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CHAPTER II.

OF LABOUR AS AN AGENT OF PRODUCTION. $ 1. The labour which terminates in , smelters who extracted or prepared the production of an article fitted for the iron of which the plough” and some human use, is either employed other implements were made. These, directly about the thing, or in previous however, and the plough-maker, do not operations destined to facilitate, perhaps depend for their remuneration upon essential to the possibility of, the sub- the bread made from the produce of sequent ones. In making bread, for | a single harvest, but upon that made example, the labour employed about from the produce of all the harthe thing itself is that of the baker; vests which are successively gathered but the labour of the miller, though until the plough, or the buildings and employed directly in the production fences, are worn out. We must add not of bread but of flour, is equally part yet another kind of labour; that of of the aggregate sum of labour by transporting the produce from the place which the bread is produced; as is of its production to the place of its also the labour of the sower, and of the destined use : the labour of carrying reaper. Some may think that all these the corn to market, and from market persons ought to be considered as em to the miller's, the flour from the ploying their labour directly about the miller's to the baker's, and the bread thing; the corn, the flour, and the from the baker's to the place of its final bread being one substance in three consumption. This labour is somedifferent states. Without disputing times very considerable : flour is transabout this question of mere language, ported to England from beyond the there is still the ploughman who pre- Atlantic, corn from the heart of Russia ; pared the ground for the seed, and and in addition to the labourers immewhose labour never came in contact | diately employed, the waggoners and with the substance in any of its states; sailors, there are also costly instruand the plough-maker, whose share in ments, such as ships, in the constructhe result was still more remote. All tion of which much' labour has been these persons ultimately derive the re expended : that labour, however, not de muneration of their labour from the pending for its whole remuneration upon bread, or its price : the plough-maker the bread, but for a part only; ships as much as the rest; for since ploughs being usually, during the course of their are of no use except for tilling the soil, existence, employed in the transport of no one would make or use ploughs for many different kinds of commodities. any other reason than because the in To estimate, therefore, the labour of creased returns, thereby obtained from which any given commodity is the rethe ground, afforded a source from sult, is far from a simple operation. which an adequate equivalent could be The items in the calculation are very assigned for the labour of the plough numerous—as it may seem to some maker. If the produce is to be used persons, infinitely so; for if, as a part or consumed in the form of bread, it is of the labour employed in making from the bread that this equivalent bread, we count the labour of the must come. The bread must suffice | blacksmith who made the plough, why to remunerate all these labourers, and not also (it may be asked) the labour several others; such as the carpenters of making the tools used by the blackand bricklayers who erected the farm smith, and the tools used in making those buildings; the hedgers and ditchers tools, and so back to the origin of who made the fences necessary for the things? But after mounting one or two protection of the crop; the miners and steps in this ascending scale, we come into a region of fractions too minute / subsistence. He cannot obtain food for calculation. Suppose, for instance, itself in any abundance; for every that the same plough will last, before mode of so obtaining it, requires that being worn out, a dozen years. Only there be already food in store. Agrione-twelfth of the labour of making the culture only brings forth food after the plough must be placed to the account lapse of months; and though the of each year's harvest. A twelfth part labours of the agriculturist are not of the labour of making a plough is an necessarily continuous during the whole appreciable quantity. But the same set period, they must occupy a consideraof tools, perhaps, suffice to the plough- ble part of it. Not only is agriculture maker for forging a hundred ploughs, impossible without food produced in which serve during the twelve years of advance, but there must be a very their existence to prepare the soil of great quantity in advance to enable as many different farms. A twelve- any considerable community to suphundredth part of the labour of making port itself wholly by agriculture. A his tools, is as much, therefore, as has country like England or France is only been expended in procuring one year's able to carry on the agriculture of the harvest of a single farm : and when present year, because that of past years this fraction comes to be further appor-has provided, in those countries or tioned among the various sacks of corn somewhere else, sufficient food to supand loaves of bread, it is seen at once port their agricultural population until that such quantities are not worth the next harvest. They are only taking into the account for any prac-enabled to produce so many other tical purpose connected with the com- things besides food, because the food inodity. It is true that if the tool which was in store at the close of the maker had not laboured, the corn and last harvest suffices to maintain not bread never would have been produced ; only the agricultural labourers, but a but they will not be sold a tenth part large industrious population besides. of a farthing dearer in consideration of The labour employed in producing his labour.

