Object-Process Methodology: A Holistic Systems Paradigm ; with CD-ROM

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Springer Science & Business Media, 3 лип. 2002 р. - 453 стор.
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Object-Process Methodology (OPM) is a comprehensive novel approach to systems engineering. Integrating function, structure and behavior in a single, unifying model, OPM significantly extends the system modeling capabilities of current object-oriented methods. OPM system specification consists of a set of interrelated Object-Process Diagrams and an equivalent Formal English - a subset of natural English. The resulting graphic and textual system specification serves not only for communicating among system architects, domain experts, and prospective customers, but also for automated application generation.
OPM is a generic, domain-independent approach founded on the very basic elements of any system: objects and processes. As such, it is applicable to virtually any domain of business, engineering and science. Being intuitive and easy to understand and use, OPM enables system architects to document their natural train of thought. Equipped with a powerful holistic systems paradigm and relieved from the technicalities of unnatural languages, developers engage in creativity and discovery as they design complex system architectures.
The book presents the theory and practice of OPM with examples from various industry segments and engineering disciplines, as well as daily life.
 

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Зміст

A Taste of OPM
3
A Sneak Preview of OPM
5
13 Specialization and Inheritance
7
14 Aggregation and the Result Link
8
Summary
10
Problems
11
ObjectProcess Diagrams
13
22 Structural Relations and Structural Links
15
86 Specializations of the Involved Object Set Members
202
87 NonComprehensiveness
203
872 NonComprehensiveness of States and Values
204
Summary
205
Managing Systems Complexity
207
911 MiddleOut as the DeFacto Architecting Practice
208
912 Determining the Extent of Refinement
210
913 Towards Quantifying Complexity
211

