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talk sensibly, and give rational answers. If this could be excusable in any writer, it would be in Ovid, where he introduces the echo as a nymph, because she was worn away into nothing but a voice. The learned Erasmus, though a man of wit and genius, has composed a dialogue 1 upon this silly kind of device, and made use of an Echo, who seems to have been a very extraordinary linguist, for she answers the person she talks with in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, according as she found the syllables

which she was to repeat in any of those learned languages. Hudi10 bras, in ridicule of this false kind of wit, has described Bruin be

wailing the loss of his bear to a solitary Echo, who is of great use to the poet in several distichs, as she does not only repeat after him, but helps out his verse, and furnishes him with rhymes a

He rag'd, and kept as heavy a coil as
Stout Hercules for loss of Hylas:
Forcing the valleys to repeat
The accents of his sad regret;
He beat his breast, and tore his hair,
For loss of his dear crony bear,
That Echo from the hollow ground
His doleful wailings did resound
More wistfully, by many times,
Than in small poets splay-foot rhymes,
That make her, in the r ruesul stories,
To answer to int'ıogatories,
And most unconscionably depose
Things of which she nothing knows?:
And when she has said all she can say,
'Tis wrested to the lover's fancy.
Quoth he, O whither, wicked Bruin,
Art thou fled to my-Echo, Ruin ?
I thought th’hadst scoru'd to budge a step
For fear; (quoth Echo) Marry guep.
Am not I here to take thy part ?
Then what has quelld thy stubborn heart?
Have these bones rattled, and this head
So often in thy quarrel bled a
Nor did I ever winch or grudge it,
For thy dear sake: (quoth she) Mum budget.
Think'st thou 'twill not be laid i'th'dish,
Thou turnd'st thy back? Quoth Echo, Pish.
To run from those th' hadst overcome
Thus cowardly? Quoth Echo, Mum.
But what a vengeance makes thee fly
From me too as thine enemy?

To things, &c.' in the original.

1

ANAGRAMS.

327

Or if thou hadst not thought of me,
Nor what I have endured for thee,
Yet shame and honour might prevail
To keep thee thus from turning tail :
For who would grudge to spend his blood in
His honour's cause ? Quoth she, A pudding.

C.

No. 60. False Wit; Anagrams, Acrostics, Bouts Rimés.
Hoc est quod palles ? Cur quis non prandeat, hoc est ?

PERS. Sat, iii. 85.
Is it for this you gain those meagre looks,

And sacrifice your dinner to your books ? Several kinds of false wit that vanished in the refined ages of the world, discovered themselves again in the times of monkish ignorance.

As the monks were the masters of all that little learning which was then extant, and had their whole lives entirely disengaged from business, it is no wonder that several of them, who wanted genius for higher performances, employed many hours in the composition of such tricks in writing as required much time and little

capacity. I have seen half the Æneid turned into Latin rhymes 10 by one of the beaux esprits of that dark agen; who says, in his

preface to it, that the Æneid wanted nothing but the sweets of rhyme to make it the most perfect work in its kind. I have likewise seen an hymn in hexameters, to the virgin Mary, which filled a whole book, though it consisted but of the eight following words:

Tot, tibi, sunt, virgo, dotes, quot, sidera, cælo.

Thou hast as many virtues, O virgin, as there are stars in heaven. The poet rung the changes upon these eight several words, and by that means made his verses almost as numerous as the virtues and the stars which they celebrated. It is no wonder that men

who had so much time upon their hands did not only restore 20 all the antiquated pieces of false wit, but enriched the world

with inventions of their own. It was to this age that we owe the production of anagrams”, which is nothing else but a transmutation of one word into another, or the turning of the same set of letters into different words; which may change night into day, or black into white, if chance, who is the goddess that presides over these sorts of composition, shall so direct. I remember a witty author, in allusion to this kind of writing, calls his rival, who (it seems) was distorted, and had his limbs set in places that did not properly belong to them, The angaram of a man.

When the anagrammatist takes a name to work upon, he considers it at first as a mine not broken up, which will not shew the treasure it contains till he shall have spent many hours in the search of it: for it is his business to find out one word that conceals itself in another, and to examine the letters in

all the variety of stations in which they can possibly be ranged. 101 have heard of a gentleman, who, when this kind of wit was

in fashion, endeavoured to gain his mistress's heart by it. She was one of the finest women of her age, and known by the name of the Lady Mary Boon. The lover not being able to make any thing of Mary, by certain liberties indulged to this kind of writing, converted it into Moll; and after having shut up himself for half a year, with indefatigable industry produced an anagram. Upon the presenting it to his mistress, who was a little vexed in her heart to see herself degraded into Moll Boon,

she told him to his infinite surprise, that he had mistaken her 20 sirname, for that it was not Boon, but Bohun.

