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word is found in the following passages of the Old EARLY STAGE SCENERY (5th S. v. 381.)—I da Testament :-1 Sam. viii. 12; Is. xxx. 24 ; Deut. not remember whence I extracted what follows, xxi. 4 ; Gen. xlv. 6 ; Ex. xxxiv. 21. M. W. will though I am sure the source was trustworthy :-also find abundance of corroborative instances in “ It has been a question of much literary controversy Tooke's Diversions of Purley, pt. ii. cb. v. About whether in our ancient theatres there were side or other the second word, egging, I have no such definite scenes. The question is involved in so much obscurity information. I am inclined to think that it comes

that it is difficult to decide upon it. In Shakspeare's from the root ac, to sharpen, from which springs the simple expedient of writing the names of the

time the want of scenery seems to have been supplied by ökos, acuere, and eggian, amongst others. Eggian, different places where the scene was laid in the progress therefore, would mean to sharpen,” and, by a of the play on large scrolls, which were disposed in such metaphor, " to stimulate," used of one person urg- a manner as to be visible to the audience. ing or egging on another. M. W. will find many tainment at Oxford, in which movable scenes

“In the year 1605, Inigo Jones exhibited an enterinstances of this use of the word under “ Edge” in used; and he appears to have introduced in the masques Richardson's Dictionary. My suggestion is that at Court several pieces of machinery, with which the this word might mean to apply the edge of the public theatres were then unacquainted, as the mechanism sickle or scythe," and hence be an equivalent for of our ancient stage seldom went beyond a painted chair " to reap.” This, at any rate, is the signification covered by the Dukes of Suffolk and Norfolk reading in which one would expect from the context.

his study, the scenical direction in the first folio edition Let me now subjoin a query of my own. At of Shakspeare's plays, printed in 1623, is, The king Rossall School, a box on the ear was always called draws the curtain, and sits reading, pensively' (ii

. 2), for an egg. What can be the origin of the phrase ?

besides the principal curtains that hung in front of the W. H., Univ. Dunelm.

stage, they used others as substitutes for scenes. If a

bed-chamber was to be exhibited, no change of scene Erying is earing, or ploughing. See any Eng- was mentioned, but the property-man was simply ordered lish dictionary. Égging, qy. edging, trimming

the Roman Capitol to be exhibited, two officers entered, to

When the fable required the edges of the plots or closes.

J. T. F.

lay cushions as it were in the Capitol.' On the whole it Earing is ploughing, from arare:

appears that our ancient theatres in general were only

furnished with curtains, which opened in the middle, “The oxen and the young asses that ear the ground and were drawn backwards and forwards on an iron shall eat clean provender.”—Isaiah xxx. 24.

rod, and a single scene composed of tapestry, which was C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. sometimes perhaps ornamented with pictures, and some

passages in our old dramas seem to favour the opinion “SOFTA” (5th S. v. 485.)—In a letter to the that when tragedies were performed the stage was hung Atheneum of June 17, Dr. Badger proposes the with black.”

FREDK. RULE. alternative derivation from safy, “ a devotee” (which comes from the Greek cópos), or from

CAPITAL “I” (5th S. v. 348.) – Benjamin the Arabic süfah, which“ signifies any of those Stillingfleet, in his Miscellaneous Tracts relating who were in the service of the Baitu-llah, or to Natural History, Husbandry, and Physick: to the al-Ka'bah at Mekkah.” This, in spite of which is added the Calendar of Flora (third edition, the irregularity of the plural, he considers to be 1775), unless he had occasion to employ the better than making süftah a corruption of sukhtah, singular pronoun first person as the first word in a which is, I suppose, the theory which your corre sentence, usually wrote it with a small letter-4.9., spondent Mr. Mayhew approves. Moreover, if “This is all i think fit to produce upon this suchteh," burnt up," be the same as sokhta, out,” referred to in the last paragraph of Dr. not be surprised that i am so short upon it”

copious subject, and i hope the candid reader will Badger's communication, it would seem that two

(p. 168).