this stock of subsistence, forms a great

and important part of the past labour § 2. Another of the modes in which which has been necessary to enable labour is indirectly or remotely instru- present labour to be carried on. But mental to the production of a thing, there is a difference, requiring partirequires particular notice: namely, I cular notice, between this and the other when it is employed in producing sub kinds of previous or preparatory labour. sistence, to maintain the labourers The miller, the reaper, the ploughman, while they are engaged in the produc the plough-maker, the waggoner and tion. This previous employment of waggon-maker, even the sailor and labour is an indispensable condition to ship-builder when employed, derive every productive operation, on any their remuneration from the ultimate other than the very smallest scale. product--the bread made from the corn Except the labour of the hunter and on which they have severally operated, fisher, there is scarcely any kind of or supplied the instruments for opelabour to which the returns are imme- rating. The labour that produced the diate. Productive operations require food which fed all these labourers, is as to be continued a certain time, before | necessary to the ultimate result, the their fruits are obtained. Unless the bread of the present harvest, as any of labourer, before commencing his work, | those other portions of labour; but is possesses a store of food, or can obtain not, like them, remunerated from it. access to the stores of some one else, That previous labour has received its in sufficient quantity to maintain him remuneration from the previous food. until the production is completed, he In order to raise any product, there are can undertake no labour but such as needed labour, tools, and materials, and can be carried on at odd intervals, food to feed the labourers. But the concurrently with the pursuit of his tools and materials are of no use except for obtaining the product, or at least from the ultimate product; but there are to be applied to no other use, and is this difference, that here the ultimate the labour of their construction can be product has to supply not only the remunerated only from the product profit, but also the remuneration of the when obtained. The food, on the con- | labour. The tool-maker (say, for intrary, is intrinsically useful, and is ap- stance, the plough-maker) does not inplied to the direct use of feeding human deed usually wait for his payment until beings. The labour expended in pro- the harvest is reaped; the farmer adducing the food, and recompensed by vances it to him, and steps into his it, needs not be remunerated over again place by becoming the owner of the from the produce of the subsequent plough. Nevertheless, it is from the labour which it has fed. If we suppose harvest that the payment is to come ; that the same body of labourers carried since the farmer would not undertake on a manufacture, and grew food to this outlay unless he expected that the sustain themselves while doing it, they harvest would repay him, and with a have had for their trouble the food and profit too on this fresh advance ; that the manufactured article ; but if they is, unless the harvest would yield, bealso grew the material and made the sides the remuneration of the farm tools, they have had nothing for that labourers (and a profit for advancing trouble but the manufactured article it), a sufficient residue to remunerate alone.

| the plough-maker's labourers, give the The claim to remuneration founded plough-maker a profit, and a profit to on the possession of food, available for the farmer on both. the maintenance of labourers, is of another kind; remuneration for abstinence, I § 3. From these considerations it apnot for labour. If a person has a store pears, that in an enumeration and clasof food, he has it in his power to con- sification of the kinds of industry which sume it himself in idleness, or in feed- are intended for the indirect or remote ing others to attend on him, or to fight furtherance of other productive labour, for him, or to sing or dance for him. we need not include the labour of proIf, instead of these things, he gives it ducing subsistence or other necessaries to productive labourers to support them of life to be consumed by productive during their work, he can, and natur- labourers ; for the main end and purally will, claim a remuneration from the pose of this labour is the subsistence produce. He will not be content with itself; and though the possession of a simple repayment; if he receives merely store of it enables other work to be done, that, he is only in the same situation this is but an incidental consequence. as at first, and has derived no advan- The remaining modes in which labour is tage from delaying to apply his savings indirectly instrumental to production, to his own benefit or pleasure. He will may be arranged under five heads. look for some equivalent for this for- First: Labour employed in producing bearance: he will expect his advance materials, on which industry is to be of food to come back to him with an afterwards employed. This is, in many increase, called in the language of busi- cases, a labour of mere appropriation ; ness, a profit; and the hope of this extractive industry, as it has been aptly profit will generally have been a part of named by M. Dunoyer. The labour of the inducement which made him accu- the miner, for example, consists of opemulate a stock, by economizing in his rations for digging out of the earth own consumption ; or, at any rate, substances convertible by industry into which made him forego the application various articles fitted for human use. of it, when accumulated, to his personal Extractive industry, however, is not ease or satisfaction. The food also confined to the extraction of materials. which maintained other workmen while Coal, for instance, is employed, not producing the tools or materials, must only in the processes of industry, but in have been provided in advance by some directly warming human beings. When one, and he, too, must have his profit so used, it is not a material of production, but is itself the ultimate product. / material into what may be termed So, also, in the case of a mine of pre- prepared material. In strictness of cious stones. These are to some small speech, almost all food, as it comes extent employed in the productive arts, from the hands of the agriculturist, is as diamonds by the glass-cutter, emery nothing more than material for the and corundum for polishing, but their occupation of the baker or the cook. principal destination, that of ornament, is a direct use; though they commonly § 4. The second kind of indirect require, before being so used, some pro labour is that employed in making cess of manufacture, which may per tools or implements for the assistance haps warrant our regarding them as of labour. I use these terms in their materials. Metallic ores of all sorts are most comprehensive sense, embracing materials merely.

all permanent instruments or helps to Under the head, production of mate-production, from a flint and steel for rials, we must include the industry of striking a light, to a steam ship, or the wood-cutter, when employed in the most complex apparatus of manucutting and preparing timber for build- facturing machinery. There may be ing, or wood for the purposes of the some hesitation where to draw the line carpenter's or any other art. In the between implements and materials; forests of America, Norway, Germany, and some things used in production the Pyrenees and Alps, this sort of (such as fuel) would scarcely in comlabour is largely employed on trees of mon language be called by either name, spontaneous growth. In other cases, popular phraseology being shaped out we must add to the labour of the wood-by a different class of necessities from cutter that of the planter and culti those of scientific exposition. To vator.

