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fcour of time. AH the women" know how lo skate. Sometimes thirty persons may be seen together, fifteen young men, and as many of the other sex, who, all holding each other by the hand, appear, as they move along, like a vessel driven before the wind. Others are seated on a sledge, fixed on two bars of wood, faced with iron, and pushed on by one of the skaters. There are also boats, ten or fifteen feet long, placed on large skates, and fitted up with masts and sails. The velocity with which these boats are impelled forward exceeds imagination; and almost equals the flight of the eagle. They go a league in less than a quarter of an hour, and sometimes even a quarte? of a league in two minutes.* The art of skating is learned with great facility, if we begin young, and have the advantage of being instructed by a good skater. The principal thing is to take care that the skates are well flnade, and to fix them on carefully. If you go alone, mind s and lean the upper part of the body forward, till you have acquired the equilibrium. There are several other points connected with this healthy and bracing recreation, but we have already exceeded our limits. Neither can we at present follow our authors through their various directions for vaulting, wrestling, dancing in a hoop, skipping with a cord, balancing on one leg, the galloping pace, the goat's jump, the spectre's march, forming the lever, the column of pegs, kissing the ground, sliding side-ways, the flying course, &c. Meanwhile w^ beg to refer the subject to the serious consideration of parents, guardians, and teachers, as intimately connected with the health and morals of the juvenile classes, and one which, in our opinion, has been too much neglected in our general system of instruction.
It is no less true than curious, that another volume of extreme rarity, connected, in a degree, with the works of our great dramatic bard, has recently been imported from Holland, where it was discovered by a genuine bibliopolist. Among other scarce plays, it contains "the True Tragedie Of Richard The Third; wherein is drawn the death of Edward the Fourth, with a lamentable ende of Shore's wife, S[c. Ifc; lastly, the conjunction and joyning of the two noble houses, Lankaster and Yorke, as it was
* January 1821,aLincoInshire man, for a wager of one hundred guineas, skated one mile, in two seconds within three minutes I Our locomotive engines will baldly be able to come this.,
played by theQueene's'maiesties players. Printed. by Thomas Creede, &c. ice. 1594."—This extraordinary drama may justly be considered as valuable as rare, because it exhibits the prima stamina of one of the most celebrated of Shakspeare's productions. Though this piece was never seen by Theobald, Hanmer, Johnson, Farmer, Reed, M alone, or Steevens, the indefatigable industry of the latter traced its former existence by the entry made of it in the books of the Stationers' Company, dated. June 19/1594. Malone did not doubt that the play, entitled as above, was the origin of our great dramatist's Richard the Third, expanded, improved, and ennobled by the comprehension of his judgment, and the magnificence of his genius.
Kean gave Mrs. Cox the name of "Little Breeches" on account of his having presented her with a sailor's uniform, in which she often arrayed herself when she accompanied her paramour.
Sir Walter Scott and Mr. J. Lockhart are said to be preparing for the press a new edition of Shakspeare.
The king of England possesses the special privilege, that he can, by his writ of protection, privilege a defendant from all personal and many real suits for one year at a time, and no longer, in respect of his being engaged in his service out of the realm. The last that appears on the books is one granted by William III., in 1692, to lord Cutts, to protect him from being outlawed by his tailor.
Courtly Rhymes. — When queen Elizabeth visited Folkestone, the inhabitants voted a loyal and patriotic address ; which, to pay a higher compliment to the Virgin Queen, they employed the parish clerk to versify. The time for the reception of the epic being appointed, the monarch took her seat upon the throne, and the worshipful mayor of Folkestone being introduced, he with great dignity mounted a three-legged stool, and commenced his poetical procemiura thus:
O mighty Queene!' Welcome to Fotkesteene! Elizabeth burst into a roar of laughter, and without allowing his worship time to recover himself, she replied—
You great fool I
The Butcher Bird.—This singular bird was taken in a common trap-cage at Bridlington, a short time ago, and is now alive in possession of Mr.Rayner, druggist. From its very exhausted state ,when taken, its flight must have hgen long and rapid, probably across the'Sennaa. Ocean, '."
r The common adage say-!, "Mistakes happen in all families," and it appears that we are not exempt; for, through erroneous information, our artist has this week substituted the house of Mr. Whitton, an eminent solicitor, for the site of the interesting story of George Barnwell, which we are obliged to defer till next week.
