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are aggregated, especially where other than manual power is employed. Factory acts prohibiting labor for all classes beyond the term which physiological science accepts as consistent with soundness and vigor; restricting within limits carefully adapted to the average capability of effort and endurance the employment of children and of women also, so long at least as women are denied suffrage on the ground either of mental inferiority or sexual unfitness for contact with what is rough and vile; and providing a full and frequent sanitary inspection of air and water, from garret to cellar, in all buildings thus occupied: acts like these seem, at least in the present, to be justified and demanded, not more by social and moral than by economical considerations (pp. 357–9). For it must ever be borne in mind, in such discussions, that those things are economically justified which can reasonably be shown to contribute, on the whole and in the long run, to a larger production, or, production remaining the same, to a more equable distribution of wealth.

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Adams, John, the paper money of the Avarice, in masters and employers,
American Revolution, 16.

opposes true self-intereste 59,
Agricultural wages paid largely in 164.
kind, 20-4; agricultural laborers in
England crippled early by rheuma- Babbage, Charles, Economy of Man
tism, 38; agricultural truck not for- ufactures, 98, 257, 279n., 280n.,
bidden in England, 327.

Agriculture, great irregularity of em- Bagehot, Walter, varying efficiency of

ployment in, 27, 28, 32, 33 ; law of labor, 47; Lombard Street, 230.
*Diminishing Returns" in, chap. v.; Baines, Mr., improvidence of the
difficulty of applying co-operation to, cottage population of Leeds,
280, 281.

Air, purity of the, affecting the effi- Baker, R. Smith, false economy of
ciency of labor, 604.

the labor of married women in fac-
Alison, Sir Archibald, History of tories, 382n.

Europe, 51, 75n., 118n., 1337, Bastiat, Fred’k., Harmonies of Polite
180n., 268n., 317, 318, 355, 397n. ;|_cal Economy, 159n.
(Report on the Payment of Wages Batbie, M., Nouveau Cours de l'Écon-
Bilt, 1854), testimony respecting_omie, 44n., 49n., 54, 65.
truck, 331-333.

Baxter, R. Dudley, Nalional Income,
Allotment system, the, 25.

30n., 31, 32, 38, 375n.; Local Taza-
Ames, Dr., Sex in Industry, 373. tion, 323.
Annuities,' mistake of the British | Bazley, Sir Thomas, accidents in
Government respecting sale of, 400, mining in England, 36n.

| Beaulieu, M., Les Populations Ouve
Applegarth, William, objects and rières, 78.
methods of the Amalgamated Soci- Belgium, statistics of height and
ety of Carpenters, 399.

weight, 50, 51; intemperance in,
Apprentices, statute of (England), 78n.; ratio of bread-winners to de
306, 307.

pendents, 126n.; proportion of for-
Apprenticeship made the condition of

eigners in the population, 184 ; co-op-
entrance to many trades by union eration in, 287; marriage statistics
regulations, 403-5.

of, 356; no factory legislation in,
Arbitration, 394.1

861 ; laws against strikes and com-
Argyle, Duke of, famine in India, binations in, 395.

118n.; necessity for restrictions Beverley,Mr., marriages early in India,
upon labor, 357.
Arithmetical' increase of subsistence, | Biggs, Wm., testimony respecting

frame rents, 334.
Ashworth, Mr., comparative cost of Birth-rate, within different oocupa-

clothing from cotton, wool, and flax, tions, 191; effect of injudicions poor

laws upon, 322, 323.
Austria, co-operation in, 288; restric-“Black Death," the, industrial conse-

tions upon industry, 309, 310;quences of, 304.
marriage statistics, *356; factory Blanqui, M., Cours d'Economie Imm
legislation, 360; strikes, 895.

dustrielle, 59n. 274n.

