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Edward IV., law against truck, 326. of laborers, 54; degradation of the
Edward VL, pauper legislation, 307, laboring population, how effected,
82-4; food habits of the people,
Egerton, H. B. M. Consul, inefficiency 118, 120, 124n.; ratio of breadwin-
of Russian labor, 44; irregularity of ners to dependents, 126n.; rise of
factory attendance, 48; feebleness the wages-fund doctrine, 140; the
of the industrial desires of the Rus peasantry divorced from the soil,
sian peasantry, 127n.; no factory 208, 211n.; effect on agriculture of
legislation in Russia, 362; strikes in the repeal of the corn laws, 258;
Russia, 396; "artels," 403.
co-operation in England, 272, 273,
Elizabeth, Queen, industrial legislation 282, 286, 287; laws iu restraint of la-
of her reign, 306, 307, 320.
bor, 301-9; poor laws, 319-24; mar-
Emigration of artisans from Great Bri riage statistics, 350, 381n.; factory
tain forbidden by law prior to 1824, laws, 359, 360; rents influenced by
public opinion, 367; legislation
Employers of labor sometimes working against strikes and combinations,
at their trades, or personally super 872, 393; friendly societies, 403.
vising the laborers, 10; the sense of Engel, Dr., relative expenditure of
their self-interest not always suffi-| families on food, clothing, etc., 116,
cient, 59, 60, 16+; profits their ob- . 117.
ject in production, 129, 130; em- Entrepreneur, the, (see Employing
ployers a distinct industrial class, Class).
227, 228 ; not necessarily capitalists Erle, Sir Wm., the law of strikes,
228, 229; under imperfect competi- 393 ; report of his commission on
tion employers are not the guardians Trade Unions, 399, 406.
of the laborers' interests, 239, 240, Exchange of Wealth defined, 4; illas-
358; the employer the master of the trated, 5, 6.
situation, 290, 291; incapable em- Exchange of distributed for undis-
ployers live at the expense of the tributed wealth, its effect on wages,
laboring class, 254-6; employers
stimulated by increased competition
on the side of the laboring class, Factory legislation in England op-
256-8; paid in some degree in honor posed by political economists, 163;
and social distinction, 259 ; said by its economical justification, 167, 175;
Adam Smith to be always in combi its history in Europe, 356-62.
nation to lower wages, 393.
Faithfull, Miss, public opinion un-
Employing class, the, chap. xiv. ; to friendly to female labor, 384.
be distinguished from the capitalist Famine, restricting population, 111,
class, 24, 245; a false employing 112; periodical in India, 118n.; Irish
class, 247-50 ; characteristics of the famine of 1846-7, 121.
true employing class, 251, 252; this Farmer, the American, 5, 9, 227.
class in Switzerland, 259, 260, it is Fashion, changes in, working import-
the object of co-operation to get rid ant effects on industry, 175-179.
ass, 262-8; has Fawcett, Henry, Political Economy
either the employed or employing | (McMillan, 1865), the Allotment syg-
class an economical advantage over tem, 2in.; food of the laborers of
the other? chap. xvi.
the West of England, 56; wages are
Employed, the, none others belong to to be increased at the expense of
the wages class, 206, 207; the dis profits, 57n., 233, 234; equivalency
tinction between the employed and of subsistence and wages, 133». ;
the non-employed the greatest struc differences in local wages in England,
tural fact of industrial society, 221. 187; transfer of labor from agricul-
Employment, the question of, is the ture to manufactures, 204; co-opera-
tr:18 wages question, 269, 270, 290, tion in agriculture, 281; strikes some-
291; regularity of, affecting real times successful, 389. The Econom-
wages, 26-33; continuity of, the em ic Position of the British Laborer,
ployers' interest in, 300-2.
laboring class insufficiently clotbed,
England, payment of agricultural 58; statement of the wage-fund
wages, 20; duration of laboring doctrine, 139; Speeches, truck, 336;
power, 34, 35; efficiency of labor opposition to the extension of female
compared with that of India, 49; of labor, 377. 37.n.; Daily News, con-
ean countries, 43-6: dition of agricultural laborers near
north and south of England, relative Salisbury, 316.
efficiency of labor of, 47; statistics Ffrench, Mr., higgling in Spanislı retail
of height and weight, 50, 51; food trade, 315n.
