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ing of children by parents, or men-it requires of each that of subjects by rulers, not from love which worketh no ill to enmity but from misapprehen- its neighbour. Besides, if we sion respecting the nature of consider the dreadful amount acceptable services ?

How of human sacrifices which are much more shocking to sup- offered in the wars of Chris. pose that God can be pleased tians—the hatred, revenge and with human sacrifices offered inhumanity with which these under the influence of murder- sacrifices are made, and the ous ambition, insatiable ava- shocking extent of vice and rice, or implacable malignity misery produced by the cusand revenge! I can hardly tom-we shall see still greato i conceive of a more detestable

to wonder at the character, than that of a man blindness of Christians. Probwho can delight to see armies ably within the last 20 years a of his brethren wantonly and number of human beings has / maliciously butchering one a- been sacrificed by the wars of nother! How horrible then to Christendom equal to the pressuppose the Father of all is of

ent population of the U. States. such a character, that he can To this we may add millions witness with complacency and and millions more who have approbation such scenes of been wounded or bereaved, or carnage and nurder among reduced to wretchedness and his children! Yet such a de despair, by. these inhuman testable character is imputed

Nor is this all ; for to God by warring Christians; there is scarcely a vice or a for each of the parties at war crime that can be named, supplicates his aid, and ex- which is not authorized, enpects his approbation.

couraged, excited or nourish. It is probably a truth that ed by this detestabls custom. the people of every country If, therefore, the Christian's are blind in regard to the im- God is pleased with the cus-· morality of the vicious cus- tom of offering human sacri. toms in which they have been fices by war, he must be pleasseverally educated. Christians ed with every vice and crime in general, for many ages, which is forbidden by the goshave been as blind to the im- pel. morality of war, as the Hin- The Christian is shocked doos are to the evils of their when he reads Dr. Buchanpeculiar and sanguinary cus- nan's account of the scenes toms.

This blindness of which he witnessed at Jug. Christians, however, is far gernaut-the vast concourse more wonderful than that of of people, the blindness of the the Hindoos ; for the Books, worshippers, the human sacregarded as sacred by the Hin- rifices which were offered, doos, approve and require hu. and the piles of skulls and man sacrifices ; but our Gose bones occasioned by the mulpel of Salvation enjoins peace titude of former sacrifices. on earth and good will to all On reading these accounts the



Christian feels as though ter of the “Christian Resear. something should be done; ches." some great effort made to o

While therefore we applaud pen the cyes of the Hindoos, the benevolence which would and to abolish their dreadful convert the Hindoos to the Customs This is feeling as Christian faith, and abolish he ought to feel.

their human sacrifices-we Now let this same Christian should not overlook the intake the most authentic ac- consistency of Christians, nor counts of the modern wars of imagine that it is overlooked Christendommet him read by God. "All who are convinthe descriptions of the re- ced of this inconsistency Downed battles of Smolensko, should feel no less concern Borodino, Leipzig and fifty for warring Christians than others; let him compare these for superstitious pagans ; they scencs of havoc. and horror, should be no less willing to and the conduct of Christians exert themselves and to conon these occasions, with the tribuic of their property for jnost revoliing accounts of the the abolition of human sacri.' Hindoos given by Dr.

fices in Christendom, than in Buchanan ;-then let him India. Indeed, it is imporsay, in the fear of God, which tant that Christians should country affords the more hor- first cast the beam out of their rible scenes, and which people own eyes, that they may see chave the greater need of be- more clearly to pluck the ving converted to the Christian mote out of the eyes of their religion.

Hindoo brethren. Military Ambition, Avarice So long as the nations of and Revenge are the Jugger- Christendom shall continue in nauts of Christendom. To the practice of public war; these idols human sacrifices their missionaries to the heaare offered in numbers almost then, for the abolition of husurpassing belief, and in man sacrifices, must be sub

the most inhuman. ject to great embarrassments. Dr. Buchanan speaks of Jug. For the heathen may with pergernaut as the Moloch of the fect propriety affirm, that, bad Hindoos ; but Christians also as their customs are, they have their Moloche, more in- have not one

among them satiabic in their thirst for blood more inbuman, more impious or their demands for human

horrible than the sacrifices than the Juggernaut custom

which of India ; and the custom of Christians themselves have atwar which has been semi-de- tached the highest renown; ified throughout Christendom and that it cannot possibly be is, in my opinion, more fatal worse to offer human sacrifi. as well as more repugnant 10

ces after the manner of Hin. christian principles, than any doos, than after the manner of one of the Hindoo customs Christians. described by the worthy wri.

While Christians shall gen


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erally believe that public wars the precepts of the gospel, it are consistent with that spirit is just, reasoning from the of meekness, love and forbear. greater to the less, to infer, ance which the gospel that private murder, robbery, quires, the influence of Chris. and all the atrocious conduct tianity on the character of na- of the most abandoned inditions must be very inconsider. viduals in private life, are conable, compared with what it sistent with the christian reliwould be if the opposite opin- gion ; and on the whole, that ion were generally adopted. there is no such thing as morAs the popular opinion now is, al evil among men. the worst passions and the Hence we may safely conworst crimes which have any clude, either that Christians' place in the history of man, have been under the influence are sanctioned by public au- of strong delusions,” and thority, and practised as con have “believed a lie,'' in supsistent with the gospel of Je- posing that public wars sus Christ. But if the con- consistent with the prccepts. duct of rulers and nations in of the Messiah, or that the their public wars is not mor- Gospel, like the Kalikapurana, ally evil, but consistent with is an “ abominable Book.”




