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AftTS AND SCIENCES.
it is a sight " comely and reviving," to behold those that "are a country's pride," studying the records of her charities, and her institutions. And the facility of access to learning, which modern days have opened to the humble, has wrought this; some mischief might have arisen from a few poisoned plants having been strewed, here and there, by the roadside of literature; but the good has so predominated, the flowers have so exceeded the weeds, that it were to deem truth a liar, to doubt that the general good and the national welfare are not now better served, and more powerfully advanced, than when the wish of the Spanish monarch, like the wine he talks about, was only attainable by the prosperous and wealthy. Long and late therefore be it, ere the small, but useful, merchandise of learning shall be shaok by the adverse winds of change, or be sunk beneath the waves of veering fashion—larger barks may carry a greater cargo of learning and information into the ports of the mind— but their freight is only for the rich and the powerful; it is the little and quickplying small craft, that enter those narrower channels, which lead to the dwellings of the humble and the industrious, teaching them, in the language of the poet, that,
"While errors like some wandering comet
flies, Whose short-liv'd brightness dazzles vulgar
eyes; Fair truth, like some mild star's propitious rays, Creates no wonder, and excites no gaze, Still burns with steady light, and useful flame, And passing ages nnd it still the same."
SJrts anIi §citvut4.
USE Of SULPHUR.
Sulphur is one of the cheapest medicinals the ailing can lay hand upon, and yet, commonly as it is known, its virtues can hardly be said to be sufficiently appreciated. In briefly drawing the attention of our readers to the many qualities of this mineral, we must be at present understood, rather as reminding them of the advantages they may derive from it, than communicating any new discovery respecting it. From the earliest ages of science, sulphur has been a medicine of standard utility. The ancients are particular in recording its various excellences, and it is no light praise of their skill, that they were so well aware of the efficacy of a cure, than which modern experience knows nothing more serviceable.
The action of sulphur is purifying and cooling: when first taken in periodical doses, it acts as a gentle purgative, and opens the numerous secretions of the body.
Thus it directly operates to render the living system two of the greatest uses it can possibly be benefited by. For there are but few persons conscious of the many disorders which take their origin in a diseased skin, and would never have been felt, had the pores been unobstructed, and perspiration free. In favour of the other principle, the highest authority is every where to be had: the preventive powers of different medicines, taken occasionally in gentle proportions, are universally acknowledged, and cannot be too strongly enforced. Indeed, on this subject, no maxim in medicine is more valuable or common, than where there is a complexity of symptoms, and the features of particular diseases are obscure, than to prescribe a purgative and do good.
Sulphur—the cream of flour is the best —should be taken fasting, and is most palatable in milk: a tea-spoon full is enough at a time. Followed up for a short period, it will, more than any other medicine, cleanse the body of any latent provocatives of disease; sweeten the current of the blood to a general temperature; and make the skin healthy, by opening the pores. Sulphur is the best of cosmetics: it removes that roughness of skin, with which some persons are so disagreeably troubled; and clears away all those pimples and blotches, that disfigure "the human face divine." In conclusion, we can add one other quality, and that is the greatest of all—sulphur is a perfectly safe medicine.
I.UMINOUS PHENOMENA PRODUCED BT THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF BENZOIC ACID.
A curious experiment has been mad^ by M. Buchner, showing, in a very interesting manner, the connection between the production of light and crystallization. Having mixed impure, dry, benzoic acid with one-sixth of its weight of vegetable charcoal, he placed it in a vessel having only a small opening, through which the progress of the operation might be observed. The apparatus was exposed for some days to a moderate heat, and fine crystals were already formed; when, wishing to hasten the process, M. Buchner removed the apparatus to a stove of higher temperature : after being exposed for about half an hour to the increased heat, he was surprised by a vivid flash of light in the inside of the vessel . at first he attributed the appearance to the spontaneous inflammation of the charcoal ; but it was succeeded by a number of other flashes. After some time, M. B., wishing to examine the products, removed the apparatus from the furnace; a great number of crystals of benzoic acid were
formed resembling those obtained at the and therefore even in trifles it becomes us
appearances M. Buchner,
the crystallization of Innocence, levity with honour, and even acetate of Wash, and by M. Dobereiner passion with peace of mind. In all our fnCetthe preparation of/oxygen.-2VW degrees and -tuat.-of Ufe.tnflmgwUh
in the ,..., ... ..