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Board, to agricultural laborers, 20, 21. I wages, ; 130, 131; yet wages are
Bodio, Louis, Casse di Risparmio, 350. largely advanced out of capital;
Bonar, Mr., relation of employers and does capital include land ? 224-5;
laborers in Switzerland, 200n.

are the returns of capital at the
Boot and shoe manufacture, irrege- minimum or not? 233, 237 ; does it

larity of employment in, 30; intro make any difference to the wages

duction of machinery into, 189. class whether the returns of capital
Brabazon, Lord, payment of agricul-l are at the minimum or not? 237-41.

tural wages in France, 20n.; food Capitalist class, the, chap. xü. ; not
of the laboring population, 56n., 78; / coincident with employing class,
town and country rents, 118n. ; | 2:29, 244, 245; dependent equally
wages of women and men in agricul with the laboring class, on the em-
ture, 375n., 380n.

ploying class, 290, 291.
Brassey, Thomas, Work and Wages, Carey, H. C., Essay on Wages, 141,

efficiency of labor among various 38:2m.
nationalities, 45, 46, 72; diet of Carpentering trade, irregularity of
East Indians, 118n.; payment of employment in, 28, 32.
wages to French laborers, 350n. ; Carpenters, the Amalgamated Socie-
women in railway construction, ty of, 399.

374n.; Address at Italifax, 277-278. Catholic countries, holidays in, 29;
Bread winners, ratio to dependents, priesthood, influence in favor of
126n., 191.

early marriages, 356n.
Brewster, Messrs., co-operative enter- Census, United States, 1870, 66, 180,
prise, 283n.

375; Ireland, 1851, 111; Scotland,
Briggs, Messrs., co-operative enter-| 1871, 175n., 191, 377.
prise, 282.

Chadwick, Edwin, cost of rearing a
Brickmaking, irregularity of employ child, 33n.; employers prefer high-
ment in, 28; employment of women priced labor, 41n.; effects of drill
and children in, 52, 202.

upon laborers; 72; difficulty of re-
Brittany, low stature of peasantry of, moving laborers, 185, 257 ; effects
50; langnage of, 175n.

of education upon the condition of
Britton, J. W.,co-operative enterprise, the laboring class, 353.

| Chalmers, Thomas, Political Econo-

my, 322...
Cairnes, J. E., Essays in Political Chamberlain, E. M., Sovereigns of In-

Economy, effects of the gold dis- dustry, 288n.
coveries on prices, 14n. ; the doc- “Chanuel Islands," the, tenure of
trine of laissez faire, 162n, 168, 173;l land in, 208.
insufficiency of the employers' sense Charles II. (England), industrial legis-
of self-interest, 164; The Slave Pow- lation of his reign, 308.
er, inefficiency of slave labor, 72; Chateaubriand, M., wages a later form
The Logical Method of Political of slavery, 295.
Economy, (Ed.1875) the law of dim- Cherbuliez, A. E., Précis de la Science
inishing returns in agriculture, 91n.| Economique, 131.

between population and I Cheerfulness in labor. 72-77.
subsistence, 119; the office of econo- Chevalier, M., Lectures, 99, 105n. 156,
mic definition, 218; Some Leading 170; Travels in the United States,
Principles of Political Economy, I 180n.
etc., 13in., 184; theory of “non- Children, irregularity of their employ-
competing groups," 195–7; profits ment in agriculture, 33; employed
the reward of abstinence, 231; || on work unsuited to their strength,
profits at or near the minimum, 52, 53, 167, 168, 201-3; legislation
233; excessive profits restored to respecting the employment of, 356-
wages, 237, 238, 253; co-operation, 62
264--265; are strikes successful ? China, food habits of the people, 118;
298n.; excessive friction of retail immobility of the population, 176."
trade, 314, 315.

China scourers, excessive mortality
Caird, James, dwellings in Scotland, among, 37.

61 ; Prairie Farming, 91n.; Cider truck, 23, 327.
Canada, efficiency of labor in, 45. Cleanliness of person, affecting efficien.
Cantillon, M., ratio of breadwinners cy of labor, 60, 61.
to dependents, 126n.