The Enchanted Island by Mr. Danby, claims our first attention as full of poetry and exquisite feeling, in which respect it very much surpasses the famous picture by Claude of the same subject. It presents an expanse of water in repose, in the centre of which appears an island, rising as a hill thickly crowned by trees. In the lower part is a cavern, sacred to' the goddess, in which the ever-burning lamp casts its livid and sombre light around. The objects near are partly illuminated by this, aud partly by the golden tones of the evening sun, which thus affords a beautiful contrast. On the opposite side of the water is seen a flight of steps, hewn in the rocks leading to the summit of the cliffs. This picture has been compared, in its style, to Mr. Martin's production, but we can perceive no traces of similitude, excepting that both are the offsprings of original and vigorous imaginations: the style.of Mr. Martin surpasses that of Mr. Danby, in sublimity and terror; but Mr. Danby's is infinitely superior in beauty and sentiment, aud expresses a more polished and elegant mind. The extent of the powers of art can scarcely be imagined by those who have not seen this picture. It possesses so calm and mysterious an air, it is so little like nature, as she commonly presents herself, but] is throughout so perfectly ideal, that it leaves the impression of a delightful dream.;
From this we turn to a picture approaching nearer to reality, the Hypochondriac, by Mr. Newton; which, in point of execution, and mechanical excellences, is one of the best of the artist. He has the merit of imparting some degree of novelty to a story often treated. In the "Malade Jmaginaire" of Moliere, which is the original source from which ail kave drawn this subject, is an elderly man. The drar matist had the power of letting us know, that the illness was only fanciful ; but, in painting, this is not so easily told. If we behold the representation of an elderly man, seated in an invalid's chair, and under the influence of strong feeling, we may reasonably suppose that there is something the matter with him. The artist has, therefore, ingeniously represented his subject in the prime of youth; which, besides explaining the story with more clearness, adds point to the humour. The figure appears in his morning gown, and in the act of feeling his pulse with an expression of alarm: the bell-rope hangs over the head of the chair, lest a sudden infirmity may prevent his reaching it. The minor objects assist in telling the story. The excitement of the disorder—Buchan's Medicine—lies upon the floor. The dumb-bells, foils, and fencing-gloves, bespeak the capabilities of the patient. The composition of colour is harmonious and effective, and the penciling displays more facility and' clearness, than is usual in the works of
this artist. It is our intention to notice the other pictures of merit, at a future time.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF BOTANY.
Botany teaches the knowledge of plants as relates to their physiology or vegetation, anatomical structure, chemical composition, and diseases, their parts and classification, which is either according to a natural or artificial order. To assign the preference of description to either of these only would be difficult; we shall cive a slight sketch of each, with its component parts, as far as is compatible with-the prescribed limits of our publication: for whether we consider the seed when first thrown into the ground, "which unless it die it cannot be raised," or the lilies arrayed in more than regal glory, and " afterward the full ear," they equally arrest and claim our undivided attention.
We shall first, then, describe their anatomy as consisting of three barks, (epidermis, cortex, and liber,) the alburnum or soft wood, lignum or wood, parenchyma enclosing the pith, vasa pneumataphora conductors of air, vasa adducentia, adducent vessels, and reducentia, reducent vessels, answering the purpose of transpiration; the vasa lymphatica, the glands or secretory vessels, &c. Carbon enters most into their composition, next hydrogen and oxygen; in a less degree many other simple substances, as azote, phosphorus, lime, and even iron; whilst sugar, wax, resin, camphor, and mucilage, may be readily discovered amongst their compound or more apparent ingredients. They are subject to many and strange diseases, most of which bear the name of those incident to the human frame; viz.—dropsy, cancer, worms, hemorrhage, chlorosis, chilblains, worts, &c.
The plant is generally divided into three parts, the stem, (divided into the ascending caudex or space between the root and branches, and radix, the descending stem or proper root,) the herb, and the fructification. The roots may be reduced into five classes, rhizomatoideae, fibrillatae, tuberosae, bulboss, and nothae. The ascending stem is divided into the trunk, the stalk, the culm, the scape, the stipe, the shoot, the petiole, and peduncle, by which is determined the inflorescence or manner in which the flower grows on the stalk. To the herb belongs the leaf, the frond, and fulcre; the frond belongs most properly to the palms, hepatica, ferns, and algae; the fulcre is divided into stipules, bracts, vagina, spathe, involucre, which is a sort of calyx. But to some plants, as the fungus tribe, the stapelia or earrion flower, the cactus or Indian fig, «c, a thick, fleshy membrane serves the purpose of both stem and foliage.