Journ. fur Chimic und Phys, vol. 1l. p
Magna conatu magnas nvgas.—-Terence. "Great efforts for great trifles."
Yes! 'the world is full of it—habit leads and fashion sanctions it—trifling is the modern universe. . Revolutions of infinite moment, misfortunes of direst import, have had their dawn-spring in trifling.—Anthony lost the world by it: an apple set all Greece and Asia on fire: it blinded Nero to the conflagration of his country.
And yet trifles sometimes amuse from danger, and protect from violence; for, as a reverend writer says," Aristotle, with all his scientific stableness and gravity, praises Archylas, for the invention of
our duty makes us like the cat which play's with its prey till it eludes her grasp; yet, being heedless of trifles is, on the other hand, to reject the foundation of the glorious temple, because it commences with a single stone.
THE SPATTERING SHOP. In this great age of improvement, and in our overgrown, and daily improving, metropolis, a luxuriant crop of follies is constantly springing up, far exceeding in growth that of our'graver ancestors, so that a great number escape the detection of the most vigilant eye; for instance,— the sober and industrious citizen of Iandon has most probably never heard of the spattering shop, and could not easily conceive that persons should earn a livelirattles, which, put into the hands of chil- [,ooci Dy throwing dirt, not at each other
dren, prevent their breaking vessels of use."
So is it, indeed, with us all: the old , as well as the young, have their hobbies, of various kinds and descriptions; and it is not only the infant " muling in its nurse's arms" that is " pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw," for all the seven ages of man can produce its example of trifling, aud its portion of triflers.
Happy, however, would it be if men would never trifle out of place; for it is
that "is an old trade—but by spattering mud over the boots of walking jockies, provided with long spurs, and who thus assume the air of a most fashionable dandy, having just dismounted his Arabian, and given him to his groom at the corner of Pall Mall. The fact is, however, thus: if we see a young man, pinched in at the bottom like a Dutch toy, with huge, plaited pantaloons, a quarter of a yard of spur at his heel, and a little, negligent dash of mire spatted
only then they become contemptible and over the bottom of his boots, a hand-whip
ridiculous. Would the man of business be content with his merchandise, and, if he must have them, with his speculations— the man of literature with his study and his researches—the fashionable roan with his visits of ceremony—and the fop and the dandy with his steed in Rotten-row, and his swagger in Bond-street—without trifling with that which is above them, or that they do not understand; with that they are not fitted for by education, or birth, or should be restrained from attempting by honour or morality ;—we would forgive them a few follies, and a little trifling, for the sake of securing an amnesty from wrong; but when some of these deem wisdom and virtue,indeed.but as trifles in their eyes, we should at once cease to yield obeisance to such butter
or a deformed twig under his arm, and a sporting-like hat,putonrakishly, as if he had just taken it off to wipe his face with his cambric or Barcelona handkerchief, from the gentle perspiration occasioned from riding, and so bescented that there is no fear of his wasting his "sweetness on the desert air," you may rely upon it that he is not a peer or a baronet, a field-officer or a youth of family, fortune, and fashion, as he fain would appear: nor that he has just sent off one of his steeds to go on foot for the rest of the morning ; but you will discover him to be the imitator of the great, the would-be man of bon ton, or some one of the animalculi of young tradesmen which appear about town in the assumed^characters of gentlemen, your standers-by at fashionable hotel
flies—" such insects with gaudy wings"—. doors with a segar or tooth-pick in their
lest, from beginning to buzz, they might mouths, your droppers-in at half price at
learn to sting. the minor theatres, or the hebdomadal