Ibi omnis

Effusus labor. The lover was thunderstruck with his misfortune; insomuch that in a little time after he lost his senses, which indeed had been very much impaired by that continual application he had given to his anagram.

The acrostic n was probably invented about the same time with the anagram, though it is impossible to decide whether the inventor of the one or the other were the greater blockhead. The simple acrostic is nothing but the name or title of a person

or thing made out of the initial letters of several verses, and 30 by that means written, after the manner of the Chinese, in a

perpendicular line. But besides these, there are compound acrostics, when the principal letters stand two or three deep. I have seen some of them where the verses have not only been edged by a name at each extremity, but have had the same name running down like a seam through the middle of the poem.

There is another near relation of the anagrams and acrostics, which is commonly called a chronogram. This kind of wit appears very often on many modern medals, especially those of

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Germany, when they represent in the inscription the year in which they were coined. Thus we see on a medal of Gustavus Adolphus the following words, CHRISTVs DUX ERGO TRIVMPHVs. If you take the pains to pick the figures out of the several words, and range them in their proper order, you will find they amount to MDCXVVVII, or 1627, the year in which the medal was stamped: for as some of the letters distinguish themselves from the rest, and overtop their fellows, they are

to be considered in a double capacity, both as letters and as 10 figures. Your laborious German wits will turn over a whole

dictionary for one of these ingenious devices. A man would think they were searching after an apt classical term, but instead of that they are looking out a word that has an L, an M, or a D in it. When therefore we meet with any of these inscriptions, we are not so much to look in them for the thought, as for the year of the Lord.

The Bouts Rimez were the favourites of the French nation for a whole age together, and that at a time when it abounded

in wit and learning. They were a list of words that rhyme to 20 one another, drawn up by another hand, and given to a poet,

who was to make a poem to the rhymes in the same order that they were placed upon the list : the more uncommon the rhymes were, the more extraordinary was the genius of the poet that could accommodate his verses to them. I do not know any greater instance of the decay of wit and learning among the French (which generally follows the declension of empire) than the endeavouring to restore this foolish kind of wit. If the reader will be at the trouble to see examples of it, let him look

into the new Mercure Galant n; where the author every month 30 gives a list of rhymes to be filled up by the ingenious, in order

to be communicated to the public in the Mercure for the succeeding month. That for the month of November last, which now lies before me, is as follows.

Lauriers
Guerriers
Musette
Lisette

Cesars
Etendars
Houlette
Folette

verses.

20

One would be amazed to see so learned a man as Menage talking seriously on this kind of trifle in the following passage.

‘Monsieur de la Chambre has told me, that he never knew what he was going to write when he took his pen into his hand; but that one sentence always produced another. For my own part, I never knew what I should write next when I was making

In the first place, I got all my rhymes together, and was afterwards perhaps three or four months in filling them up.

I one day shewed Monsieur Gombaud a composition of this 10 nature, in which, among others, I had made use of the four

following rhymes, Amaryllis, Phillis, Marne, Arne, desiring him to give me his opinion of it. He told me immediately, that my verses were good for nothing. And upon my asking his reason, he said, because the rhymes are too common; and for that reason easy to be put into verse. Marry, says I, if it be so, I am very well rewarded for all the pains I have been at. But by Monsieur Gombaud's leave, notwithstanding the severity of the criticism, the verses were good.' Vid. MENAGIANA. Thus far the learned Menage ), whom I have translated word for word.

The first occasion of these Bouts Rimez made them in some manner excusable, as they were tasks which the French ladies used to impose on their lovers. But when a grave author, like him above mentioned, tasked himself, could there be any thing more ridiculous ? Or would not one be apt to believe that the author played booty, and did not make his list of rhymes till he had finished his poem?

I shall only add, that this piece of false wit has been finely ridiculed by Monsieur Sarasin, in a poem, intitled La defaite

des Bouts-Rimez, The rout of the Bouts-Rimez. 30 I must subjoin to this last kind of wit the double rhymes,

which are used in doggerel poetry, and generally applauded by ignorant readers. If the thought of the couplet in such compositions is good, the rhyme adds little to it; and if bad, it will not be in the power of the rhyme to recommend it. I am afraid that great numbers of those who admire the incomparable Hudibras, do it more on account of these doggerel rhymes, than of the parts that really deserve admiration. I am sure I have heard the

Pulpit, drum ecclesiastic,
Was beat with fist instead of a stick.

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