We shall now particularize the flower with its fruit. By the first of which Linnaeus arranged his system, more complete than any which preceded it, and which has been, for the most part, universally adopted. It has been termed the sexual system, from its embracing the sexes of plants; its principal divisions are classes and orders,—the classes determined by their stamina, the orders mostly from their style.
The flower consists of the calyx or flower-cup, the corolla or blossom, the stamina or chives, the pointal, and the nectary. The calyx is that envelope of green leaves which encloses the flower, but there are several sorts, as the perianth, or immediate envelope of the flower a, fig. 1. Anthodium, a common perianth, containing many flowers in one, the glume, the common perianth of the grasses, &e.
The corolla is surrounded by the calyx.J,
and surrounds the sexual organs; it may be mostly distinguished from the perianth by its gay colours and fine texture,—the perianth being rougher, thicker, and always green. When it consists of several divisions, each division or lip is called a petal, c; and the corolla.is said to be ditalous, tripetalous, &c. according to the number of petals. The stamen is the male part of a flower, consisting of the filament (a, fig. 2,) which supports the anther. The anthers, (b, fig. 2,) which contain the pollen; and the pollen, which is the fructifying principle. The pistillum or pointal, (c, fig. 2,) is the female part of a flower, and the next essential; it consists of the stigma, (a, fig. 3,) which is situated at the top of the style, and first receives the pollen from the anthers; the style, (6, fig. 3,) or shaft which conducts the fecundifying matter to the germ, (c, fig. 3,) or seed-bud placed at the bottom of the flower; and the nectary, or melliferous part of the flower sometimes seated in the corolla, and sometimes distinct, and seated in a spur, as in the violet. The fourth figure on the left hand is the germ nlarged. The fruit proceeds from the germ, and Consists of the pericarp, the seed, and the base. The pericarp is the vessel containing the seed; there are several varieties, as the nut, berry, pome, and pumpkin. The seed is the part destined for propagation, and consists of the two cotyledon leaves, the corcle, (the germ of the new plant,) the eye, an indentation in the seed formed by the corcle, tuniculus umbilicalis, the ligament by which the seed is attached to the pericarp; the plume, a part of the corcle which ascends to form leaves; the zortel, another part of the corcle, which descends into the earth and becomes the root; there are also the tunica externa, and membrana interna, or two coats enveloping the whole, besides other parts, too many to enter upon in these narrow limits.
We shall close our miniature description with the base, consisting of the receptacle on which the flower stands; and thalamus, the fruit bed, both distinguished by a variety of names descriptive of their forms. ,
Since our last notice of theatricals, nothing in the department of the drama, merely as such, has offered any opportunity for new or original remark; KemRle's Hamlet, his Benedick, and his Orlando, together with Miss Chester's Beatrice, and her Agnes Welsted, in A Woman never Vexed, and Miss PaTon's Bertha, in Der FreischUti, have
drawn" respectable audiences to Covent Garden; while at Drury Lane, Wallis's Fall of Algiers, sustained by the zealous exertions of Sapio, Miss Stephens, and Miss Ciraddon, has improved in its attractions, and been tolerably well attended. Nothing in all this that remarkably urges our notice; but, oh! what a subject remains for our comment! An actor is accused and found guilty of one of the foulest of crimes, accompanied with unparalleled perfidy and breach of hospitality; and while he stands reeking with its unabluted ignominy, he is deliberately thrust forward upon the public by the sordid cupidity of a manager, to the exclusion from his boxes of every respectable female, and the disgrace of himself and his theatre! And not content with this violation of decency, he assigns for that actor's two first appearances, after, his conviction by a jury of his country, two characters the most adverse to his cause and interest of any in the whole list of pieces in which he had ever appeared. This was nothing less than rashly endeavouring to take John Bull by the horns. But the insolent attempt was justly resented. Of all the scandalous scenes that ever occurred before the curtain of a national theatre, nothing, in indecorum and flagitiousness of principle, could exceed the struggle maintained through the entire performance of Richard the Third and Othello, on Monday week and the following Friday; —a struggle of the partisans of an adulterous and hypocritical tragedian against the laudable feelings and highly merited resentment of the friends of virtue and morality.
