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LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

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On the raising of Olive Trees." _Trials in the shutter, the ray was made to fall upon have been frequently made, but without a prism, such as those which are usually success, to multiply the olive by sowing the employed in experiments in the primitive seeds ; it has always been found necessary colours. The spectrum which resulted from either to employ cuttings, or to procure wild the refraction was received upon a skreen ; plants from the woods. One of the inhabit- all the rays were intercepted except the vioants of Marseilles, astonished to find that we let, in which was placed a needle, for the cannot obtain by cultivation what nature purpose of being magnetized. It was a produces spontaneously, was led to reflect plate of thin steel, selected from a number upon the manner in which the wild plants of others, and which, upon making the were produced. They proceed from the trial, was found to possess no polarity, and kernels, which kernels have been carried not to exhibit any attraction for iron filings. into the woods, and sown there by birds, It was fixed horizontally on the support by who have swallowed the olives. By the act means of wax, and in such a direction as to of digestion, these olives have been deprived cut the magnetic meridian nearly at right of their natural oil, and the kernels have angles. By a lens of a sufficient size, the become permeable to the moisture of the whole of the violet ray was collected into a earth, the dung of the birds has served for focus, which was carried slowly along the manure, and, perhaps, the soda which this needle, proceeding from the centre towards dung contains, by combining with a portion one of the extremities, and always the same of the oil which has escaped digestion, may extremity, taking care, as is the case in the also favour germination. From these con common operation of magnetizing, never to siderations the following experiments were go back in the opposite direction. After made :

operating in this manner for half an hour, A number of turkeys were caused to swal- the needle was examined; but it was not low ripe olives; the dung was collected, found either to have acquired polarity or a containing the kernels of these olives, the sensible attraction for iron filings. The prowhole was placed in a stratum of earth, and cess was then continued for 25 minutes was frequently watered. The kernels were more, 55 in the whole, when the needle was found to vegetate, and a number of young found to be strongly magnetic; it acted plants were procured. In order to produce powerfully on the compass, the end of the upon olives an effect similar to that which needle which had received the influence of they experienced from the digestive power the violet ray repelling the north pole, and of the stomach, a quantity of them was ma the whole of it attracting and keeping suscerated in an alkaline lixivium ; they were pended a fringe of iron filings. then sown, and olive plants were produced It is stated, that a clear and bright atfrom them as in the former experiment. mosphere is essential to the success of the

This ingenious process may be regarded experiment, but that the temperature is inas a very important discovery, and may be different. At the time when the above exapplied to other seeds besides that of the periment was made, about the end of April. olive, which are, in the same manner, so the

temperature was rather cool than warm, oily, as that, except under some rare cir Blue Iron Earth. The blue iron earth, cumstances, the water cannot penetrate them or native Prussian blue, as it was formerly and cause their developement. Of this de- called, has been found in many parts of the scription is the nutmeg, which will seldom Continent of Europe, and also in Iceland and vegetate in our stoves ; but which, perhaps, in Shetland ; but it had never been discoverwould do so, was it submitted to the action ed in the island of Great Britain, until it of the stomach, or of the alkaline solution. was observed by Dr Bostock, at Knotshole,

On the Magnetizing Power of the Violet near Liverpool. On the north-east bank of Rays of the Solar Spectrum.—The reported the Mersey, about a mile and a half above discovery of M. Morichini, respecting the the town, a small glen, or dingle, is formmagnetizing power of the violet rays, which ed, apparently by a fissure in the brown was scarcely credited in this country, has sandstone, which, in this place, rises up to received the confirmation of Professor Play- the edge of the water ; the sides of the dinfair, as related in one of the late Numbers gle are covered with brush-wood, and at the of the Bibliotheque Universelle. He gives bottom is a flat swampy pasture. The upthe following account of an experiment of per stratum of the soil of the pasture is which he was a witness, and which was per- chiefly sand, mixed with a little vegetable formed by M. Carpe :

mould ; but at the depth of four or five feet, After having received into my chamber a there is a body of stiff white clay, mixed solar ray through a circular opening made with a considerable quantity of vegetable

matter, consisting principally of the roots

and stems of different species of rushes, and Journ. Phram. de March 1817. other aquatic plants.