KIRBY TRIMMER. distinct words are here confounded, i.e. sukhta (sokhta) and suktah, the meaning of which is given HORACE : VIRGIL (5th S. v. 389.)— The comas “ abortive." There appears also to be a differ- panion edition of Virgil referred to in the Horace ence of opinion as to the possibility of kh being of 1749 was published in 1750. The following changed to f, as regards which, not being either description is taken from Valpy's Delphin edition a Turkish or a Persian scholar, I am not competent of Virgil (vol. viii. p. 4497):to offer an opinion.


"1750. Bucolica, Georgica, et Æneis, illustrata, Windlesham.

ornata, et accuratissime impressa. Londini, impensis Surely Mr. Martin's derivation of softa from a figuris ex antiquis monumentis expressis. Est quidem

I. e P. Knapton et Gul. Sandby, 8 maj. 2 voll. cum 58 Persian word suchteh, “burnt up,” is very far sine notis; sed illustrata figuris, imagines deorum, fetched. Most, if not all, the religious terms used heroum, magnorum virorum, vestium, armorum, rituum, in Turkey are borrowed from the Arabic. Now aliaque in Virgilio obvia repræsentantibus ex nummis, shophet, plural shophtim, is the Hebrew for a gemmis, picturis, etc. antiquis sumtis; cum peculiari

significatione, unde sumtæ sint, e quibus exemplaribus judge. This seems far more probable. E. LEATON BLENKINSOPP.

expressæ, et ad quæ loca Virgilii referantur. Textus interdum a vulgato ad cod. Med. et lat. rediit in locis,


pp. 154.

quorum index in fine exhibetur. Præmissa etiam vita allowed of long scores ; his sharp business successor per Car. Ruæum."

hinted by the change of sign that under the new It was also published in 12mo. by the same management “ the case was altered.” The origin publishers.

H. R. T. of the phrase is an apocryphal story told of old

Plowden, the lawyer, and which will be found in TENNYSON'S EARLY PUBLICATIONS (5th S. v.

'N. & Q., Nov. 21, 1857. At Upper Kensal 406.)—Mr. Tennyson published an earlier edition Green this sign exists.

C. A. WARD. of his poems than that given by T. D. as 1833. Its Mayfair. title is, Poems, chiefly Lyrical (London, Effingham Wilson, 1830). Title and errata 2 leaves, and The Roaring Girle; or, Moll Cut-Purse, by

Some of the poems in this collection Middleton and Dekkar, 1611, bears & woodcut, were omitted from subsequent editions.

presumedly of the heroine, in male attire, with the H. YOUNG. legend, “My case is alter'd, I must worke for my

living." Both the woman and the play would A very interesting paper on “ The Bibliography appear to have been popular ; doubtless, “ Moll of Tennyson," which appeared in the Fortnightly Frith was a favourite sign for the public houses of Review for October, 1865, contained an analysis of the seventeenth century, and the words accomthe two publications mentioned by T. D. The panying her portrait may refer to her having to do paper was by Mr. I. Leicester Warren.

J. H. I.

open penance on Feb. 11, 1611-12. For further

information, see Dodsley's Old Plays, 1825, vol. vi. OLD COINS (5th S. v. 408.)— Those bearing the

J. H. I. legend “ Par. cres. tra.” were struck in the province of Utrecht (Trajectum), and the others, with 1249 (5th S. v. 427.) –Was this family of Russian

WILLIAM LE RUS, OF BASSINGBURN, DIED A.D. “Par. cres. hol.," in the prov. of Holland. That Datch coins should be found in the Engadine is (Hone's Every-Day Book, vol. i. p. 382), or old

origin, and is Bassingborne in Cambridgeshire very natural.

From the battle of Morat, the Basing or Basingstoke in the county of Southamp400th anniversary of which has recently been ton, the site of the lands referred to ?

E. celebrated with great splendour, the Swiss have

Starcross, near Exeter. ever been ready to sell their blood for pay and booty, and as a consequence their country THE “POKERSHIPPE” OF BORINGWOOD (5th S. became inundated with French, Dutch, Spanish, v. 430.)—The pokership was the office of a porItalian, and Portuguese coinage. OUTIS.

carius, or keeper of the hogs in a forest. Risely, Beds.



