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in Great Britain. If they are the pretentious activity of a only summoned occasionally, we certain number of clever Irish, shall have two omnipotent Parlia- with their livelihood to earn by a ments at work--one without the theatrical display of sedition and Irish members arriving at one lawlessness, tempered by a prudecision, the other with them dential regard for personal safety. arriving at a different one. They Never did secret conspiracies make would be essentially two different greater noise in the world. The Parliaments, and the relations be- ostentatious display of organisatween them would require careful tion; the long-winded exhortations adjustment, and would probably be to one another which wo have all prolific in strife.

read, to do deeds of surpassing Home Rule affords no reason- heroism which never came off ; able hope of satisfying Irish disaf- the extreme difficulty of getting fection, and in fact the existence of any of the heroes, except a few that disaffection would be fatal to of the lowest and least educated the working of any scheme which amongst them, to risk their own aimed at preserving any sort of skins; the absence of all overt union between the two countries. action, except that of cowardly Federation results from a number outrages by moonlight and upon of small States loyal to each other the defenceless, — all stamp the ardently desiring union from mo- Irish movement with ridicule and tives of mutual security and advan- çontempt. tage. History gives no example, The complete exposure of the and imagination cannot conceive, worthlessness of the confederacy an empire breaking or being broken from the point of view of subto pieces because of disaffection scribers, who, at a safe distance, and the mutual antipathy of vari- nevertheless want value for their ous portions to each other, and money, will probably lead to a then voluntarily submitting to be collapse of this hollow and treacherbound together again in a less en- ous agitation. The retirement of during and less stringent bond. the 35 from their parliamentary The friction of federal union led career is already hinted at by to civil war amongst States which their leader. A falling off in the formed that union in a spirit of supplies · will speedily snuff out ardent aspiration for its perman- this highly sensational movement,

The result of that war and it is inconceivable that the showed that the Federal National prospect of any form of Home Government was stronger than Rule likely to be conceded after that of the seceding States, and full discussion by the British no more has been heard of seces- Parliament will continue to exsion. It is banished from the tract American dollars from Irish minds of the most vehement sup- pockets, porters of State rights. And if When one compares the claims the electors of this country show of Ireland, or rather of that porby one or two general elections tion of Ireland which is disafthat the determination to preserve fected, with the story of the the unity of the empire is as American commonwealth, the strong as the American deter- parallel is to be found, not in mination to preserve the integrity the relations of a State to the of the Union, we shall soon hear Congress, but in the relations no more of Irish Home Rule. which formerly ezisted between a The whole movement rests on State or colony and the Parlia


ment at home. Assuming cll the really be a relationship where auoutcry which we hear of fearful thority is very much diminished on misgovernment, intense hostility, the one side, the power of resistance and civil war tempered by the very much increased on the other. scarcity of firearms, to be genu The “United States in Congress ine, and not half theatrical and assembled” have no powers but half a more political craze, obvi- what they exercise, as it were, in ously the logical though impracti- delegation from the States, and cable outcome would be a declara- with their hearty consent and cotion of independence. Disaffected operation. Whatever power the Ireland is in no humour to accept British Parliament will in the new the federal headship of the British order of things exercise over IreParliament, with or without Irish land, will spring from a totally members in it, if that federal different source. It will be in headship involves anything ap- reality the reserved authority of proaching to

the substantial the conqueror, disguise it as we authority of the President and may, and the detested yoke of the Congress over and throughout the Saxon will be no more welcome length and breadth of America. then than it is now. The last Unless the cuthority reserved be political fruits to be gathered from substantial and daily exercised, the Irish struggles, which have it is idle to talk of the continu- lasted so many years, will bo, ance of political union. There that from the strained political 'would roult a relationship which attention which it enforces to that would be nither union nor cepera- country, its real grievances are betion, but which would involve the ing removed, the tyranny of paid responsibilities of the former and agitators is being suppressed, and the disabilities of the latter. The their leaders aro already beginning hictory of the American common to take refuge in the pretence that wealth gives no cncouragement to Englishmen, from want of experisuch an arrangement. Federal ence of and want of touch with union there results from indepen- the Irish people, cannot enter into dent and sovercign States seeking their feelings and understand their first confederacy, and then by re- wants.

