Principles of politi, Том 1

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INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I
51
DISTRIBUTION OF GOODS
53
Economic Goods
54
Three Classes of Goods
56
Economic Value Value in
59
Value in Exchange Free Goods 6 Alleged Contradiction between Value in Use and Value in Exchange
63
Resources or Means
65
Valuation of Resources
66
Wealth
67
Signs of National Wealth
70
Economy Husbandry
73
Grades of Economy in Common
77
Political Economy Idea of an Organism 14 Origin of a Nations Economy
84
Diseases of the Social Organism
85
CHAPTER II
87
Sciences relating to National Life The Science of Public Economy The Science of Finance
91
Statistics
93
Private Economiy Cameralistic Science 20 Private Economy continued
97
What Political Economy treats
99
CHAPTER III
102
Demand Indispensable Goods
103
Influence of Purchasers Solvability on Prices
104
Supply
105
The Idealistic Method
106
Equilibrium of Prices
107
Effect of a Rise in Price much above Cost
108
Effect of a Decline in Price below Cost
109
The Idealistic Method continued 25 The Idealistic Method continued
110
The Historical Method The Anatomy and Physiology of National Economy
111
Advantages of the Historical or Physiological Method
112
Advantages of the Historical Method
113
Practical Character of the Historical Method
115
BOOK I
117
Meaning of Production CHAPTER I
119
The Sea Climate
121
Gifts of Nature with Value in Excnange
126
External Nature continued
128
Further Divisions of Natures Gifts
133
INCOME IN GENERAL
134
Geographical Character of a Country
135
Labor Classes of Labor
138
Taste for Labor PieceWages
139
Receipts Income Product
144
Labor Power of Individuals
145
THEORY OF POPULATION
147
Wages of Labor
160
Miniinum of Wages
161
Cost of Production of Labor
162
CHAPTER II
163
Cost of Production of Labor
164
The Three Great Periods of a Nations Economy
165
Price of Common Labor
166
Critical History of the Idea of Productiveness
167
The Same Subject continued
168
Effect of the Disagreeableness of certain Classes of Labor on Wages
169
The Doctrine of the Physiocrates
170
History of the Wages of Common Labor in the Lower Stages of Civilization
171
History of the Wages of Common Labor in Flourishing Times
172
The Same Subject continued 51 The Same Subject continued
173
History of the Wages of Common Labcr in Declining Coun tries and Times
174
WagesPolicy Set Price of Labor
175
WagesPolicy Strikes
176
Strikes and The State
177
Idea of Productiveness
178
The Same Subject continued
179
Importance of a Due Proportion in the Different Branches of Productiveness
180
Causes of Different Rates of Interest
181
Variations of the Rate of Discount
182
Effect of Increased Demand for Loans
183
The Degree of Productiveness
184
RENT OF LAND
185
Development of the Division of Labor
186
Its Extent at Different Periods
187
Effect of a Low Rate on Stationary Nations
188
Advantages of the Division of Labor
189
Aversion to Interest
190
InterestPolicy The Canon Law
191
Conditions of the Division of Labor 60 Influence of the Extent of the Market on the Division of Labor
192
Efforts to avoid the Evil Effects of a Fixed Rate of Interest
193
Repeal of the Usury Laws
194
The Reward of Enterprise
195
Circumstances on which the Undertakers Profit Depends 196 a Having the Lead
196
CONCLUDING REMARKS ON THE THREE BRANCHES OF INCOME 197 Influence of the Branches of Income on the Price of Com modities
197
Means of Increasing the Division of Labor 62 Dark Side of the Division of Labor
198
Influence of Foreign Trade
199
Emigration of Capital
200
Consumption the Vork of Nature
209
Necessity of Considering what is really Consumed
210
Production Impossible without Consumption
211
The Want of Freedom 70 Emancipation
212
Equilibrium between Production and Consumption
213
Causes of an Increase of Production
214
Necessity of the Proper Simultaneous Development of Pro duction and Consumption
215
Disadvantages of Slavery
216
The Same Subject continued
217
Prodigality and Frugality
218
Effect of an Advance in Civilization on Slavery
219
The Same Subject continued 74 The Same Subject continued 75 The Same Subject continued
220
Limits to the Saving of Capital
221
Spendthrift Nations
222
The Most Detrimental Kind of Extravagance
223
Luxury in General
224
History of Luxury In the Middle Ages
225
Luxury of Barbarous Times
226
Influence of the Church and the City
227
Luxury in Flourishing Times
228
The Domestic Servant System
229
Condition Precedent of this Luxury
230
When the Effects of Luxury are Favorable
231
Character of Luxury in Declining Nations
232
LuxuryPolicy
233
History of Sumptuary Laws
234
CHAPTER V
235
Socialism and Communism
237
Increase of Population in General
238
Limits to the Increase of Population
239
Socialism and Communism continued 8o Socialism and Communism continued 81 Community of Goods
240
Effect of Wars on Population
241
Tendencies counter to the Increase of Population
242
Opponents of Malthus
243
244 History of Population in Barbarous Times
244
Community of Wives Polygamy
245
History of Population in highly Civilized Times
246
The Same Subject continued
247
The Same Subject continued
248
History of Population in Periods of Decline
249
Influence of the Sacredness of Marriage on Population
250
Organization of Labor
251
Positive Decrease cf Population
252
Organization of Labor continued 84 Organization of Labor continued
253
The Ideal of Population
254
Means of Promoting Fopulation
255
Immigration
256
Influence of Hygienic Police
257
Means of Checking Population Placing Impediments in the way of Marriage
258
Right of Inheritance 86 Right of Inheritance continued
259
Landed Property
260
State aid to Emigration
261
Emigration and Pauperism 262 a Temporary Emigration
262
Landed Property continued
264
CHAPTER VI
268
Effects of Credit
270
DebtorLaws
274
History of Credit Laws
276
Means of Promoting Credit
279
Letters of Respite
283
BOOK II
287
CHAPTER I
289
Rapidity of Circulation
290
Freedom of Competition
293
How Goods are Paid
297
Freedom of Competition and International Trade
299
CHAPTER II
303
Effects of the Struggle of Opposing Interests on Price
304
Theory of Rent
320
Exceptions continued
331
Prices Fixed by Government
333
Influence of Growing Civilization on Prices
335
CHAPTER III
340
Effect of the Introduction of Money
347
Different kinds of Money
351
Metals as Money
354
Money The Precious Metals
357
Value in Use and Value in Exchange of Money 122 Value in Exchange of Money
363
Quantity of Money a Nation Needs
366
Same Subject continued 125 Uniformity of the Value in Exchange of the Precious Metals
374
CHAPTER IV
381
Value in Exchange estimated in Labor
382
The Precious Metals the Best Measure of Prices
385
History of the Prices of the Chief Wants of Life
389
The Same Subject continued 132 The Same Subject continued 133 The Same Subject continued 134 The Same Subject continued 135 History of the ...
398