Fellows, J. testimony respecting | George IV., industrial legislation of
his reign, 394.
Finlaison, A. G., statistics of loss of Germany, payment of agricultural
t!me by sickness, 25n.; discovers wages in, 20: industrial code re-
error of British Government in sale quires payment of mechanics' wages
of annuities, 400, 401.
in money, 21 ; food habits of people,
Finnie, Mr., comparison of American 118; peasant proprietorship general,
Negro and East Indian laborer, 42n. 209; co-operation in Germany, 274,
Fix, Théodore, Les Classes Ouvrières. 287; restrictions on industry, 309;
Mining accidents rare in France, factory legislation, 360; strikes,
37n.; ill-success of strikes, 388.
Food, in its relation to laboring force, Germans easily adapting themselves
53-8; relative expenditure of dif- to the ways of other people, 187n.
ferent classes for, 117n.; habits in Gibbon, 29n., 257.
respect to, of various nations, 118-24; Gilbert's act (English Poor Law), 320,
is cheap food desirable? 121-4. 1 321.
France, payment of agricultural wages Gleaning of fields, in part payment of
in, 20; of mechanical wages, 21; du wages, 22.
ration of the laboring power of the Girdlestone, Canon, the agricultural
population, 34, 35; etficiency of la- laborers of England, 38; food of
bor compared with other countries, I Devon peasant, 56; unsanitary con-
43, 44, 46; North and South of, dition of dwellings in Devonshire, 61.
varying efficiency of labor, 47; sta- Goltz, Th. Frh, von der, Die Lage
tistics of height and weight, 51, food der Ländlichen Arbeiter im Deutschen
of the laboring population, 54; town Reich, 20
and country rents, 118n.; specch-dif- Gould, H. B. M. Consul; efficiency of
ferences among population, 175n.; Swiss factory labor, 44n. ; loss of
proportion of foreigners, 184; peas wages by school attendance, 123;
ant proprietorship general,' 209; industrial desires of the Swiss
frugality of the peasantry, 235; co peasantry, 127n. ; character of Swiss
operation in France, 274, 282, 287; ! employers, 259, 260; co-operation in
comparative freedom of industry, I Switzerland, 274, 282.
309; taxation under the old régime, Grattan, Consul,' intemperance in
317; marriage statistics, 356; factory Belgium, 78n.
legislation, 360, 361; laws against Great Britain, consumption of liquo: 8,
strikes and combinations, 394, 395; L 349; savings bank statistics, 350;
friendly societies, 402.
friendly societies, 403.
Francis, Sir P., good work not appre-Greece, holidays in, 29; efficiency of
ciated in Turkey, 60n.
Fraser, Mr., economy of woman's Greek Church, holidays in, 29.
labor, 381. '
Greenhow, Dr., the effects on health
Free Traders, distinguished from the of dry-grinding the metals, 36 : the
"Manchester" school, 161, 162. heat in copper mines, 38n.
Frugality, amongst Irish in America, Greg, W. R. Social Enigmas, 103.
124; proportionately greater among Guilds, predecessors of the modern
laborers than among employers, 235; Trades Unions, 228 , remains of, in
not encouraged by large and sudden Europe, 309; their beneficial influ-
rise of wages, 236; encouraged by ence, 405.
co-operation, 271, 272; giving the
wages class an advantage in compe- | Hallam, Henry, Constitutional History
tition for the product of industry, of England, 369n.
Haines, W. P., married women in
Gairdner, Prof. unsanitary condition Harmonies, the Economic, 160, 197,
of Glasgow, 61.
220, 221, 240, 316.
Gallatin, Albert, the industrial free- Harrison, Frederick, 183, 272, 277n.,
dom of the United States, 181n. 279n., 291n.
Gangs, agricultural, in England, 201. Hastings, Geo. W., facility of the
Gardeners, longevity of, 87, 401n. poor in becoming paupers, 3!4.
