The Agrarian Question in Marx and His Successors, Том 2
LeftWord Books, 2007
Modern economic writings do not possess a correct theory of rent arising specifically from ownership of landed property. This conceptual famine has seriously affected the analysis of agriculture in developing economies, where agriculture employs two-thirds of the work force, and where three-fifths of the land is owned by less than a tenth of the landowners. It also hampers us in understanding the agrarian crisis that is engulfing many countries of the Third World.The selection of readings put together in this volume is in three parts. The first part deals with Marx's writings on pre-capitalist relationships, and that aspect of the primitive accumulation of capital which relates to the formation of a propertyless labour force. The second part is devoted to the Marxist theory of rent, in particular to understanding the crucial distinction made by Marx between what he termed 'absolute ground rent', and Ricardo's concept, which he termed 'differential rent'. The third part relates to the process of capitalist development in agriculture and the formation of a class of capitalist producers.he editor's erudite and lucid Introduction lays out the terrain of the argument and makes Marx's theory of rent more accessible and comprehensible to the lay reader.
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absolute ground rent absolute rent acres Adam Smith agrarian agricultural labourers agriculture arises average profit Bulgakov capital invested capitalist mode capitalist production cent century Chapter commodity commodity-production constant capital cost-price costs of production cultivation differential rent economic economists employed England equal estates exist exploitation expropriation fact farmer feudal ground-rent hand hectares increase individual industry Karl Kautsky Karl Marx Kautsky Kautsky’s book labour-power land ownership landed property landlord landowner large farm large-scale production lease loans machinery manufacturing market-price Marks Marks Marks Marx’s means of production merchant mode of production monopoly mortgage Narodniks natural owner paid peasantry plough price of production proletarian proprietors rate of profit Ricardo says Sharecropping small farm small peasant small-scale production social superiority of large-scale surplus labour surplus profit surplus-value tenant transformed use-value usurer usurer’s capital usury wage-labourers wages waterfall workers worst land yield
Сторінка 196 - In that early and rude state of society, which precedes both the accumulation of stock and the appropriation of land, the proportion between the quantities of labour necessary for acquiring different objects seems to be the only circumstance which can afford any rule for exchanging them for one another.
Сторінка 58 - The expropriation of the agricultural producer, of the peasant, from the soil, is the basis of the whole process. The history of this expropriation, in different countries, assumes different aspects, and runs through its various phases in different orders of succession, and at different periods.
Сторінка 197 - When the price of any commodity is neither more nor less than what is sufficient to pay the rent of the land, the wages of the labour, and the profits of the stock employed in raising, preparing, and bringing to market, according to their natural rates, the commodity is then sold for what may be called its natural price.
Сторінка 196 - As soon as stock has accumulated in the hands of particular persons, some of them will naturally employ it in setting to work industrious people, whom they will supply with materials and subsistence, in order to make a profit by the sale of their work, or by what their labour adds to the value of the materials.
Сторінка 222 - You have; I knew it would be your answer. Well, for your favour, sir, why, give God thanks, and make no boast of it; and for your writing and reading, let that appear when there is no need of such vanity.
Сторінка 85 - The advance of capitalist production develops a working-class, which by education, tradition, habit, looks upon the conditions of that mode of production as self-evident laws of nature.
Сторінка 57 - The so-called primitive accumulation, therefore, is nothing else than the historical process of divorcing the producer from the means of production. It appears as primitive, because it forms the pre-historic stage of capital and of the mode of production corresponding with it.
Сторінка 197 - The value which the workmen add to the materials, therefore, resolves itself in this case into two parts, of which the one pays their wages, the other the profits of their employer upon the whole stock of materials and wages which he advanced.
Сторінка 63 - Inclosures at that time began to be more frequent, whereby arable land, which could not be manured without people and families, was turned into pasture, which was easily rid by a few herdsmen; and tenances for years, lives, and at will, whereupon much of the yeomanry lived, were turned into demesnes.
Сторінка 56 - In actual history it is notorious that conquest, enslavement, robbery, murder — briefly, force — play the great part. In the tender annals of political economy, the idyllic reigns from time immemorial. Right and "labour" were from all time the sole means of enrichment, the present year, of course, always except ed.