23 Processes and Procedural Links
16
The TopLevel OPD
18
25 Zooming into the Transaction Executing Process
20
26 The OPD Set
21
27 How to Read an OPD
22
272 The Timeline in OPDs
23
28 Completing the InZoomed Transaction Executing OPD
24
281 Logical XOR AND and OR Operators
25
282 The System Map
26
283 The Ultimate OPD
27
284 Zooming Out of Transaction Executing
28
Summary
29
Problems
30
ObjectProcess Language
33
311 RealTime Textual Feedback
34
312 Closing the RequirementsImplementation Gap
35
321 The First OPL Sentence
36
322 The First OPL Aggregation Sentence
37
33 The OPL Paragraph and the GraphicsText Principle
38
331 Extending the OPL Paragraph
40
333 Transformation Sentences
41
334 The SD Paragraph
43
341 State Enumeration and Condition Sentences
44
342 AND XOR and OR Logical Operators
46
343 The SD1 Paragraph
47
344 InZooming and OutZooming Sentences
48
35 Boolean Objects and Determination Sentence
49
351 Boolean Condition Sentences
50
36 OPDOPL Item Pairs and Synergy
52
Problems
53
Objects and Processes
55
411 Objects
56
412 Transformation and Processes
57
42 Processes and Time
59
422 Syntactic vs Semantic Sentence Analysis
60
423 The Process Test
61
43 Things
62
431 Things and Entities
63
432 The Perseverance of Things
64
433 The Essence of Things
66
434 Symbolizing Physical Things
68
435 The Origin of Things
70
438 The Relativity of Object and Process Importance
71
44 Informatical Objects
72
442 Systems and Information Systems
73
443 Translation of Informatical Objects
74
45 Object Identity
75
451 Change of State or Change of Identity?
76
452 Classes and Instances of Objects and Processes
77
Summary
78
Concepts of OPM Systems Modeling
81
Dynamics
83
512 Change and Effect
84
513 Explicit and Implicit Status Representations
85
514 The Input Output and Effect Links
87
515 State Suppression and the Effect Link
88
516 State Expression
89
52 Existence and Transformation
90
521 Result and Consumption Links
92
522 Procedural Links Enablers and Transformees
93
524 Agents
94
526 Enabling Links
95
527 Transformees
96
The Invocation Link
97
53 Object Roles with Respect to a Process
98
531 Enablers and Affectees
99
533 Condition and Agent Condition Links
100
534 Operator Operand and Transform?
101
Summary
102
Structure
105
611 Structural Links
106
612 Structural Relation Directions
108
613 Unidirectional Structural Link
109
615 The Reciprocity of a Structural Relation
110
616 Null Tags and Their Default OPL Reserved Phrases
111
617 Structural Relations as Static Verbs
112
62 Participation Constraints and Cardinality
113
622 Parameterized Participation Constraints
114
623 Range Participation Constraints
115
624 Shorthand Notations and Reserved Phrases
116
625 Cardinality
117
626 Participation Constraints in Procedural Relations
119
63 The Distributive Law and Forks
120
631 Forks
121
632 Fork Degree
123
633 Fork Comprehensiveness
124
64 The Transitivity of Structural Relations
125
65 The Four Fundamental Structural Relations
126
Summary
129
Problems
130
Aggregation and Exhibition
133
711 AggregationParticipation as a Tagged Structural Relation
135
712 The AggregationParticipation Symbol
136
713 Sets and Order
137
714 Aggregate Naming
138
715 Aggregating Processes
139
72 Aggregation Hierarchy and Comprehensiveness
141
722 Aggregation Comprehensiveness
142
724 Participation Level and Aggregational Complexity
143
Underlying Concepts
144
731 The Name ExhibitionCharacterization
145
733 Attribute and Operation Are Features
146
734 Exhibition Complexity
147
74 Features in OO vs OPM
148
75 The Four ThingFeature Combinations
151
751 The ObjectAttribute Combination
152
753 The ProcessAttribute Combination
154
754 ProcessOperation Combination
155
76 The Feature Hierarchy
156
77 FeatureRelated Natural Language Issues
157
772 Reserved Objects and the Measurement Unit Reserved Object
159
773 Continuous Values and MultiValued Attributes
160
774 Mathematical Inequalities in OPM
162
782 The Mode of an Attribute
163
783 The Touch of an Attribute
164
784 The Source of a Feature
165
785 The Operation a Feature Carries
166
Problems
167
Generalization and Instantiation
171
811 Specialization Symbol and Sentence
172
812 Process Specialization
173
82 Inheritance
175
822 Structural Relations Inheritance
177
823 Procedural Link Inheritance
178
824 State Inheritance
180
825 State Specialization
181
826 Process Specialization
183
827 Generalization Complexity
187
831 Qualification Inheritance
188
832 Multiple Qualification Inheritance
189
84 ClassificationInstantiation
191
841 Classes and Instances
193
842 The Relation Between Instantiation and Specialization
194
844 Instance Qualification
196
845 Process Instances
197
846 Classification Complexity
198
852 Adjectives and Attributes
199
853 Adverbs and Operations
201
By Aspects or by Details?