After all, if a thing is worth doing at exquisite of Sunday, who stands behind a
all, the wiser it is performed the better; counter th« rest of the week,
These are the customers to the spattering shop; a polished, clean boot might be suspected of never having crossed a horse, but Day and Martin applied with assiduous friction by the philo-dandy himself, and contrasted by a few spots of St. James's-street, or Park mud, is a counterfeit which cannot fail to pass current; and added to the highest polish which such things have, (that of the fixed spur,) is irresistible. Nor is the professor of the brush without infinite skill in his department ; like the painter, he must hit on the likeness to a nicety, and distinguish between the bead-like thickness of the mud of heavy rain, and the light, attenuated shade of drizzle, or the common moist state of wintry spatter ; carefully avoiding the clay of the country, or the coal-black greasy mud of the narrow streets in the City. This last should never appear upon a dandy's boot, nor the former unless the wearer has another sham to impose upon the town, and swears that he has just come from a hard run with the King's or lord Derby's hounds, and that he changed his hunter and just dashed into town on his capital Irish hack,—such a one will be doubly 9plashed, and may, without detection, look in at Tatters nil's, at the horse bazaar, and at repositories, but if he bids for a horse, he must be very cautious of not coming near the mark, for if the animal is knocked down to him his secret will be out, and he will be found lodging in a two pair of stairs bed-room, or in the first Jtoor from heaven, without a quadruped in the world but the fourlegged stool at his desk in the office, where the grey goose-quill procures him a decent living, on which he can scarcely exist, from becoming the distant follower of dame Fashion—one of the most expensive mistresses that youth can be enamoured with.
In London we see nothing but extremes; here we have loose ladies and straight-laced gentlemen, there females with the Turkish trowsers, and males who look as if they wore petticoats, having such nippings and pinches in the middle, and such folds and protuberances below. In one street a female charioteer, so plain that you might take her for a hackney coachman, and, at the viranda of a corner house, an animal of a doubtful gender in a flowered silk wrapper, and his or its hair in papers; lastly, horsemen with their legs in a thing like a candle
wise man, and the triumph of the votaries of folly.
I shall conclude with one hintnamely, that in spite of all these false appearances detection is not impossible; the face often betrays the dress, and the observer who looks into all things, from the parliament- house to the shop-window, may unkennel the mighty hunter of Hanway-yard, and the mock-military exquisite of the public walks. Free as our constitution is, there are spies of one kind who will always be tolerated ;— those who watch over the manners of the age, of which number is
3£U&tefo and Snalg$fe.
AN ELEMENTARY COURSE OF GYMNASTIC Exercises; INTENDED TO DEVELOPS AND IMPROVE THE PHYSICAL POWERS OP MAN. BY PETER HENRY CLIAS, ESQ. LONDON, pp. 111.
INSTRUCTIONS IN ALL KINDS OP GYM" NASTIC EXERCISES, AS TAUGHT IN THE GYMNASTIC INSTITUTIONS OP GERMANY, &c. BY A MILITARY OFFICER. LONDON, pp. 99.
The doctoring of a poor constitution abridges enjoyment, like a heavy tax or a low income. Health is money: to both sexes, when married, it is as good as a portion ;—it is better, for it is not only a fortune, but affords the best means for comfortably enjoying one. As a mere saving concern, then, it is desirable to have the least possible need of the fraternity of Ksculapius. But it may be shown that the cultivation of health is intimately connected with the cultivation of morals. "A sound body, a sound mind," is proverbial. Superstitious fears, slavish notions, weak compliances, indolence, and negligence, as often arise from bodily debility, as vicious principle. Need we say more in favour of a good constitution, or that which tends directly to establish one —gymnastic Exercises?