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Сторінка 164 - Nor is there much satisfaction in contemplating the world with nothing left to the spontaneous activity of nature ; with every rood of land brought into cultivation which is capable of growing food for human beings ; every flowery waste or natural pasture ploughed up ; all quadrupeds or birds which are not domesticated for man's use exterminated as his rivals for food ; every hedgerow or superfluous tree rooted out, and scarcely a place left where a wild shrub or flower could grow without being eradicated...
Сторінка 168 - Labour is the Father and active principle of Wealth, as Lands are the Mother...
Сторінка 410 - A COMPENDIOUS OR BRIEFE EXAMINATION OF CERTAYNE ORDINARY COMPLAINTS OF DIVERS OF OUR COUNTRYMEN IN THESE OUR DAYES...
Сторінка 129 - We may rather compare it to a highly elastic and extensible band, which is hardly ever so violently stretched that it could not possibly be stretched any more; yet the pressure of which is felt long before the final limit is reached, and felt more severely the nearer that limit is approached.
Сторінка 155 - England has been produced by human hands within the last twelve months. A very small proportion indeed of that large aggregate was in existence ten years ago; of the present productive capital of the country scarcely any part, except farmhouses and...
Сторінка 202 - But to separate the arts which form the citizen and the statesman, the arts of policy and war, is an attempt to dismember the human character, and to destroy those very arts we mean to improve.
Сторінка 28 - We need not recall Turgot's historical researches. Malthus' chief title to distinction, his work on Population, is as much a historical work as a politico-economical one ; and it is not sufficiently known that he was professor of history and Political Economy in the college of the East India Company at Aylesbury. We need say no more on this subject. The works of the other writers whom we have mentioned are too well known to permit any one to think that they excluded history and moral science from...
Сторінка 171 - What we call commodities is nothing but land severed from the soil — Man deals in nothing but earth. The merchants are the factors of the world, to exchange one part of the earth for another. The king himself is fed by the labour of the ox: and the clothing of the army and victualling of the navy must all be paid for to the owner of the soil as the ultimate receiver. All things in the world...
Сторінка 267 - In no sound theory of private property was it ever contemplated that the proprietor of land should be merely a sinecurist quartered on it.
Сторінка 154 - He unroofs the houses, and ships the population to America. The nation is accustomed to the instantaneous creation of wealth. It is the maxim of their economists, "that the greater part in value of the wealth now existing in England, has been produced by human hands within the last twelve months.

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