(5th S. v. 405.)— Cousin is from the later Latin cosinus, which It is a mere guess, but I should think a quite comes from the classical consobrinus, by a process likely one, that the pokership was the office of for which I would refer your correspondent to keeper of the forest records, from the “poke” in Brachet's French dictionary, 8.v. To derive which the documents were kept. cousin, as Bailey does, from consanguineus, is to

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. violate more than one common rule of Romance Bexbill. etymology.


“HỰMBUG" (5th S. v. 83, 332, 416.)-MR. COIN (5th S. v. 407.)— The motto and arms de- Bower's note recalls old school-days, and induces scribed on the reverse are those of the United me to tell him that the Bright shire, alias that of Provinces of Holland. It is not a sheaf of corn, Gloucester, is not the only place where humbugs but a sheaf of arrows the lion bears. Part of the are sold. The term is used in many parts of legend may be deciphered thus :-“Belg[ii] England, and particularly in Yorkshire and Lan... Mo[neta] No[va] Arg[entea] Pro[vinciarum] cashire. A Grassington man, who had made Confoederatarum]."

H. R. T. money by manufacturing the sweetmeat, was

known in his native village as the humbug man ! “The Case is ALTERED” (5th S. v. 408.)— Humbugs are the same as bulls'-eyes and brandyA very good account is given of this public-house balls. One Matty (Martha) Preston, better known motto, for sign it is not, in Hotten's Hist. of Sign- as Silver-heels, was a vendor of humbugs and toffy boards. There are a great many of them, it seems, at Skipton. She died many years ago, at the great over the country. He mentions the one at Ban- age of 104. She was baptized at Kirkby Malhambury, and says (p. 460) it was so called because it dåle. Matty was a Gipsy or Potter, and for many was built on the site of a mere hovel. There is years led a sad nomadic life, and was very drunken one between Woodbridge and Ipswich. There is and dissipated. During her latter days she abananother at Oxford, the incoming landlord of which doned the camp life, and settled down in Skipton, succeeded to a very easy-going Boniface, who where the sale of humbugs, &c., and a small parish allowance from Kirkby kept her tolerably steady plements ; which Etymologie is not to be deduced from and respectable. She used to say that during the a completione mentis, but a completè mentiri. And yet I rebellion of 1745, when she was a pretty girl," suade my selfe, their words never came so neare their she was seized and outraged by the revolutionary heart, but meerly they lie in their mouths, where all soldiers. JAMES HENRY Dixon. their promises

“ Both birth and burial in a breath they have; Since writing my former remarks on this sub- That mouth which is their womb, it is their grave." ject, it has occurred to me that the words “am

J. E. B. biguous" and "ambiguity," in Latin "ambiguus" and "ambiguitas," are closely related to the INITIAL LETTERS (5th S. v. 402.)—A folio Book English word “humbug” and to the Latin "am- of Common Prayer (London, 1619), enriched with bage” (g hard). In each of these words the funda- Bp. Cosin's MS. notes, and preserved in the library mental idea seems to be doubleness or duplicity, which bears his name at Durham, furnishes å and they may therefore, perhaps, be traced to the curious illustration of the practice referred to by Latin word " ambo,” meaning both," and express- J. O. In “Directions to be given to ye Printers," ing or implying doubleness. The kindred Latin Cosin includes the by no means superfluous adverb “ ambigere” means “ to go about, to surround, monition,“ Print rot capital letters with profane to compass," and also“ to be in doubt, to dispute pictures in them.” The very book in which the or quarrel.” Now humbug is often used for note is written furnishes at least thirteen instances " getting round” another, or®“ to compass” some of this objectionable practice. They are as folobject ; and, when used, the parties concerned are

lows :generally " in doubt ” as to each other's views and A satyr playing the flute illustrates the intentions, and this, again, leads to “disputing initial L of the “ Nunc Dimittis”; Neptune, and quarrelling."

HENRY KILGOUR. Amphitryte, and attendants do similar duty for

the 0 of the prayer, “ O God, merciful Father," in The kind of sweetmeat called humbug can still the Litany ; à satyr introduces the Collect for the be bought at Taunton. It is a thin, oval-shaped fourth Sunday in Advent, while Jason and Medea piece of toffee, with an almond in the middle, and illustrate the Gospel for Whit Tuesday. is, I suspect, so called because, after sucking for a The services for the first Sunday after Trinity short time at the toffee, you suddenly find yourself receive unusually copious illustration ; before the come to an almond.