avoid a multiplication of classes and Under the same head are also com- denominations answering to distincprised the labours of the agriculturists tions of no scientific importance, poliin growing flax, hemp, cotton, feeding tical economists generally include all silk-worms, raising food for cattle, pro- things which are used as immediate ducing bark, dye-stuffs, some oleaginous means of production (the means which plants, and many other things only are not immediate will be considered useful because required in other de- presently) either in the class of implepartments of industry. So, too, the ments or in that of materials. Perlabour of the hunter, as far as his haps the line is most usually and most object is furs or feathers; of the shep-conveniently drawn, by considering as herd and the cattle-breeder, in respecta material every instrument of producof wool, hides, horn, bristles, horse-hair, tion which can only be used once, being and the 'like. The things used as | destroyed (at least as an instrument materials in some process or other of for the purpose in hand) by a single manufacture are of a most miscel- employment. Thus fuel, once burnt, laneous character, drawn from almost cannot be again used as fuel ; what every quarter of the animal, vegetable, can be so used is only any portion and mineral kingdoms. And besides which has remained unburnt the first this, the finished products of many time. And not only it cannot be used branches of industry are the materials without being consumed, but it is only of others. The thread produced by useful by being consumed ; for if no the spinner is applied to hardly any part of the fuel were destroyed, no use except as material for the weaver. heat would be generated. A fleece, Even the product of the loom is chiefly again, is destroyed as a fleece by being used as material for the fabricators of spun into thread; and the thread canarticles of dress or furniture, or of not be used as thread when woven further instruments of productive in- into cloth. But an axe is not dedustry, as in the case of the sailmaker, stroyed as an axe by cutting down a The currier and tanner find their tree: it may be used afterwards to whole occupation in converting raw | cut down a hundred or a thousand more; and though deteriorated in single use. Implements, on the con some small degree by each use, it does trary, being susceptible of repeated not do its work by being deteriorated, employment, the whole of the products as the coal and the fleece do theirs by which they are instrumental in bringbeing destroyed ; on the contrary, it is ing into existence are a fund which the better instrument the better it re- can be drawn upon to remunerate the sists deterioration. There are some labour of their construction, and the things, rightly classed as materials, abstinence of those by whose accumuwhich may be used as such a second lations that labour was supported. It and a third time, but not while the is enough if each product contributes product to which they at first contri- a fraction, commonly an insignificant buted remains in existence. The iron one, towards the remuneration of that which formed a tank or a set of pipes labour and abstinence, or towards inmay be melted to form a plough or a demnifying the immediate producer for steam-engine; the stones with which advancing that remuneration to the a house was built may be used after it | person who produced the tools. is pulled down, to build another. But this cannot be done while the original § 5. Thirdly: Besides materials product subsists; their function as for industry to employ itself on, and materials is suspended, until the ex- implements to aid it, provision must be haustion of the first use. Not so with made to prevent its operations from the things classed as implements; they being disturbed and its products inmay be used repeatedly for fresh work, I jured, either by the destroying agencies until the time, sometimes very distant, of nature, or by the violence or rapaat which they are worn out, while the city of men. This gives rise to anwork already done by them may sub- other mode in which labour not sist unimpaired, and when it perishes, employed directly about the product does so by its own laws, or by casual- | itself, is instrumental to its production; ties of its own.*

namely, when employed for the protecThe only practical difference of much tion of industry. Such is the object of importance arising from the distinction all buildings for industrial purposes; between materials and implements, is all manufactories, warehouses, docks, one which has attracted our attention granaries, barns, farm-buildings de in another case. Since materials are voted to cattle, or to the operations of destroyed as such by being once used, agricultural labour. I exclude those the whole of the labour required for in which the labourers live, or which their production, as well as the absti- | are destined for their personal accom. nence of the person who supplied the modation : these, like their food, supply means of carrying it on, must be actual wants, and must be counted in Temunerated from the fruits of that the remuneration of their labour. # The able and friendly reviewer of this

There are many modes in which labour treatise in the Edinburgh Review (October 1848) conceives the distinction between materials and implements rather differently: The herdsman has little other occupaproposing to consider as materials “ all the things which, after having undergone the tion than to protect the cattle from change implied in production, are them harm : the positive agencies concerned selves matter of exchange," and as imple in the realization of the product, go on ments (or instruments) “the things which are employed in producing that change, but

nearly of themselves. I have already do not themselves become part of the ex mentioned the labour of the hedger and changeable result." According to these definitions, the fuel consumed in a manufac

To these must be added that of the tory would be considered, not as a material, but as an instrument. This use of the terms soldier, the policeman, and the judge. accords better than that proposed in the text, with the primitive physical meaning of

employed exclusively in the protection the word “material ;" but the distinction on which it is grounded is one almost irrelevant

ht of industry, nor does their payment to political economy.

constitute, to the individual producer,

the

re

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