By gymnastic exercises we mean such recreations as tend, not only to promote health and strength, but to give locomotive power, and exterior grace to the human form. It is a branch of juvenile education which, we think, has been too much
neglected in this country; and while we have been laudably engaged in improving case to avoid a spot, and foot-passengers the mind, we have not been sufficiently with the willing dash of muck, mire, intent on laying the foundation of a good fashion, and imposition on their boots, constitution; which is of the utmost imThis spattering shop is, nevertheless, but portance to all classes, but especially to an innocent thing after all, a simple in- the vast majority of every community, vention for simple fellows, a joke to the whose subsistence, and personal ^inde-.
pendenee, depend, in a great measure, on a robust frame, and invariable health. Some of the continental states have been more awake to the importance of physical tuition; and in Germany the revival of the ancient exercises of the Greeks has been attended with complete success. No seminary whatever, in that country, is now considered perfect, which does not admit a course of gymnastic exercises into its system of education. The first systematic treatise on gymnastics was published by Gutsmuth, in 1793; the second edition of which appeared in 1804, entitled " Die Gymnastik." Gutsmuth not only attracted attention to the importance of the subject, but was the means of introducing it in other countries. It was in Denmark those exercises were first considered in a national point of view. In 1803, the number of gymnastic establishments in that country had already amounted to fourteen, to .which 3,000 young men resorted. Since that period, the government has issued an order for allotting a space of two hundred square yards to every public school, for the purpose of gymnastic exercises. The successful progress of his system in Denmark,, induced Gutsmuth to apply to the Prussian government, and the answer of the minister of state was, that " the bodily exercises of youth form an essential part of my plan of national education." In 1810, the gymnastic establishment at Berlin was placed under the direction of Jahn, through whose zeal and perseverance they have since been promulgated to various parts of Germany.
Efforts have been made by professor Clias, of Berne, to engraft a course of gymnastic exercises on the general system of education in England. In favour of British youth, he observes, that in no part of Europe did be observe " young persons to present a more ingenuous cast of countenance;" but of their " general manner and address" he cannot speak so favourably. These deficiencies he ascribes to the want of a proper physical education, by which the due developement of the muscles, and the proper balancing of the body are neglected. To effect this improvement does not appear to us at all a difficult undertaking. It is not necessary, nor do we think desirable, that it should be made a national object; it requires no change in the general mode of tuition already in practice, nor the sacrifice of any branch of intellectual culture: all that is needful is, that the heads of public schools, the masters and teachers of private seminaries, and, above all, that parents should be made more sensible than they now appear to be, of the vast importance of a regular and systematic course of robust
recreation; not only as the best means of laying the foundation of vigorous health, but of a graceful form, and of a virtuous and manly character. If the pa's, ma's, and magister are agreeable to the innovation, we certainly anticipate no objection from the " young folks " themselves. Boys and girls are often much more fond of running, jumping, wrestling, trundling hoops, playing at ball, and shuttlecock, than of perusing their horn-books and exercises; and we think, by a judicious union of both, they will be made more perfect in mind and person; and provided with the best preservative from fanaticism, opium-eating insanity, sickly sentimental, ism, and all these degrading and debilitating vices, by which some imbeciles would poison the minds, and embitter the future happiness of the youth of England.
We do not profess to be particular idolaters of the "outward man," but we do think, whatever tends to improve the human figure, and to give a free and easy carriage to the person, is deserving of attention. Grace and beauty are almost inseparably connected with utility, and the predominance of the former almost invariably indicate superior health, strength, and fitness for active life. It would be mere ascetism.and wholly inconsistent with the spirit of the age, to affect to despise these external embellishments. While we are labouring, might and main, to bring mere inanimate matter to perfection — while painting and sculpture are cultivated with ardour—while we are endeavouring to improve our public buildings — our squares, streets, and pleasure-grounds— it is irrational and inconsistent in the extreme to neglect the external ornament of ourselves!
Between the mind'of man and the in'stinct of brutes there is an immeasurable distance, but in strength and beauty we cannot claim an equal superiority. This physical inferiority has often appeared to us to result more from want of cultivation, than any natural cause. All our efforts have been directed to the cultivation of the mind: it has not been the outer case, but the wonderful intellectual mechanism which it contained, that we have been intent on carrying to perfection. That our course has been wise and philosophic every one must admit; between the physical and intellectual part there can be no comparison ; yet the mere tabernacle that contains the precious jewel of human reason ought not to be altogether neglected:—at all events, we ought to give it such polishing and training as will keep it from rust, and enable it to move with grace and ease on its hinges. This is all we mean, or wish to accomplish by
the application of Gymnastic Exercises to ornamental improvement of the human person.