H. F. Boyd. Epistle stands a picture of Io, transformed to a

heifer by Juno, in the arms of Jupiter, whilst the Sweetmeats are sometimes called humbugs in initial of the Gospel represents a council of the Lancashire and in Cheshire. H. T. CROFTON.

gods presided over by Jupiter, and addressed by


Pictures of Actæon and Diana, Hercules and 426.)—If S. T. P. will refer to the word compli- the hydra, Perseus and Andromeda, are to be ment in Richardson's Dictionary, he will find that found preceding the Epistle for the sixth Sunday Shakspeare and Milton are quite right. Ben Jon- after Trinity, the Epistle for St. Bartholomew's son, Jeremy Taylor, Wotton, Hammond, Bp: Day, and Psalm xc. Beveridge, all use the former word in the sense of the latter. The distinction in the orthography is Psalm in the Visitation of the Sick, and for that

Apollo and Daphne form the initial for the comparatively modern, and a rough approximation in the Thanksgiving of Women after Childbirth ; of the date may be derived from Richardson's quo- whilst a kindred subject, the transformation of tations. In an old dateless edition of Bullokar's Daphne, stands before the Gospel for the twentyEnglish Expositor now before me, only the first second Sunday after Trinity, and also before named word is given, with the meaning “Fulness, Psalm xxxviii. perfection, fine behaviour." So also Cockeram's

Many of these initials do duty in The Historie Eng. Dict., 1650, 1655 ; Coles's Eng. Dict., 1632, of the Councel of Trent, translated by Nath. Brent 1685; Bullokar's edit. of 1688. The same ortho- (Lond., 1620). "The initials were costly, and once graphy for both meanings of the word is also " ac- executed were used, it seems, with little attention cording to Cocker” (Eng. Dict., 1724). The date to the appropriateness of the position they of the change might exactly be fixed by examining occupied.

JOBINSON BAILY. a complete set of Bailey's dictionaries. Kersey, Pallion Vicarage. Dictionarium, 1708, 1715, has both words, the second form in the plural only ; but Coles, in his ENGLISH AND FRENCH (5th S. v. 469.)—In the Eng.-Latin Dict., 1727, has the first word only, in few lin MR. Axon cites, Howell does not mean both senses. On Ruth ii. 4, Thomas Fuller (1654) to say that English and French are one and the has the following comment :

same language; he only refers to a time when most “ Those are justly to be reproved which lately have of the English people spoke French. Mr. AXON changed all hearty expressions of love into verball Com- will certainly know that after the conquest French

latter says

pour une אבן et ארגמן pour מרגמן Aben

Esra prend "


gradually became the dominant language in Eng- A BORROWED DAY” (5th S. v. 266, 335, 527.) land, and that under Edward I. it was made the — The following is a slight variation on Mr. Pickofficial language, so that in the Parliament and in FORD's version in your last :the courts only this language was spoken, and “ March said to Aperill, that petitions from the lower classes even were I see three hogs upon a hill ; written in French (cf. Pauli, Bilder aus Alleng

But lend your three first days to me, land d. Ausg., p. 195). It was only in 1362

And I'll be bound to gar them die.

The first it shall be wind and weet, that the first English speech was heard again in

The next it shall be snaw and sleet, the Parliament, and through all the fourteenth The third it shall be sic a freeze, century French was, though no more dominant, Sall gar the birds stick to the trees; yet a widely used medium of conversation. Re

But when the borrowed days were gane, ferring to that time, Howell was not wrong in

The three silly hogs came hirplin hime.” saying that the two couplets were both French -The Complaynt of Scotland. See the article and English, meaning of course that both nations “March " in the Penny Cyclopaedia. spoke the same language. F. ROSENTHAL.

ROBERT J. C. CONNOLLY. Strassburg.