wants. We can, however, try; linquishing their sovereignty, seek and in order correctly to appreing to establish Federal goverr- ciate them, we need not place unment in order to perpetuate a

reserved confidence in those who Union to which all are loyal. profit by disorder. If we can

Federal union, or some kind only secure the continuance of the of union which no man is bold policy which has been pursued for enough to attempt to formulate, the last three years, of enforcing is to result here from a dependent obedience to law, of effecting real Stato being allowed to tear itself, reforms, and of not taking politiamidst the protests of a powerful cal hysterics too seriously, we shall and intelligent minority, from its be rewarded by a continuance of allegiance to one common Parlia- the results which are beginning to ment, and from then being com unfold themselves in the increased pelled to submit itself to what is contentment of the people, and the euphemistically described increased security of trade and onion of hearts, but which will capital, of life and property.





SEPT. 1889.



[But for the unquestionable reliability of the writer of this article, we could not have believed that, so inhuman and disgraceful a state of things could liave been permitted to exist in any British colony; and we commend the case to those philanthropists at home who have lately been showing so benevolent an interest in the question of leprosy.ED. B. 1.]

One of the practical results of about forty passengers, most of the self-sacrifice of Father Dainien whom are officials connected with has been to attract aclclitional at- the island ; while a few, like mytention to one of the most dread- self, have obtained a special Govful plıysical woes to which human ernment permit, without which no nature is liable-leprosy. Close outsider is allowed to disembark. to Cape Town there is a second Our freight comprises twenty Molokai, called Robben Island, sheep cruelly tied up by the legs perhaps even a saddler place be- and as cruelly piled on each other, cause it is unrelieved by the inter- some bundles of forage, and a ined. est and intense public sympathy ley of articles, such as soap for aroused by the Sandwich isle. the lepers, letters for the lunatics, Here the patients live a death, and coffee for the convicts. The to coin an expression - conipara- surpassingly lovely view of Table tively uncarel fór, and certainly Mountain fades from our gaze, and unwept; and here, too, are gath- we turn to behold suddenly the erell together a number of lunatics island of desolation about three with a proportiou of convicts. miles in diameter, low and flat,

A dirty little tug occupies three- sad and sandy, witle scarcely a quarters of au lour in our rough restige of vegetation, save patches uupleasaut transit. It couveys of coarse, uulovely grass. The



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Cape Government has declined to the power of the Czar is of a incur the expense of the simplest restricted nature, save in one jetty, and the shallow roadstead respect—he is tied down hand and forbids the close approach of thę foot by the parsimony of the Coltug. So we transfer ourselves onial officials. On these latter be first to a small boat which dances the shame of the shortcomings recrankily through the surf, and specting the welfare of the miserthen “pick-a-back” to the shoul- able inhabitants. One of them ders of the grey-clothed convicts, undertakes to cicerone me over who wade thigh - deep into the the leper establishment. On our water, and thus convey us to the way we examine the tiny churchseaside capital of the domain. perhaps almost the only thoroughly We stare around at the scene : its pleasing object in the island, inasaspect can scarcely be otherwise much as it is trim without and than strangely weird when we con- reverently pretty within. Here sider the nature of its population, service is held on Sundays, at consisting, approximately, of 130 which members of all creeds atlepers, 230 lunatics, 30 convicts, tend-Protestants, Roman Cathand 160 police and ward-masters, clics, Mohammedans, and Jews : with their families—making a total a community of suffering seems to of about 550.