Overlooking Mr. Elliston's egregious temerity in hoping to take the public by surprise, by so unexpectedly insulting them, and showing his noble daring in obtruding upon them Mr. Kean's So unseasonable appearance ;* the appointing for him two characters, one of which put into the- adulterer's mouth the words— "Stanley, look to your wife," and the other, those of " Put out the light, and then,"—that is, then he will destroy his own wife, on the bare suspicion of her having committed that crime which he, the actor, has just been convicted of committing with the wife of another man. The placing such an offender in such a situation was, assuredly, most monstrous,
* How much better they order these things in France! Mademoiselle Mars, the most popular actress on the Parisian stage, and the ch^re amie of a certain colonel, being lately detected in connection with another officer, retained too strong a sense of the decency due to the public to openly insult their feelings; and has not yet presumed to appear before them. ^ in any view of it, and claimed all the reprobation it received.
Now, really, it appears to us, that neither the government nor the public regard the policy of managers and conduct of actors and actresses in their proper light; that if they did, theatres would not be what they now are; that there would be a greater difference of principle and conduct than there at present seems to be, between the females who pace the saloons aud some of those who visit the green-room. The duties of every theatre of a great, enlightened, and moral country, should be discharged by persons of unblemished characters; but most especially the duties of Theatres Royal. Performing under the sacred sanction of majesty, and assuming the dignified appellation of national theatres, a part of their distinction, assuredly, should be that of the superior respectability of their corps; but there can be no respectability where there is no moral worth: where there are females who scruple not to deviate from chastity, and men who pay' no regard to the laws of honour and hospitality.
Strange is the mistake of theatrical performers—that they are privileged to violate decency and indecorum to any extent, provided they properly acquit themselves on the boards! S To entertain such an idea l3 to forget that players are as much the dependent servants, as their talents are the purchased property, of the public; that while they exercise their profession under the gracious shelter of a regal master, they live and prosper by the bounty of the people; and owe both to their royal patron, and to the public, that respect to the moral rules of society, the example of which is so necessary in all public characters. When a performer of vitiated principles appears on the stage, he presents to us a being that reminds us of his delinquencies. Whether he laugh and chuckle as Rover, or strut and start as Richard, the mind sees the man through the momentary disguise of the actor; and with the admiration of his histrionic powers, feels the mixed sensations of disgust and abhorrence.
As far as the vocation of actors and actresses require the personation of culpable characters, the more truly they represent them the better; because they thereby render them the more odious, and the end the author had, or should have had, iu view, is the more effectually attained; but never let them realize those characters in their own private conduct; never let them bring before us, in their own persons, the actual perpetrators of the very turpitude they ought only to portray;
for to do this, is to convert their boasted f« School of Virtue and Morality," into a seminary of vice and folly, and to fix for ever that odium on their profession which, in all countries, and in all times, has, less or more, been its repulsive concomitant; but which the charitable portion of mankind are willing to remove.
Dr. Aikin used to say, that nothing is such an obstacle to the production of excellence as the power of producing what is pretty good with ease and rapidity.
The warmest manner in which one Brazilian can introduce another to a family is—" This is my friend, if he steal any thitig I am accountable for it."
A Patent has been granted to Mr. W. Hurst for a very important improvement in the spinning mule, as invented by Dr. Cartwright. The mule itself is said to afford a saving of three-fifths of the expense of spinning by the jenny invented by Mr. Arkwright, but Mr. Hurst's improvement will save half the expense of spinning by the mule, and consequently four-fifths of the expense of spinning by the jenny.
Indian Steam Vessel—This vessel, of which we gave a description in a former number, was launched last Saturday, from the dock-yard of Messrs. Gordon and Co. Deptford. It is expected she will be ready to sail from this country in March, and will reach Calcutta within two months from the time of her leaving Portsmouth. As this is the first attempt to make a distant voyage by steam, it will form a new era in navigation.
Asiatic Test Of Toracco.—A leaf of it is taken and squeezed in the hand as hard as possible, and if any appearance of moisture be left in the palm, it is well known that the tobacco has been watered; if the leaf preserves the compressed shape which the force of the hand has given it, it is weak; but if it recovers and expands quickly to its original size and shape, the tobacco is deemed strong.
A Frenchman has invented a mortar which throws bombs horizontally, exactly in the same manner as cannon discharge balls.
New Lead Mine.—One of the richest veins of lead ore perhaps ever discovered has lately been broken into near Matlock; the roofs, sides, and bottoms are covered with the richest galena. It is visited by all the miners in the county, and one pro