Rathangan, co. Kildare. I think it is not difficult to find out the sense THE VULGATE, Prov. xxvi. 8 (5th S. iv. 294, of the passage Mr. Axon quoted from Howell's 414 ; v. 209, 496.) —Even with the knowledge of Instructions for Forreine Travell. By the verses the several meanings given in the Worterbuch, it in question Howell corroborates his assertion that appeared better to translate Rabenstein “a com

since the last conquest much French has got in ” mon black stone”-i.e. a valueless stone-to (the English), and indeed he could find no better render it more antithetical to Edelstein, a precious examples. For if an Englishman expresses the stone. thoughts expressed in our verses, he does it in

Aben-Ezra's interpretation is taken from a note almost the same words as the Frenchman. If the to be found in the edition of the Old Testament,

in 18 vols. 8vo., published at Paris between the “ La fortune me tourmente, La vertu mecontente,"

years 1835 and 1851. The ipsissima verba are:

A « Mon desir est infini

pierre ordinaire, comme un paquet de pierres dans la D'entrer en Paradis,"

pourpre," &c. (tome xiv. p. 135).

WILLIAM PLATT. the Englishman says

Conservative Club.
Fortune torments me,
Virtue discontents,"

TALENTED” (4th S. xii. 427 ; 5th S. i. 33, 58.) “My desire is infinite

-Sterling is not the only critic who has objected To enter into Paradise.”

to this word. Coleridge, assuming it to be a

THEODOR MARX. participle passive, "regretted to see it," and asked, Ingenheim, Germany.

Why not shillinged, &c. ?” But it is an adjecSEAFOUL GIBSON (5th S. v. 468.)-In Harl.

tive, and correctly formed from a noun, as gifted,

good-natured, and many similar words. Sterling MS. 1566, fo. 1616, Walter Perkin is stated to again is mistaken in supposing it invented by have married “Anne, daughter of Seafowle, of O'Connell. In “N. & Q.," 15 S. x. 493, Q. shows Seafowle, in com. Worcester”; and in Margate it to have been used by Archbishop Abbot in the Church is a brass commemorating John Sefowll time of James I., and Webster quotes it as from and Lavinia his wife, 1475.

H. S. 'G.

the Ch. (? Church or Christian) Spectator. MR. PEACOCK observes he has never seen Sea- Sterling's denunciation has long ago been nofoul as a surname, to which I beg to reply, having ticed in your columns, 1st S. iv. 405. had occasion to investigate the history of several The following, from a late number of the Times, Norfolk and Suffolk families, I have met with may not improperly find a place in “N. & Q.," both a Norfolk family of Seafowle and also of bearing as it does on the original noun :Gibson. It seems then most probable that Capt. «• TALENTS.'—'E. O.' writes to us :-' It appears Seafoul Gibson was of a Norfolk family. The from your review of "The Life and Letters of Macaulay," family of Gibson or Gibsoun was of East Beckham word “talents," in the sense now usually accepted, in

that the historian challenged Lady Holland to find the and Thorpe, co. Norfolk, and bore for their arms, any writer earlier than the Restoration, or even than Paly of six ar. and sa., on a chief ar. a fret between the year 1700. He thought, indeed, he might safely two crescents sa. The arms of Seafowle were, Ar. have come down later. I find, however, in Johnson's a cross patée vert, on a canton or a martlet gu. died in 1674):-. Many who knew the Treasurer's talent

Dictionary this quotation from Lord Clarendon (who On searching the registers of East Beckham and in removing prejudices, and reconciling himself to Thorpe, I daresay MR. PEACOCK will procure wavering affections, believed the loss of the Duke was what he desires.

E. S. R. unseasonable." And this from Dryden (who died in

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1700) :-“He is chiefly to be considered in his three A Manx Act oF PARLIAMENT (5th S. v. 448.)— different talents, as a critic, satirist, and writer

of odes." This would probably be in H. Scobell's Collection derived from the parable of the talents, was also John of Acts and Ordinances made in the Parliament,

begun Nov. 3, 1640, and since, until Sept., 1656, W. T. M. fol., Lond., 1658.

ED. MARSHALL. Shinfield Grove.