make their whole world kin. Only The buildings comprise about the lepers have their hour, and the twenty low, tumble-down-looking lunatics and convicts their hour, tenements, plus the mean-looking respectively-for there must be 10 Government establishments. A risk of the contagion which might small knot of downcast, ragged be feared by indiscriminate juxindividuals are watching with taposition in a small, close, hot languid interest our disembarka- building. It has been proposed tion: there needs little enlighten- to throw out a small bow-room to ment to inform us that they are one of the aisles, screened off with harmless lunatics. But those glass, so that the lepers might strange objects crouching on the join in the common worship withground, if possible still more for- out risk to the rest of the conlorn, silent, motionless, who are gregation. But no; this is negthey? I scan them more closely atived because it would cost a --they are lepers,—horrible! I small, ä very small suin. Next am not yet steeled to such a sight, we enter one of the wards ocand I hurry away to find the cupied by a race which is partly doctor, who will impart to me Hottentot and partly Malay, with the information I seek, and will an infusion of white blood. Few give me authority to visit the are actually in bed—most are in wards. Here let me explain that a semi-recumbent position on their I conducted my investigations on beds, or are crouched about the more than one occasion, but for floor. There is no murmuring of simplicity's sake I will describe small talk, no mutterings of sufmy experience in the form of a fering, and the unbroken silence single visit.

is almost oppressive. The doctor There are two resident doctors, takes me from patient to patient, the senior of whom is Governor, diagnosing the typical cases for and is rightly intrusted with an my benefit. This young Hottentot authority over the island and its is an instance of tubercular leprosy inhabitants compared with which in its incipient stage. It has some

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affinity with ordinary consump- he looks as though he were but tion, and commences with internal half alive~would indeed that he tubercles, which in course of time were wliolly dead ! manifest themselves exterually on Frightful and fatal as are these the face, head, and arnis. but types, they do not correspond to never in any other part of the the traditional ideas of leprosy," I hody. Look at that slight, ap- remark to the doctor.

" Whero parently insignificant, swelling of are the Mirianis, the Naamans, and the lobes of the ears. It is the the Gehazis, lepers as white as first invariable and never-deceiviug syruptoni. By-anıl-by slight “ That is the Eastern form, and enlargements will appear over his does not exist here,” is the auswer. frontal bones, close to the eye “ Our two classes are the tuberbrows. There does not seens to be cular, which you have just seen, much amiss with this lad, whose and which has some affinity with apparent stur liness and twenty- elephantiasis or leontiasis; and one years veil his lurking malady; the anæsthetic, which I will now but watch the development of the show you. Anæsthetic leprosy disease in this next patient, wlio consists not in the dropping off of is some four or five years older. the boues, as most doctors assert, Observe the regular wens

Lut in their absorption.” the eyebrows; his ear-lobes lave My cicerone then explains that now become pendulous; neck and the joiuts are attacked, open, and lead are puffy ; his face is shiny, waste away. Then the counecting and is ruckled with high ridges cartilage wastes away likewise ; and low furrows; and in fact the but there is no mortification, original coutour of his features merely a slight exudation of is being gradually merged into a lyinph at the fingers or the toes, fornless forbidding mass. No. 3 for the seat of the disease is patient represents the “last scene strictly confined to the upper and of all that ends this strange and lower extremities. Thus the bones terrible history." Probably he is become shortened, drawn up alnot inuch over thirty, but his most to a vanishing-point. The malady has reached even his arnis, malady proceeds, as it were, by which are pulpy and intiated, and leaps—fingers, wrist, elbow, and the skin resenibles the rough rind humerus. Strangely enough, the of a boiled orange.

His ear

uails are leprous-proof; and thus lobes are dangling down in gro one may see a patient apparently tesque lamps; luge kuols are with only half an arm, from the disposed about his cheeks; his stump of which five perfect fingernostrils are swollen monstrously; nails project. Here is an anæsthe nape of his neck is scarcely thetic case in its incipient stage; to le distinguished ; and shocking, he has lost the power of completely shocking beyond my powers of extending his fingers, the first and description, is a gigantic excres nerer-failing synıptoin, due to the

on the side of his head, tendons connecting the joints which has disfigured hin almost Laving beconie wasted

away. Leyoud recognition as a human Otherwise the patient looks well being. His eyes are directed to enough, fairly well nourished, and wards us with an expressionless of a fairly good aspect, were it not tixity, his body is notionless; his for a sombre cloud indicating probwhole being seeins utterly torpid, ably his horror at what he knows


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