Improvement in the purification of Coal- last Number, Mr J. H. viz. that the parGas. It is sufficiently known, that the pro- ticles of water ascend upward from the duction of carburetted hydrogen obtained sea, in the phenomenon called a water from coal, and its fitness for the purpose of spout : illumination, varies much according to the “ Barkworth, Dec. 11, 1816, lat. 4° circumstances under which the gas is obtain. N. long. 1290 E. (having passed through ed, and the means employed for purifying the Siao channel yesterday) at 11 A.M. the it. To deprive coal-gas of that portion of officer of the watch, Mr Dudman, came sulphuretted hydrogen, with which it is als down and informed me there had been ways more or less contaminated, it has hith a whade blowing close to the ship for several erto been made to act on quicklime, either minutes, and that it was continuing to do in a dry state, or combined with water in so. I then, from curiosity, went upon deck, particular vessels, so constructed as to bring and was surprised to find it was the vortex a large surface of the lime into contact with of a water spout, within one hundred yards the gas. This method must naturally be of the ship, on the windward quarter :very imperfect, on account of the feeble ac ordered a gun to be got ready, by which tion of sulphuretted hydrogen upon lime. In time it had passed under the stern, within proof of this statement, the gas supplied to thirty yards of the ship, which afforded us this metropolis, need only be examined in an excellent opportunity of observing this in the following manner : Collect a four wonderful phenomenon. ounce phial full of the gas, in a wash-hand “ The space it occupied upon the sea was bason, or other vessel full of water, in the apparently about thirty feet in circumferusual manner, and then plunge into it a slip ence, and the water so much agitated in the of paper moistened with a solution of nitrate centre, as to be quite frothy, ascending in a of "silver, or super-acetate of lead. The spiral form in visible particles like rain, and paper will instantly acquire a brown colour. making a rushing noise about as loud as

A new method of getting rid of the sul. the blowing of a whale continued, and comphuretted hydrogen gas has been lately re- municating with a spout* depending from sorted to with success ; and the facility, a black cloud over head, gradually passing cheapness, and expedition, with which this to leeward, and disappearing about a mile process may be employed in the large way, off.”Phil. Mag. for April 1818. give reason to believe that it will be highly New Alkali.—The experiments of Arbeneficial to the manufacturer of coal-gas vedson, relative to the discovery of the new in general. The process consists in passing alkali called lethson, have been confirmed crude coal-gas, as it is disengaged from coal, in France by M. Vanquelin. through a heated iron cylinder, or other Ice.- As every fact relative to the state vessel, containing fragments of metallic of the Arctic regions is now of more than iron (the waste clippings of tinned iron will usual interest, we transcribe the following do very well), or any oxide of iron at a mi. postscript to the journal of the brig Jemima, nimum of oxidation ; for example, clay which sailed last summer from London to iron-stone, so disposed as to present as large the Moravian Missions in Labrador :a surface as possible : by this means the sul. “The captain and mate report, that though phuretted hydrogen becomes decomposed by for these three years past they have met The metallic iron, and the gas is obtained in with an unusual quantity of ice on the coast a pure state. This iron, if in a state of a of Labrador, yet in no year since the com. metal, acquires by this process a crystalline mencement of the mission in 1769, has it structure, and affords abundance of sulphu- appeared so dreadfully on the increase. The retted hydrogen by the affusion of dilute colour likewise of this year's ice was difsulphuric or muriatic acid, a proof that it is ferent from that usually seen, and the size converted into a sulphuret ;-a quantity of of the ice-mountains and thickness of the sulphuric and sulphureous acid is likewise fields immense, with sand-stone imbedded collected at the extremity of the vessel. in them.” As a great part of the coast of The gas thus treated, affords no disagree- Greenland, which for centuries has been able odour during combustion, and its pu- choaked up with ice, apparently immoverity is attested by its not acting upon the able, has, by some revolution been cleared, solutions of lead, silver, or any of the white perhaps this may account for the great quanmetals.

tity alluded to. Water Spouts. The following observations of Captain Thomas Lynn, commander • We could not perceive the communicaof the East India Company's ship Bark. tion with the spout, the particles being toe worth, afford a striking corroboration of minute for the eye to discern much above the statement of the ingenious writer in our the sea, but we had no doubt of the fact.

WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION.

LONDON.

Paintings, and some Notice of his Essays in

the Public Journals. The Rev. James Raine, of Durham, has Captain Bosquett's long promised Treacirculated a prospectus of the History and tise on Duelling will be published this Antiquities of North Durham, with engra month. vings from designs of Mr Edward Blore, in In the press, and speedily will be puba folio volume.

lished, a new edition, considerably im. Mr Blore has also made a set of drawings proved, of Dr Withering's Systematic Arfor the Rev. Mr Hunter's History and An rangement of British Plants, with an easy tiquities of Hallamshire, which will like. Introduction to the Study of Botany ; illuswise make a folio volume, and contain many trated by copperplates, in four volumes, interesting particulars respecting the Talbot 8vo. family, as well as many topographical and A Chronological History of Voyages into antiquarian memoirs.

the Arctic Regions, for the Discovery of a Síf Richard Colt Hoare has prepared a Northern Passage between the Atlantic and third and supplemental volume to the Rev. Pacific Oceans, from the earliest period to Mr Eustace's Classical Tour through Italy: the present time; accompanied with a geneIt is intended to complete the labours and ral Description of the Arctic Lands and supply the omissions of that traveller, and Polar Seas, as far as hitherto known; by to describe such parts of Italy as he had not John Barrow, F. R. & L. S. 2 vols &vo. visited, and others have rarely explored. The history of the early voyages and discoThe author has enlarged its contents by a veries of the maritime nations of Europe is Tour round the whole island of Sicily, an distributed among such a multitude of large, Account of Malta, an Excursion to Pola in expensive, and scarce books, which are selIstria, and a description of the celebrated dom looked at for the purpose of being read, monasteries of Montserrat in Spain, and the that a brief abstract of the various efforts Grande Chartreuse in France.

that have been made for the discovery of a Speedily will be published, a translation northern passage, by the east and by the of Extracts from a Journal kept in Green west, between the Atlantic and Pacific Land in the years 1770 to 1778, by Hans Oceans, accompanied with a general descripEgede Saabye, formerly missionary there ; tion, from the most authentic and some ori. with an Introduction respecting the way of ginal sources, of the arctic lands and polar Life of the Greenlanders, the Mission in seas, may, at least, serve as a preparative Greenland, and other subjects connected for the history of the proceedings of the two with it, by Mr G. Fries.

expeditions now pending, which have atDr Aikin is preparing an Enlargement tracted, and deservedly so, no common share of his England Delineated, under the title of the public attention of European nations: of England Described.

and in this view it is hoped the present work A Life of John Howard the Philan. will not be deemed altogether superfluous thropist, by Mr Brown, in one volume 4to, nor unacceptable. will speedily make its appearance.

The proprietors of the Rev. H. J. Todd's The first volume of the Transactions of edition of Dr Johnson's Dictionary beg to the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, inform the public, that they are preparing is expected to be ready for publication in an Abridgement of that valuable work, unthe course of May.

der the direction of the editor, which will A new volume on the Diseases of the be very soon published. Eye, by the late Mr Ware, is in the press. Prince Hoare, Esq. is preparing for the

A volume of Sermons, by the Rev. James press, Memoirs of the late Granville Sharp, Bryce of Calcutta, will speedily appear. Esq. composed from his own MSS. and

Mrs Darke, of Calne, has in the press a other authentic documents, which will form volume of Sonnets and other poems.

a quarto volume. Mr Papworth will shortly publish an James Morier, Esq. has in great forwardarchitectural work of original designs for ness, a Second Journey through Persia and villas, ornamented cottages, lodges, park Constantinople, in 1810-16, in a quarto entrances, &c. many of which are tasteful, volume, with maps, coloured costumes, and elegant, and useful.

other engravings. The Travels in Egypt, Nubia, Holy Lieut.-Col. Johnson is printing, in a Land, Mount Libanon, and Cyprus, by quarto volume, a Narrative of an Overland Captain Light, are nearly ready for public journey from India, performed in the preeation, in one volume 4to, with plates, in sent year, with engravings of antiquities, cluding a view of Jerusalem.

costume, &c. Mr William Carey is preparing for the Capt. Bonnycastle, of the royal engineers, press, a Biographical Sketch of B. R. Hay- is preparing for publication, Spanish Amedon, Esq. with Critical Observations on his rica, or an Account of the Dominions of

Spain in the Western Hemisphere, illus- Lecturer on Mineralogy, and Keeper of the trated by maps.

