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is distributed.

^ 1. The produce sometimes shared among three classes 145

2. — sometimes belongs undividedly to one 145

3. — sometimes divided between two 146

Chapter IV. Of Competition and Custom.

% 1. Competition not the sole regulator of the division of the produce . 147

2. Influence of custom on rents, and on the tenure of land ... 148

3. Influence of custom on prices 149

Chapter V. Of Slavery.

§ 1. Slavery considered in relation to the slaves ........ 151

2. — in relation to production 152

3. Emancipation considered in relation to the interest of the slave-

owners 153

Chapter VI. Of Peasant Proprietors.

§ 1. Difference between English and Continental opinions respecting

peasant properties 155

2. Evidence respecting peasant properties in Switzerland .... 156

3. — in Norway 159

4. — in Germany 161

5. — in Belgium 164

C. — in the Channel Islands 167

7. — in France 168

Chapter VII. Continuation of the same subject.

§ 1. Influence of peasant properties in stimulating industry .... 171

2. —in training intelligence 172

3. — in promoting forethought and self-control 173

4. Their effect on population . . . • . 174

5. — cn the subdivision of land 180

Chapter VIII. Of Metayers.

§ 1. Nature of the metayer system, and its varieties . ..... 183

2. Its advantages and inconveniences 184

3. Evidence concerning its effects in different countries ..... 185

4. Is its abolition desirable? . , 191

Chapter IX. Of Cottiers.

11. Nature and operation of cottier tenure 193

2. In an overpeopled country its necessary consequence is nominal

rents 195

3. — which are inconsistent with industry, frugality, or restraint on

population 196

(L Ryot tenancy of India 197

Chapteb X. Means of abolishing Cottier Tenancy.

PACTS

§ 1. Irish cottiers should be converted into peasant proprietors . . . 199

2. Present state of this question 204

Chapter XI. Of Wages.

§ 1. Wages depend on the demand and supply of labour—in other

words, on population and capital 207

2. Examination of some popular opinions respecting wages . . . 208

3. Certain rare circumstances excepted, high wages imply restraints

on population 211

4. — which are in some cases legal 213

5. — in others the effect of particular customs 214

6. Due restriction of population the only safeguard of a labouring

class 21G

Chaptee XII. Of Popular Remedies for Low Wages.

% 1. A legal or customary minimum of wages, with a guarantee of

employment 218

2. — would require as a condition, legal measures for repression of

population 219

3. Allowances in aid of wages 221

4. The Allotment System 223

Chapteb XIII. The Remedies for Low Wages further

considered.

% 1. Pernicious direction of public opinion on the subject of population 225

2. Grounds for expecting improvement 227

3. Twofold means of elevating the habits of the labouring people:

by education 230

4. — and by large measures of immediate relief, through foreign and

home colonization 231

Chapter XIV. Of the Differences of Wages in different

Employments.

% 1. Differences of wages arising from different degrees of attractive-

ness in different employments 233

2. Differences arising from natural monopolies 236

3. Effect on wages of a class of subsidized competitors 238

4. —of the competition of persons with independent means of sup-

port 240

5. Wages of women, why lower than those of men 242

6. Differences of wages arising from restrictive laws, and from combi-

nations 243

7. Cases in which wagas are fixed by custom ........ 244

Chapteb XV. Of Profits.

% 1. Profits resolvable into three parts; interest, insurance, and wages

of superintendence 245

2. The minimum of profits; and the variations to which it is liable . 246

% 3. Differences of profits arising from the nature of the particular em-

ployment 247

4. General tendency of profits to an equality 248

5. Profits do not depend on prices, nor on purchase and sale . . . 251

6. The advances of the capitalist consist ul timately in wages of lahour 252

7. The rate of profit depends on the Cost of Labour 253

Chapteb XVI. Of Rent.

§ 1. Rent the effect of a natural monopoly 255

2. No land can pay rent except land of such quality or situation, as

exists in less quantity than the demand 255

3. The rent of land consists of the excess of its return above the

return to the worst land in cultivation 257

1. — or to the capital employed in the least advantageous circum-

stances 258

6. Is payment for capital sunk in the soil, rent, or profit? .... 259

6. Rent does not enter into the cost of production of agricultural

produce 262

BOOK III.

EXCHANGE.

Chapter L Of Value.

§ 1. Preliminary remarks 264

2. Definitions of Value in Use, Exchange Value, and Price.... 265

3. What is meant by general purchasing power' 265

4. Value a relative term. A general rise or fall of Values a contra-

diction 266

5. The laws of Value, how modified in their application to retail

transactions 267

Chapter IT. Of Demand and Supply, in their relation to Value.

§ 1. Two conditions of Value: Utility, and Difficulty of Attainmeut . 268

2. Three kinds of Difficulty of Attainment 269

3. Commodities which are absolutely limited in quantity .... 270

4. Law of their value, the Equation of Demand and Supply . . . 271

5. Miscellaneous cases falling under this law 272

Chapter III. Of Cost of Production, in its relation to Value.

§ 1. Commodities which are susceptible of indefinite multiplication

without increase of cost. Law of their Value, Cost of Production 274

2. — operating through potential, but not actual, alterations of supply 275

Chapter IV. Ultimate Analysis of Cost of Production.

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