Garnier, Jos., Traité d' Économie Poli- Head, Mr., statistics of retail trading,
Geometrical increase of population, Hearn, Prof. Plutology, 27, 67, 76
195, 196, 246.
George III., industrial legislation of Heath, Mr., English Peasantry, 21
his reign, 306, 320, 359, 303, 391. 23, 24.
Henry VI, industrial legislation of Ireland, the pig formerly paying the
his reign, 392.
rent, 24; duration of the laboring
Henry VIII., industrial legislation of power in, 34, 35; inefficiercy of labor
his reign, 320
before the famine, 43, 45, 46; sta-
Herries, Mr., payment of wages in tistics of height and weight, 50; food
Italy, 21; co-operation, 282; factory of the laboring population, 55; un-
legislation, 362; strikes, 396 ; | sanitary condition of dwellings, 61 ;
friendly societies, 4(3.
proverbial indolenco of the popula-
Hindoos, loss of time by holidays, 29; 1 tion accounted for, 76; the famino
inefficiency of labor, 42.
of 1846-7, 111; food habits of the
Hirt, Dr., Krankheiten der Arbeiter, people, 118; tenure of the soil, 213;
relations between landlord and ten-
Holidays, loss of time by, 29; pre ant influencing rents. 368-7.
scribed by factory legislation, 360, Irish, in America, their frugality, 124;
their accidental location, 182; in
Holmes, H. B. M. Consul, good work | England, jealousy of, 176n; their
not appreciated in Bosnia, 60n. early marriages at home and abroad,
Holyoake, George J., extent of waste 355.
in production, 48n; co-operation, Italy, payment of wages in sulphur-
mining 21 ; peasant proprietorship
Hopefulness in labor, 72-7.
increasing, 209; public sentiment
Hopper, R. W., strikes never success protects the cultivator, 2119;
co-operation, 282; factory legislation,
Horner, L., Employment of Children 362; rents influenced by public
in Factories, 167, 360.
opinion, 368; strikes, 396; friendly
Hours of labor, 167, 168, 359-62
Hungary, the nobles of, freeing their
serfs, 74, 75; taxation under the old Jarvis, Edward, cost of rearing chil-
dren to be charged against their
Hunter, Dr., Famine Aspects of India, wages, 33n., 34n.
Jefferson, Th., the paper money of the
Huskisson, Mr., free trade in labor, American revolution, 16.
Johnson, Dr., eggs and pence in the
Immigrants into the United States, Johnston, Prof., Notes on North Amer.
accidents of their location, 181-3; | ica, 92n.
into France, Macedonia, and Corsica, Jones, Richard, Political Economy, 43,
125n., 208, 2iin., 213n., 215, 217.
Improvements, unexhausted, in agri- Justices of the peace (England), em-
powered to fix the rates of wages,
India, efficiency of labor in, 42, 46; | 306; must be landed proprietors, 366.
ineffective machinery employed, 67 ; |
famines, 112; food habits of the Kane, Dr., Industrial Resources of
people, 118; immobility of the pop- Ireland, 43, 79, 80.
Industry, manufacturing, incessant provements stimulated by industrial
movement of, 178.
Inglis, H., 24, 61, 76.
Kennedy, J. G., strikes in Belgium,
Insurance, Life, is expensive and fails | 395.
to reach the working classes,
Labor, often performed by the person
Intelligence, a factor of the laborer's who supplies capital in production,
efficiency in production, 65-7; in 8; mobility of labor essential to com-
fluences the distribution of the pro petition, 163; can labor be accumu.
lated and saved ? 292-4.
Intemperance lowers the efficiency of Labor, cost of, real distinguished from
labor, 78, 87; the great foe to fru-i nominal, 40; efficiency of, causes of
gality, 349, 350.
differences in the, chap. iii. ; in con-
Interest, the term used in this treatise nection with natural agents deter
only of sums paid for capital actual- mines the amount that can be paid
ly loaned, 225, 226; is interest atl, in wages, 151.
the minimum? 234.