Museum in the University of Edinburgh, 1 Lieut. F. Hall, late military secretary to vol. 12mo. General Wilson, governor of Canada, has A Treatise on the Covenant of Grace ; by in the press, Travels in Canada and the John Colquhoun, D. D. Minister of the United States of America, in 1816-17. Gospel, Leith.

The Rev. Oliver Lodge has in the press, The Angler's Vade Mecum ; containing Lectures on the Gospel of St Matthew, in a Descriptive Account of the Water Flies, an octavo volume.

their Seasons, and the kind of Weather that A System of Divinity, in a series of Ser- impels them most on the Water; the whole mons, by the late Dr Timothy Dwight of represented in 12 coloured plates : to which Connecticut, is printing in five octavo vo is added, a Description of the different Baits lumes, accompanied with a Life of the Au- used in Angling, and where found ; by W. thor.

Carrol, post 8vo. The Rev. Peter Roberts has in the press, In the press, and speedily will be publisha Manual of Prophecy, or a View of the ed in 3 vols, Saint Patrick: a National Tale Prophecies contained in the Bible, and the of the Fifth Century; by an Antiquary. Events by which they were fulfilled.

In the press, and speedily will be pubT. Walford, Esq. will soon publish, in lished, in 1 vol. 4to, with maps and illustwo pocket volumes, the Scientific Tourist trative engravings, Account of the Kingdom through England, Wales, and Scotland.- of Nepal ; by Francis Hamilton, (formerly The Scientific Tourist through Ireland is Buchanan), M.D. Fellow of the Royal Soalso in the presso

cieties of London and Edinburgh, and of

the Societies of Antiquaries, and of the LinEDINBURGH.

nean and Asiatic Societies. Dr Macleay of Glasgow, who furnished In the press, and speedily will be pubseveral Anecdotes respecting Rob Roy, lished, in 3 vols 8vo, with maps, a Statistiwhich appeared in Blackwood's Edinburgh cal and Historical Account of the United Magazine, has in the press, and will imme. States of America, from the period of the diately publish, Historical Memoirs of that first establishments to the present day, on a celebrated character and the Clan Macgre- new plan ; by W. D. Warden, formerly gor, including Original Notices regarding Consul-General of the United States at Paris. Lady Grange; a Prefatory Sketch, illustra In the press, and speedily will be pubtive of the condition of the Highlands prior lished, in 8vo, Reports of Cases Tried in the to the year 1745, will also be given ; and Jury Court; by Joseph Murray, Esq. Adthe whole will comprise such authentic in- vocate, from the Institution of the Court in formation, characteristic of Highland Cus- 1815, to the Sittings at Edinburgh, ending toms and Manners, from sources only ac in March 1818. cessible to the writer, as have not before Whole length Portait of Henry Mackenbeen made known. The Work is expected zie, Esq. F.R.S.E. author of the Man of to be out in the course of next month ; and Feeling, &c. The Public are respectfully it will be accompanied with an excellent informed, that it is proposed to publish a Likeness, from the only Original Painting Print, from the Picture painted by Mr Ged. extant, of Rob Roy.

des, and esteemed a striking likeness by Mr We understand that the “ New Tales of Mackenzie's friends. The Portrait will be my Landlord,” 4 vols 12mo, will be pub- engraved in the line manner, about the size lished next month.

of 16 inches by 11, by that able artist, Mr Historical Account of Discoveries in the Richard Rhodes of London ; and as the Seas and Countries round the North Pole,' Picture will be delivered immediately into illustrated by maps ; by Hugh Murray, his hands for that purpose, the Subscribers F.R.S.E. author of an Historical Account of may depend upon having the work as speedi. Africa, &c. 1 vol. 8vo.