“WINCHEL ROD” (5th S. v. 507.)—We need not go out of Europe to find the word winchel

Hiscellaneous. explained. We have only to turn to Germany, where Wünschel-Ruthe (O. H. German Wunscili

NOTES ON BOOKS, &o. gerta) is the well-known designation for what is called divining

rod in this country, and baguette Contemporary Evolution : an Essay on some Recent divinatoire in France. It may be as well to add

Social Changes. By St. George Mivart. (H. S. King

& Co.) that the 'pronunciation of the German word re- Sermons preached before the University of Oxford, and sembles as closely as possible the word winchel, on various Occasions. By J. B. Mozley, D.D., Regius which the translator of The Laboratory, 1740, Professor of Divinity, Oxford, and Canon of Christ perhaps from the whimsical liking of the sound,

Church. (Rivingtons.) chose to form, or, let me rather say, phonetically The above

books have nothing in common, and yet they to adopt.

may very well be classed together. Prof. Mivart's espe

cial public probably expected from him a scientific work, Whether Campetti is justly styled “an Italian”

and much of that scientific public is outside his own comappears to me very doubtful, considering that I munion. The author is often vague and obscure, but it find from a German source an explanation which is easy to understand him on certain points. He claims would allow Campetti to be translated as Spring- for his Church, that may be proud of his ability, the merit finders (=Wasserfühler, i.e. , Menschen welche die of being the one which

allows great freedom to conscience,

provided that each conscience submits to the guidance of Fähigkeit besitzen das Vorhandensein einer unter an infallible guide. He also describes his Church as the irdischen Wasserquelle durch das Gefühl wahr- true friend of other sorts of liberty, provided, if we underzunehmen).

HERM. S. GERM. stand him, that he who enjoys it is content to take it Windsor Castle.

like Voltaire's Huron, who found himself in perfect [Other replies next week.]

liberty in a prison cell, from which there were no means

of getting out. Prof. Mivart rather hints than ventures THE LATE Bishop Forbes (5th S. v. 468.)— ing, perhaps, that its declared principle is not to be

to assert that the Church of Rome is tolerant, rememberE. H. A. will find The Prisoners of Craigmacaire tolerant of toleration for others. In short, this Essay is in the list of books published by Masters & Co. an argument for the old claim of the Church's supremacy about the year 1861. The sermon on “ The Sanc-over the State in matters of faith and in those of morals, tity of Christian Art,” preached at the reopening the only hieroglyphic which would fairly illustrate it

which include everything besides faith. If this be correct, of the chapel at Roslin, was published in a volume would represent the sovereign's throat under a cardinal of sermons by the bishop, entitled Sermons on the archbishop's heel, and Protestant

professors silenced, and Grace of God (Masters & Co., 1862). I do not schools shut up, as is now the case in Spain. Doubtless, know whether either or both may be out of print, Prof. Mivart, who writes temperately as well as learnedly, but in this case I should be happy to lend my scholar, wishes no such application of his argument, but copies to E. H. A. if he would communicate with his argument suggests the hieroglyphic. me direct.

T. R. GRUNDY. Of Dr. Mozley's eighteen sermons, there are two that Newton Abbot, S. Devon.

are especially remarkable-one, on the Atonement, to

which we simply direct attention; the other, on “ The I am glad to know that the Prisoners of Craig- Roman Council?” The latter, preached as long ago as macaire is by Bishop Forbes. It is one of a series 1869, might serve as an able opponent's answer to many of of tales published by Parker some years ago, in the arguments in Contemporary Evolution. Dr. Mozley, illustration of Church history, after the fashion of in word and spirit as tender as Prof. Mivart, traces the Dr. Neale. The exact date I do not know.

history of the Church, from the time when Gregory VII.

attempted to reduce the world to a sacerdotal sovereignty C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. -the theocracy under which Prof. Mivart recognizes the Bexhill.

only possibility of peace and liberty. This attempt to

establish universal empire by the Church of Rome is The Prisoners of Craigmacaire was published still going on, if we read aright; and Dr. Mozley's ideas by Joseph Masters, Aldersgate Street, 1852. thereon are well worth the reading. The Regius Pro.

F. B. fessor brings forward many circumstances which are

passed over by the Roman Catholic professor; but both Thomas, EARL OF LANCASTER (5th S. v. 468.)— are honest, earnest, richly endowed men, Each pleads May not“ nous ad querpi” be“ nous a déguerpi,” and argues according to his views and his conscience, in the sense of " nous a fait déguerpir,” which his statements, there is a positive intellectual treat in con, majesty most effectually did ?


sidering those arguments as they are powerfully placed Risely, Beds.

before the reader for his instruction.

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