Clerical profession, duration of life in,
Capital, often supplied by the persons 37.

who perform labor in production, Clifford, Frederick, The Agricultural
8; does not furnish the measure of Lock-out of 1874, 47n., 117, 118


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Clipperton, Consul, speech differences, Currency, fictitions, effects upon wage

among population of France, 175n.I labor, 310-3.
Clothing, its importance to the effi- Custom, its office in protecting the

ciency of the laborer, 58; relative weaker classes against unequal com-
expenditure of different classes for, petition, 311.
111n.; is cheap clothing desirable ?
122; comparative cost of clothing Darwin, Charles, The Origin of Spe-

from cotton, wool, and flax, 122n. cies, 104.
Coinage, changes in, affecting nominal Debts, small: shall they be protect-
wages, 13

ed by law ? 350n.
Cobden, R., English peasantry di- Definitions in political economy, 218.
vorced from the soil, 208n.

Degradation of labor, the, chap. iv.
Colwell, Stephen, Ways and Mcans of Denmark, proportion of foreigners in
Payment, 13n.

the population, 184; co-operation in,
Competition, when perfect, secures an 287, 288; restrictions upon industry

absolutely' right distribution of removed, 309; savings-banks sta-
wealth, 157; imperfect or unequal tistics, 350n; strikes, 396; trade
competition may depress and de clubs, 402.
grade the laboring class, 165, 166, | Dependents, ratio to breadwinners,
220, 221,239-41, 368n, 385, 356 ; Prof. 126n. 191.
Cairnes' theory of "Non-competing Devon, Lord, his commission on the
Groups,” 195, 202, 221, 222; compe-l condition of Ireland, 370.
tition opposed by the force of cus- Diffusion theory of taxation, 160, 316-8.
tom, 311.

* Diminishing Returns" in agriculture,
Communal property in Switzerland, law of, chap. v. : does not apply to

mechanical industry, 98; affecting
Consumption of wealth defined, 4. wages, 150.
Consumptive co-operation, 283-8. Distribution of wealth defined, 4; il-
Co-operation, defined, 247; erroneous lustrated, 5, 6; in treating the ques-

characterization of, by Prof. Cairnes, tions of distribution we have to do
262-5; its real object is to get rid of with industrial classes, not funo-
the employing class, 265-8 ; antici tions, 7; the problem of distribution,
pated advantages of, 268-72; its lim chap. x.; deemed by Chevalier less
ited success, 272-75; its difficulties, important and difficult than the
275-80; applied to agriculture, 281; 1 problem of production, 156.
partial co-operation, 282-3; consump-Distributed exchanged for undistri-
tive co-operation subject to fewer buted wealth, the effect on wages,
difficulties, 283-4; anticipated ad- 219-223.
vantages of, 284-6; statistics of, Division of labor always a source of

mechanical advantage, 90, 35; up to a
Continuity of employment, the em-

ent, the em certain point tends to increase agri-
ployer's interest in, 300-2'

cultural wages, 147-9.
Continuity of production, the employ- Ducarre, M., Salaires et Rapports
er's interest in, 298-9.

entre Ouvriers et Patrons (1875),
Corn Laws, repeal of, effeot on English 87, 187n., 274, 309n., 341n., 394n.
agriculture, 258.

Dupin, M., his researches into French
Corsica, annual migration into, from industry, 47.
France, 18in.

"Dusty Prades," mortality of, 26.
Cotter tenancy, 9, 212.

Dwellings, laborers', often unfit for
Cotton manufacture, irregularity of habitation, 61-4; effects of unsani-
employment in, 30.

tary and inadequate habitation on
Cotton goods, cost of, compared with the moral elements of industry, 86 ;
woollens, 12.n.

proportional expenditure of different
Courcelle-Seneuil, M., Opérations de classes on lodging, 117.

Banque, 252.
Cowell, Mr., effect of English poor laws Earnings, extra, in trades, 24, 25;
on female chastity, 3:22.

harvest, in agriculture, 2011.
Cow-land, concession of, 23; profits Eden, Sir F. M., History of the Poor,
estimated, 24.

Coxe, Wm., Travels, the bearing of the Education, influence on efficiency of
Swiss peasantry, 260.

labor65-7; relative expenditure
Cranworth, Lord, strikes always futile, of different classes, for, 111n.; lose

of wages involved in, 123.
Crowe, H B. M. Consul - General, Elward III., industrial legislation of
strikes in Norway, 396.

' his reign, 304, 305, 307, 379.

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