Objection 8. “We cannot penal laws given to the Israel.. conceive it to be reconcilable ites, were binding on them ; with the wisdom and goodness but I contend that none of of God, to have enjoined any those laws are binding on us. positive precepts upon any na- Obj. 9. “ But the matter is iion, in opposition to his mor- put beyond all doubt by a solal precepts. He never emn precep* which God gave pends, nor counteracts, nor to Noah soon after the deluge, commands his creatures to and consequently to all bis puscounteract his moral rules." terity. Gen. ix. 6. Whoso

Answer. The ways of God sheddeth man's blood, by mali are past finding out! I will shall his blood be shed : for mention some facts. God com- in the image of God made he manded Abraham to sacrifice

That this is a moral his innocent son Isaac ! This precept which was to stand ila appears to be a command to full force in all ages of time, counteract the moral rule, is erident, because a moral Thou shalt not kill. I will reason is given to enforce it. grant that the command given If it remains true in all ages, to Abraham was binding on that God made man in his own him ; but I contend that no image, then the command to other father is bound by the destroy the life of the muis command, given to Abraham, derer, founded on this reason, to perform a similar act. In continues in fuil forge and vide like manner I grant that the



Answ. In order to discover proviso, or exception. In the the true meaning of this text, 5th verse men are warned not I think it is necessary to at- to shed any human blood; betend to some of the next pre- cause God will require it at ceding verses. Verse 3. “ Ev- their hands. And lest that cry moving thing that liveth awful denunciation should shall be meat for you ; even

prove insufficient to deter as the green herb have I give blood-thirsty man from comen you all things.”

When mitting the atrocious crime, inan was first created, God in the sixth verse they are gave him the herbs of the warned of the consequences, field, and the fruit of trees, for which in this life generally food. And in this verse, for follow the bloody deed ; as efthe first time, he grants him fects will follow their causes ; permission to eat the flesh of namely; that by so doing they animals. " Every moving put their own lives in jeoparthing that liveth shall be meat dy. It rouses in the survi. for you." The expression is vors, all the vindictive pasunlimited and universal. It sions, jealousies and fears for includes the whole genus of their own safety, that are imanimals, or living creatures, planted in our nature. And of which mankind forms one these have generally been sufspecies. But we find two im. ficient to cause the blood of the portant exceptions to this gen- murderer to be shed; and eral rule in the two next ver- thus the fore-warning in the

Verse 4. " But flesh text hath generally been verwith the life thereof, which is ified. I consider this text, in the blood thereof, shall ye not connection with the context, eat." Here the eating of the not as a command to shed the blood of all animals is forbid, blood of the murderer, but as den. Verse 5. "And surely a most solemn warning to evyour blood of your lives will I ery man not to take away the l'equire : at the hand of every life of any human being, for beast will I require it : and at food, or on any pretence whatthe hand of man ; at the hand of every man's brother, will I In the first place I would require the life of man.” I premise that our auxiliary verb would ask what other lan- shall, does not always imply a guage could have been used, command. It is frequently u. ihat wouid have impressed on sed by the translators of the the mind of man a higher Bible in lieu of the verb will, sense of the sacred importance as declarative of something to and inviolability of his life ! happen in future. Our Sa. This verse is a solemn denun- viour said to his disciples, ciation against the shedding of “One of you shall betray me." any human blood : and is in And again, “ He that dippeth perfect concord with the sixth with we in the dish shall becommandment, which abso- tray me." These are not to lutely forbids it, without any be considered as commands,





but only as declarations of pals for other crimes and prewhat would come pass, tences, or when perfectly in. Our three words shall be shed, nocent. The best estimate are expressed by one word in that I can make on my acseveral ancient languages, and quaintance with the history the same word stands for will of man from the days of Noah be shed.

to the present time, is, that of I consider the reason the many thousands who have signed, “For in the image of been subjected to death by God made he man," that is, all civil tribunals, not one out of mankind, as being good a. twenty (perhaps I might say, gainst all shedding of human not one out of an hundred) blood; because all men, even hath suffered for the crime of murderers, are made in the murder.

Hence we may

safe. image of God. This reason ly conclude that all those who assigned in the text, instead have been favoured with diof supporting the construc, vine revelation have not in. tion given to it by the objec. Aicted capital punishments in tor, appears to me to be in di. obedience to any supposed rect contrast and opposition command in this chapter. It to it, and is, in my opinion, an is further evident from the irrefutable argument against practice of all nations who the effusion of any human have been favoured with di. blood !

vine revelation, that they have Obj. 10. « This command to not viewed this text as a di. punish the murderer with yine command to put all murdeath, hath been viewed as derers to death, because the binding on all mankind in ev. chief magistracy, in all nations ery period of the world, by that we are acquainted with, such as have been favoured have constantly claimed and with divine revelation; and exercised a right of reprievo they have acted accordingly, ing or pardoning all convicts from age to age, down to the for murder, as well as for all present time."

other crimes. Now if they Answ. It seems that the ob. had considered this text as jector does not pretend to have containing a “positive comdiscovered in this chapter a mand from God binding on all divine command to inflict cap: mankind to punish the mure ital punishments for any crime, derer with death,” they would except murder. Now if man- not have claimed and exercis. kind had restricted capital ed a prerogative of pardoning, punishments to the crime of or rescuing from that penalty, murder, there would have those whom God had sentenbeen some plausible grounds ced to it. for his assertion. But it ap- Obj. 11. « The shedding of pears from all history, sacred innocent blood is a crime of and profane, that vast numbers such a horrid nature, that, in of the human race have been numerous instances, such as put to death by judicial tribu. have perpetrated it, bn a cool Vol. VI. No, 8.


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