Labor-power, its duration an element
Inventions constitute an economical in determining wages, 33, 402; cont
reason for Acrease of wages, of rearing children to age to labor,
Labor question, not identical with the Marriage, procrastination of, 354, 355;
wages question, 206.
statistics of age at marriage, 356;
Lalorers, the several classes of, 9; the effects of recent social causes in
statute of, 305, 392.
diminishing marriage, 381..
Laing, Samuel, Notes of a Traveller, Massachusetts Colony, industrial legis.
71; Denmark and thë Duchies, 309;. lation of, 305, 306, 327.
Tour in Sweden, 310.
Maurice (and Tallon), Legislation sur
Laissez Faire, a practical rule, not a le Travail des Enfants, 361.
principle of universal application, McCulloch, J. R. Political Economy,
162, 168; applied to truck, 336; to 105, 109n., 120n., 121n.; Commer-
factory legislation, 357-9; to strikes cial Dictionary, 350n..
and trades unions, 385, 386. McDonnell, Survey of Political
Lamport, Charles, effect of unsanitary Economy, 282.
conditions upon life and laboring Medical profession, duration of life in
1 the, 37.
Land, tenure of, in different countries, Metayer tenancy, 211, 212.
Mill, James, Political Economy, 144%
Laveleye, E. de., the orthodox political Mill, John Stuart, Political Economy
(Little & Brown, 1848), the allot-
Lecky, History of Rationalism in Eu ment system, 25n.; influence of the
rope, 29n., 405n.
imagination in economics, 77n.; the
Legal profession, duration of life in, degradation of the English laboring
population, 82n., 83n.; "diminish-
Legislation in aid of labor, 168-73, ing returns” in agriculture, 96n.;
356-62; in restraint of labor, 302-9. working-classes as consumers of
Leighton, Sir B., concession of Cow manufactured goods, 125” the
wage fund doctrine, 143 .; tae law
Leslie, T. E. Cliffe, Land Systems of of international values, 196, 197;
Ireland and the Continent, 213n. co-operation, 282; the office of cus-
Levi, Leone, estimated number of tom, 311, 313, 314; small means
working days in the year, 31.
produce no effect in elevating a peo-
Liquors, consumption of.' in Great!
ple, 345n.: effect on wages of the
Britain, 349, 350.
ownership of property by the wages
Lock-outs affecting the regularity of class, 318; women as artisans, 379;
Some Unsettled Questions of Politi-
Locock, Mr., food of the laboring pop cal Economy, the economio mar.
ulation of the Netherlands, 66n.; | 174, 175, The Fortnightly Review,
wage fund doctrine, 139, 140.
Longe, F. D., Refutation of the Wage Mining, accidents in, to be considered
Fund, etc., 132n.
in computing the wages paid, 36n.;
Lytton, Mr., cooperation in Austria, sulphur, in Italy, paymentot wages, 21.
238; the corporation system, 310. Mobility of labor essential to competi-
tion, 163; actual mobility of labor,
Macadam, Dr. S., analyses of drink chap. xi.; interference by law with,
ing water, 65.
307-9; (see chaps. xviii., xix., pas-
Macaulay, 'T. B., History of England, sim); diminished in the case of wo-
men by physiological causes, and by
Macedonia, its winter population aug their failure to receive the support
mented by immigration, 187n. of publio opinion, 377-8.
Mahon, Lord, History of England, Money, the purchase-power of, affect-
ing nominal wages, 13.
Machinery, waste of, with ignorant Morris, O'Connor, religious differ-
labor, 67; disturbances introduced ences in Ireland, 3691.
by machinery into labor, 178, 189. Muggeridge, Mr., immobility of Eng-
Malet, Mr., factory legislation in lish labor, 185 ; testimony respect-
ing frame-rents, 334, 335.
Malthusianism, chap. vi., cf. p. 357. Mulholland, John, comparative cost
Manchester School of Political Econ of clothing from cotton and from
omy, 161, 162, 336.
" Manchester Unity," the, its financial Mandella, A. J., superior efficiency of
North of England laborers, 47.
Mansfield, Lord, the incidence of taxa-
Napier and Ettrick, Lord, intellectual
Martineau, H., History of England, relations of England and America,
30, 170n., 822.