Having explained the general principles on which the utility of gymnastic exercises depends, we will now introduce the reader to the exercises themselves. Our authors—for we have got a couple this time—begin their instructions with the most natural movements, as walking, running, and jumping.
It may appear, at first sight, a very superfluous labour to give instructions in walking—but, pray, how many of your acquaintance walk well? One stoops in the shoulders, another sinks in the back, others have a jump in their gait; others, again, drag the body heavily along, while the limbs are twitching nimbly in all directions, or extended in a sprawling, loose, and awkward manner. An easy, graceful, and firm deportment in walking, is as uncommon as it is dignified and pi jpossessing. In walking gracefully every muscle is employed, is called upon for no more than its fair share of exertion—all is compact and united, the whole frame proceeds calmly and equably, and each part of it is acting in unison with the rest. Few things are of more importance, either for the preservation or restoration of health ) and when an easy gait has been acquired, there is so much less fatigue in it, that we are, by the increased facility and agreeableness of the exercise, induced more frequently to apply it.
Directions.—To walk is to make a progressive movement. The body rests a moment on one foot, whilst the other is advanced; then the centre of gravity is made to fall from one foot to the other. The motion, in fact, is exactly the same as the turning of the spokes of a wheel. To do it well, the position of the body must be upright and unconstrained; the breast thrown well forward, and square to the front; and the stomach drawn in a little, but not so much as to prevent a free breathing. The shoulders should be drawn back, and kept at an equal height. The arms must have a gentle, but perfectly free and easy motion at the side of the body. The head should be upright, without any stiffness, and ought to have a free motion from right to left, upwards or downwards, without causing any material alteration in the position of the body. The knees must be firm, the toes stand out, and the weight of the body rest more upon the balls of the toes than upon the heels; by which means the whole position is rendered firm.
Is a natural and, at the same time. a
healthy and strengthening exercise, when taken in moderation, and is a fundamental part of gymnastic training.
Directions.—The breast must be thrown well forward, and kept perfectly free. The upper parts of the arms are kept almost close to the sides of the body; the elbows bent, so that both parts of the arm may form an acute angle; for the arm ought to move to and fro in a very trifling degree, in order that the muscles connected with the breast may remain as much as possible at rest. At every step the knees are stretched out, and the tread must neither be made with the balls of the toes, since this would affect the calf too powerfully, nor yet with the whole sole of the foot.
Precautions.—Proceed gradually, as in all exercises. Choose a time when the air is cool. Take off your coat at the commencement of the exercise, and resume it the instant it is completed. Let the breast either be quite exposed, or very thinly covered. Wear a very light covering on the head; a straw hat is best. Leave off when a strong perspiratiou appears, or the breathing becomes very short.
In a fire, or an inundation, it is often by means of a leap, made with promptitude and assurance, we escape the most imminent danger. To leap with grace and assurance one should always fall on the toes, taking care especially to bend the knees and the hips; the upper part of the body should be inclined forward, and the arms extended towards the ground. The hands should serve to break the fall, when one leaps from a great height. By falling on the heels the shock, which in this case is communicated from the extremity of the vertebral column to the crown of the head, will occasion pain in these parts, and may be attended with very bad consequences. It is also useful to hold the breath, which causes the blood to flow to those members in movement, which increases the strength of those parts.
This exercise has claims to peculiar notice, as well with respect to the beauty of the movements, as to the infinite variety and rapidity of graceful attitudes which the skilful skater knows how to assume, and change instantaneously, without appearing to take the smallest trouble. Among the Dutch this art is carried to such a degree of perfection, as to be the wonder of foreigners; and it is surprising to see with what agility and boldness they will pass over three or four leagues in one