leads up to him ints Dreamland. a broad verandah, from which the Having been shown our rooms, front bedrooms and sitting-rooms we had the luggage carried up are entered. At the back are the and the necessary things unpacked, bath-rooms and another verandah, adding some of our stores to Mrs with a flight of steps leading to M'Gilvary's cuisine for the forththe garden and kitchen. The or- coming banquet.
1 Loi is the Shan word for a mountain.
What a banquet that
that was ! in America, and the two young Never in my life, since or before. ladies, who resirlerl in oue-half of have I so enjoyed a repast. A the louse and taught in the Misnice white tablecloth and napkin sion schools. were away in the once more under one's nose, and district. We accorclingly strolled European food, with American through the gardiens to his house, dainties, and dessert, where fresh where, after talking over watters, strawberries, gathered in the Mis- Le promised to bave my gold-leaf sion-garden, made their appear-changel iuto silver; to collect all ance, and violets were placed in the information he could about glasses by our side. I felt more trade and prices from the people ; inclined to feast .my eyes and my to inquire about the manners, -sense of smell than to eat-every- customs, spirit-lore, au superstithing was so tempting and so taste- tions of the people; and give ful. Then the fragrance of a well mer written meniórauluni about cooked dinner; and fresh vege- them. I was certainly most for: tables, and plenty of them; and tunate in securing the aid of misthat pumpkin-pie, the first I had sionaries who had been so long in ever tasted,—it was a feast for the the country as Mr Wilson and Dr gods. A gourmet who wishes to M'Gilvary, particularly when they revel in the highest pitch of epi. manifested such interest in gathercurean enjoyment, could not doing information for me. better than take a trip into the The ancient kingdom of Zimjungle, and after recouping his mé, or Kiang Mai, according to jaded appetite, suffering six weeks' M'Leod, “comprised fifty-seven privation and frugal fare, taste the cities, mentioned in the Burmese relish of such a feast.
books as fifty-seven Kraings (corAfter diwer was over, we le ruption of Kiang, a fortified or ceiverl a visit from the Rev. Joun- walled city), many of which at than Wilson, who had been with present exist, or their ruins can be the Mission at Ziminó since 1868, traced. Muang Nan and Muang the year after it liarl been estah. Plié (Peh) were included in the lisheil there by the Rev. Daniel number, and the capital was both M'Gilvary. After giving me a Kiang Mai aud Kiang Hai, a place liearty shake of the land, he asked to the northward on the Mé Khók what he could do for me, and was (Meli Khoke). It extenıled from deliglıted at the prospect of a rail- the Mé Khong (Cambodia river) way being carrierl frou Burmah to the Mé Khong (the Salween through Siam aud the Slau States. rirer) east and west. To the Railways were the graudest civ- uortliward it was bounded by the ilisers in the world, and would territories of Kiang Tsen (Hsen) do wonders in ameliorating the aud Kiang Tung, which extended wretchell courlitiou of the people to the Mė Khók; to the southanol in spreading Christiauity wards to the territories of Kamthrough the land. “Dout be peng, belonging to Siam.” The afinil of troubling me,” he said; kingdom, according to the Siamese “I shall be only too delighted to bistory, was known as Sawakamala, aid in your good work.” He then and its capital as Krung (Kiang), askerl me to come and talk matters see Satanalıkanahut, probably Pali orer with him at liis diggings. Dawes, and not used colloquially, He liver uext door, all loy himself. but merely in religious and State His wife was recruiting her health documents.
The city of Zimmć, which lies of 2 miles, or 18 square miles, 430 yarls to the west of the river, as the area covered by the city is divided into two parts, the one and its suburbs, he arrived at embracing the other, like a letter the conclusion that its population L, on the south and east sides. could not be less than 100,000 The inner city faces the cardinal souls. · I do not think the doublepoints, and is walled and moated city by itself can contain more
all round. The walls are of brick, than 30,000 or less than 20,000 | 22 feet high, and crenelated at the inhabitants.
top, where they are 31 feet broad. Another estimate formed by Dr The moat surrounding the walls is Cheek concerned the population of 30 feet wide and 7 feet deep. The the State of Zimmé. This was outer city is more than half a mile based upon an incomplete list of broad, and is partly walled and the houses upon which a levy was partly palisaded on its exterior to be made for feeding the Yaks, sides. Both cities are entered by or local deities, at the yearly sacgates leading in and out of a forti- rifice. The list included 97,000 fied courtyard.
houses at the time Dr Cheek saw The inner city contains the palace it; and as seven people on an of the head king, the residences of average live in each house, the many of the nobility and wealthy population of these houses could men, and numerous religious build- not be less than 600,000 souls. ings. In the outer city, which is Allowing for the other houses not peopled chiefly by the descendants then noted, and for the houses of of captives, the houses are packed Lawa, Karen, Muhseu, and other closer together than in the inner hill people who are not enumerated one, the gardens are smaller, the in the subscription lists, the gross religious buildings are fewer, and population of the Zimmé Statethe population is more dense. The including Zimmé, Kiang Hai, roads in both cities are laid out at Kiang Hsen, Muang Pow, Muang right angles to each other; no Houngson, Muang Fang, Muang rubbish is allowed to be placerl Ken, and its other sub-provincesoutside the gardens of the houses, must be about 700,000 people. which are palisaded; water is lect The following day, accompanied into the town from a stream flow- by Drs Cushing and M‘Gilvary, ing from Loi Soo Tayp; the floors I made a round of visits to the of the houses are all raised 6 or 8 king and members of the Court at feet from the ground; and the Zimmé. Leaving the house, we whole place has an 'air of trim followed the bank of the river to neatness about it.
the timber bridge, and crossed it The suburbs of the city extend to the western suburbs., The for a great distance, straggling centre span is removable, so as to along both banks of the river, and allow the royal boats of the chiefs it is therefore difficult to fix the to pass through, and is raised line where they may be said to about a foot above the rest of the cease. Dr Cheek, a son-in-law of flooring, thus being a great hin. Dr M'Gilvary, had an extensive drance to the passage
of carts practice among the princes and and carriages. When driving people of Zimmé, and endeavoured over the bridge, our carriage had to arrive at an approximate esti- to be lifted on and off this raised mate of its population. Taking a portion. No nails or holts were length of 9 miles anil a breadth used in the structur); consequent