Nationality, affecting the efficienoy of tions in paper money placing the
wages class at a disadvantage, 310-8
“Necessary Wager," the doctrine of, Parsimony of employers opposed to
true economy, 58, 59, 164.
Neison, Dr., statistics of mortality in Payment of wages, variety in form of,
various trades, 37.
19; payments in kind, 324-7.
Netherlands, the food of the laboring Paupers in England in 1833 better fed
population of, 56; habits respecting than independent laborers, 57; labor.
dwellings, 118n. ; proportion of for ers, once become paupers, seldom
eigners, '184; marriage statistios, recover tone, 88; English laws of
e of factory legislation, pauper settlement. 308, 309.
362; strikes but little known, 395; Peasant proprietorship of land, 5, 9,
trade clubs, 402.
New England, food habits of the peo- Pennant, Th., Tour in Scotland, 324.
ple, 123, 124.
Perry, A. L., Political Economu. 138.
Newmarch, Wm., factory legislation, 139, 143; The Financier, 81, 82, 253.
Peto, Sir M., testimony' respecting
Newman, F. W., Lectures on Political truck, 329.
Petre, Mr., payment of agricultural
Nicholls, šir George, History of the wages in Prussia, 20n.; the practice
English Poor Laws, 321.
of "wandering" in manual trades in
Nominal distinguished from real Germany, 187n.
wages, 12; causes which produce the Phipps, Mr., married women but little
divergence, 13 et seq.
employed in factories in Würtem-
Nominal distinguished from real cost berg, 383n.
of labor, 40; causes which produce Piece-work, how to compute the wages
the divergence, 41 et seq.
Normandie, M., report on savings Pig, permission to keep, 23; formerly
banks in Europe, 350.
paying the rent in Ireland, 24.
ford, real distin- | Political Economy, the orthodox, 155 •
guished from nominal wages, 38, 39. the d priori school, 175.
Norway, marriage statistics, 356; Poor Laws, English, 308, 309; effect
on wage labor, 319-22.
Norwegians in the United States, 182. Population, Malthus' law of, chap. vi.
Porter, G. 'R., The Progress of the
Occupation, change of, frequent ne- Nation, 12; Statistical Journal, 350.
cessity for, 178; Adam Smith's view, Potato, the, its use as the sole article
192, 193 ; Prof. Cairnes' view, 193;1 of food, 121-4.
his theory of "Non-Competing | Poverty the curse of the poor. 166.
Groups," 195-202;change of occupa- Prices and Wages, 13; differences in
tion formerly forbidden or restricted local prices introduce great complex-
by law in England, 306, 307; women, ity into computations of wages, 17.
by 37 Edward IL., allowed to inter- Production furnishes the measure of
change trades, 379n.; access to trades wages, chap. viii.; continuity of,
restricted by “union" regulations, the employer's interest in, 298, 299.
Profits, certain classes of laborers paid
Ollivier, M., the act (France) of May from profits, not from revenue, 9;
25, 1864, 394.
profits, the object in giving employ-
Opinion, public, influential in deter ment, 128-30, 291 ; the expectation
mining wages, 362-69; in determin of profits the test of wage labor, 216,
ing rents, 369-72.
the term made by some economists
Organization of industry conducing to include the wages of supervision
to efficiency, 67-72.
and management. 10: in this treatise
it signifies the gains of the employer,
Painting, house, irregularity of em aside from the returns of capital, 230;
ployment in, 28, 32.
are excessive profits restored to
Pakenham, Mr., the food of Belgian wages ! 237-9; are profits at the
minimum? 252-61; rates of profit,
Palgrave, Consnl, good work not ap 268.
preciated in Anatolia, 60n.
| “Protective" Tariffs supported by ar-
Palmor, C. M., the removal of labor guments which confound wages
and the cost of labor, 41. .
Paper money, changes in circulation Prussia, relative expenditure of differ-
affecting nominal wages, 14; of the ent classes for food, clothing, etc.,
American Revolution, 16; fluctua- | 117n.; factory legislation, 360, 361