212
921 Why is Detail Decomposition Good?
215
922 When Should a New OPD Be Created?
217
932 The Mode of Scaling
218
933 Controlling Visibility by In and OutZooming
221
934 The Distributivity of Procedural Links
223
935 Unfolding and Folding
224
936 State Expressing and Suppressing
227
937 Primary and Secondary Operands
230
942 Zoom consolidating
231
944 Zoom Consolidating Pitfalls
233
945 Zoom Consolidating Conditions
234
946 Fold Consolidating
235
951 Procedural Link Precedence
236
952 SemiFolding and SemiUnfolding
238
953 Selective SemiFolding and SemiUnfolding
240
The System Map and the OPM Construct Pairs
241
Summary
244
Problems
245
Building Systems with OPM
247
Systems and Modeling
249
1012 Function
251
102 System Defined
252
1021 System as a Relative Term
254
1023 The Function of Natural and Artificial Systems
255
1031 The Intent and Goal of Artificial Systems
256
1033 Function Structure and Behavior
260
1042 The Concept Behind a System
261
1043 The Origin and Essence of Systems
262
105 Objects Systems and Products
263
1052 The ObjectSystemProduct Hierarchy
264
1053 Goods Services and Projects
266
106 Documenting Functions of the System Architecture
267
1062 Function Boxes and Function Sentences
268
1063 Functionality
271
1071 Some Model Definitions
272
1081 Natural Language as a Modeling Tool
273
1082 Mathematical and Symbolic Modeling
276
1083 Graphic Modeling and Knowledge Representation
281
109 Reflective Metamodeling
283
Summary
285
Problems
286
System Lifecycle and Evolution
289
1111 Lifecycle of Artificial Systems
290
112 Systems Analysis and the Scientific Method
291
113 Categorization vs Interdisciplinarity
293
115 An OPM Model of System Lifecycle Phases
294
1151 TopLevel Description of System Evolution
295
1152 Initiating the System
297
1154 Analyzing
298
1155 The RefiningAbstracting Cycles
299
III
300
1157 The Waterfall Model vs Iterative and Incremental Development
301
1158 Deploying the System
302
116 Zooming into Analyzing
304
117 Zooming into Designing and Implementing
306
118 From Design to Implementation
308
Problems
309
States and Values
311
1211 Initial Ultimate and Default States
313
1212 The Transformation Attribute of a Process
314
1213 Object as a Role Player for State
315
1214 State Maintaining Processes
316
1215 Sentences and Phrases of States and Values
317
1216 Single Value Sentence
322
123 Metamodeling the Attributes of Value and Their States
324
1231 Numeric and Symbolic Values
326
124 Compound States and State Space
328
1241 The Attribute Feasibility Matrix
332
Summary
335
Problems
337
Advanced OPM Concepts
339
1312 Process Synchronization
340
1313 Events
341
1314 Chronon and Event
342
132 Process and State Duration
344
133 Processing states
346
134 Probability in Procedural Relations
348
135 Scope and Name Disambiguation
349
1351 The Fundamental DAG
350
1352 Scope of an Object
351
136 The Reserved Words of and which
352
1361 The Reserved Word of and the Dot Operator
356
1362 Using of with Tagged Structural Relations
357
A Process Without Side Effect
360
1371 Transitivity Strength
361
1372 Hamiltonian Distance
362
1374 Covariance and Contravariance
364
138 OPM Metamodeling Issues
365
1381 A Metamodel of Thing
366
1382 The SpecializationSpecification Hierarchy
368
1383 A Refined Generic Processing Model
369
1384 Time Exception Handling
371
139 The OPM Construct Hierarchy
372
Summary
374
Problems
376
Systems Theory
379
1411 Computers Are Climbing the Informatics Hierarchy
380
1412 Knowledge and Understanding
381
142 Ontology
382
143 General Systems Theory
383
1432 The Hierarchy of System Levels
385
144 Autopoietic vs Allopoietic Systems
387
146 Systems Theory Characteristics
388
1461 Previously Defined Characteristics
389
1463 Control and Feedback
390
147 Classical Physics vs Quantum Theory
393
1471 Visualization
394
1472 Causality
395
1475 Objectivity
396
Converting a Process into an Object
397
Summary
399
Problems
400
ObjectOriented Modeling
401
1511 Data Flow Diagrams
402
1513 The ObjectOriented Paradigm
403
1521 Object Modeling Technique
404
1523 ObjectOriented Analysis and ObjectOriented Design
405
1525 ObjectOriented Analysis Design
406
1527 The Booch Method
407
15210 OPEN Modeling Language
408
154 Metamodeling in OO Methods
410
156 Software Development Approaches and Trends
412
1563 Extreme Programming
413
1571 A Historic Perspective
414
1572 The Encapsulation Challenge
415
1574 Empirical Evidence of the Model Multiplicity Problem
417
158 OPMandOO
418
1581 The UML 20 Initiative
419
an OPM Supporting Tool
420
Present and Future
421
Summary
423
Problems
424
The ATM System
425
References
435
Index
443
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