ly executed as the nature and attention of A General View of the Structure, Func- such an undertaking demands. tions, and Classification of Animals, with The Rev. Professor Mearns of Aberdeen, plates and illustrations, adapted in a parti- has in the press, an Essay on the Principles cular manner to facilitate the Study of Bri- of Christian Evidence ; containing Strictures tish Zoology ; by John Fleming, D. D. on Dr Chalmers' Evidences of Revelation. F.R.S.E. M.W.S. &c. 2 vols 8vo.

Professor Dunbar is engaged in preparAccount of the Hebrides, or Western Is- ing an additional volume to Dalzel's Col. lands of Scotland, particularly with regard to lectanea Majora, to contain the following Geology; together with Observations on their Extracts, with Notes, selected and original, Scenery, Antiquities, and Agriculture ; by chiefly explanatory of the Text; Ist, Æs. J. Macculloch, M.D. F.R.S. 2 vols 8vo, chinis Oratio adv. Ctesiphontem ; 2d, Dewith a volume of illustrative engravings in mosthenis Or. pro Corona ; 3d, Thucydidis 4to.

Hist. lib. vii.-Ist, Æschyli Prometheus Elements of Geology, with illustrative Vinctus et Septem adv. Thebas ; 2d, Soplates ; by Robert Jameson, 1 vol. 8vo. phoclis Philoctetes ; 3d, Euripidis Alcestis ;

Manual of Mineralogy; by Robert Jame- 4th, Euripidis Cyclops ; 5th, Aristophanis son, Regius Professor of Natural History, Plutus et Vubes.

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A Treatise on Soils and Manures, as National Society's Schools ; by Jeremy founded on actual experience, and as com Bentham, Esq. ' £1. bined with the leading principles of Agri A Letter on certain Errors of the Anticulture ; in which the Theory and Doctrines nomian kind, which have lately sprung up of Sir H. Davy, and other Agricultural in the West of England, and are now making Chemists, are rendered familiar to the expe an alarming Progress throughout the Kingrienced Farmer. 58.

dom ; by the Rev. John Simons. 4s.

Part 1. of a Compendium of the Holy Anecdotes of the Life of Richard Watson, Scriptures, for the use of Families ; dediBishop of Landaff, written by himself at cated, by permission, to the Hon. and Right different intervals, and revised in 1814 ; Rev. the Lord Bishop of Durham ; by a published by his son, Richard Watson, Layman of the Church of England, 4to. 8s. LL.B. Prebendary of Landaff and Wells; The First Part contains the Penta2 vols 8vo, with portrait. £1, 6s.

teuch : the whole will be comprised in A Critical Examination of the Bishop of seven or eight Parts, and continued monthLandaff's Posthumous Volume, entitled, ly. " Anecdotes of his Life.” Svo. 35.

Familiar Sermons on several of the DocAnnual Obituary, Vol. II. 1818. 155. trines and Duties of the Christian Religion;

Memoires et Correspondence de Madame dedicated, by permission, to his Grace the d'Epinay, où elle donne des détails sur ses Archbishop of York; by the Rev. William liaisons avec Duclos, J. J. Rousseau, Grimm, Barrow, LL.D. F.S.A.' Prebendary of the Diderot, le Baron d'Holbach, Saint Lam- Collegiate Church of Southwell, Vicar of bert, Madame d'Houdetot, et autres person- Farnsfield, Nottingham, and Author of an nages célèbres du dix-huitième siècle, 3 vols Essay on Education, and the Bampton Svo. 31s. 6d.

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a Council of the Church of England and

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Bond of Peace; humbly, but earnestly, CHRONOLOGY.

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Rev. the Lord Bishop of Lincoln, and the A neat edition of the Greek Septuagint, Rev. Thomas Scott.5s. with the Apocrypha, from the Oxford edition of Bos. £1, 8s.

Bellamira, or the Fall of Tunis, a traVOL. III.

2 F

BOTANY.

CLASSICS.

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