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Sir Thomas Lawrence has also painted a portrait of himself; we believe for the first time. It is a fine picture, and the likeness excellent.
This gentleman calculates, that the quantity of manufactures of all sorts, at present produced by British workmen with the aid of machines, is so great that it would require, without the assistance of machinery, four hundred millions of workmen. We have been always dubious on numerical investigations, since Dr. Price promulgated his wonderful discovery for liquidating the national debt by the accumulating power of compound interest. Mr. Malthus spread a general panic by his arithmetic and geometric series of the increase of food and population,—which has been found substantially erroneous. The truth is, deductions from figures are nearly as fallacious as those 'from metaphysical inquiries. It is not the figures that mislead, but the hypothetical and inapplicable assumptions on which calculations are founded. One may at once be convinced, by the results which flow from the problem of Mr. Owen, that a radical error pervades his calculation. If the labour of our workmen with machinery, is equivalent to the labour of four hundred millions of workmen—more than one half the population of the whole earth, —by whom—by what nations or countries is this immense product consumed, and what becomes of the immense wealth that it must return to this country in exchange?
HINT TO EPICURES.
The medical journals mention the discovery of an apparatus, by which the stomach may at any time be emptied of its contents. This invention must be of the utmost importance to the votaries of gastronomy, and all those who place the summum bonum in mastication and copious potations: with the aid of the stomach-pump, the lives of bon-vivants may become a perpetual feast, and all their days be spent in the blissful process of filling and emptying the abdominal laboratory!
'The Robbers of Schiller, of Gil Bias, and the Beggar's Opera, like the shepherds of Arcadia, are more the creatures of imagination than of real life.
My idea of memory is this. It is a renovation of previous impressions. Memory is not a common receptacle, in which the impressions received by the senses are
treasured up, but each sense has its separate repository or recorder. 'J bus sight records objects of vision ; hearing, sounds; feeling, objects of touch, &c. The memory of any past sensation is merely a consciousness in the mind, or more properly in the nerves, of the impression having been previously received. Memory is impaired by age, because the sense or nerve on which it depends is impaired by age.
Godwin is the novelist of the passions; Scott of manners: Godwin only describes, Scott dramatizes his characters.
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC MISCELLA-
A patent has been granted by the emperor of Russia to Mr. M. Clark, inspector of the Imperial iron foundry, in conjunction with Messrs. Grifiith and Co. of London, to make oil-gas erections throughout the Russian dominions. . Coppering Op Ships.—The Samarang arrived at Portsmouth, from Halifax, after a tempestuous passage of nineteen days. It is understood that the return of the Samarang to England, after being so few months on the North American station, is occasioned by a discovery of the complete failure of sir Humphrey Davy's experiments to preserve ships' copper from decay. The Samarang was fitted out at Portsmouth under that eminent chemist's direction, with the zinc preservers attached to the sheathing metal, by means of which, producing galvanic action, it was expected the copper would be preserved from corrosion; but it is proved, that though the oxidation of the metal is prevented by the defensive action of the iron, the animalcule which this oxidation used to destroy, now prey in such security upon the vessel, that the bottom of the Samarang is covered with worms, barnacles, and sea-weeds, to a degree which prevents her from being steered with necessary safety.
The king of France has bought the fine collection of antiquities belonging to Mr. Edward Durand, one of the largest and best chosen in Europe. It contained nearly 7000 articles, Egyptian, Greek, Etruscan, Roman, and of the middle ages. Among these were no less than 1250 of the Italo-Grecian vases, commonly called Etruscan; near 1800 bronzes; besides many lamps, terra cottas, ancient glass, jewels of gold, enamel, mummies, rolls of papyrus, covered with hieroglyphic writing, &c. &c. making 2500 articles of this class.
A weaver at Paisley has constructed, with a knife and a pair of tweezers, a piece of machinery, consisting of a weaver
at worfon his lootti, with lay and treadles working; a corn-mill; a sucking and a spiral pump, both of which throw water; two sawyers at work; a horse-race; windmill; ship at sea; regiment of military passing the general ,'&c. &c. The whole of which are set in motion and driven by a mouse!
Observations at;Manchester show, that the total quantity of rain fallen from the 1st of September to the end of December amounts to more than 25§ inches;—a prodigious quantity, when it is considered that the average fall of rain for a year in that town is about 34 inches, and in Iondon only about 22 inches.
Previous to 1817 the number of works printed in Russia did not exceed 4000; the number is now augmented to about 8000.
The schooner Eliza has returned from the Mediterranean, after an absence of six months. This is the first vessel sheathed with leather, and we learn that the experiment has fully answered the expectations of those who suggested it.
A committee of the Royal Dublin Society, appointed to adjudge the premiums for straw 'plait in imitation of Leghorn, have reported that the very rapid improvement in the manufacture since their adjudication last year far exceeds their expectations. It requires merely a little more manual dexterity in the mechanical part, of forming the crown, and in the sewing together, to render them fully equal to the best of those imported.
STEAM PACKET TO INDIA.
This is the boldest attempt hitherto undertaken for the application of steam to a sea-voyage; yet it appears to be calcuated with every chance of success. The vessel is of 500 tons burthen, to be fitted for passengers only, and is now building at Deptford. She is to be completed with machinery of the best description by Maudslay, and will be commanded by a lieutenant of the royal navy, who is well acquainted with the seas she will have to traverse. Between decks there are ten cabins, with every necesary convenience; the two stern cabins are ten feet nine inches by seven feet six; the eight other cabins are each seven feet by three wide, but differ in length from seven feet nine to eight feet ten. The vessel will be equally adapted for sailing and steaming. She will touch at the Cape to take in a fresh supply of coals and other necessaries, will proceed thence to Madras, and finally to Calcutta; and, upon a moderate calculation, it is estimated that she will make the whole voyage from London to Calcutta in less than two months.
Starg of <©«uron«s."
Dsc. 28.—More rain to-day ! Last week the sea' receded at Whitstable, to a greater distance than has been remembered by the oldest inhabitant. No wonder father Neptune begins to shrink: such a drain upon his resources has not been known since Noah's flood. Half Europe has been inundated. The farmers begin to complain of slugs, and in some districts one-third of the land intended for wheat will not be sown. Hares are found dead in the woods and fields, with the same disease as the rot among sheep, particularly about Ashford.
Sir. Justice Burrough, at Kingston assizes, denounces prize-fighting, and recommends the parties to be prosecuted for an assault: it is thought his example will be followed by the other Judges.
The Pope has issued a bull, appointing the present year a year of jubilee for the whole of the Catholic church, and inviting the faithful to make a pilgrimage to Rome. Mr. Cobbet, I see, has lately become a convert to popery, so it is not unlikely he will avail himself of this invitation, and, instead of his usual summer tour throughSurrey and Hampshire, direct his steps to the " Eternal City," and lay at the feet of his Holiness his new work on the Reformation. The Carnival, and other annual sports and pastimes, will of course be suspended; to the great disappointment of our sightseeking countrymen, who flock to Rome on festival days for the delectable pleasure of pelting each other with sugar-plums.
The old College of Physicians, in Warwick-lane, is to be pulled down, and a street made from Newgate-street to Ludgate-hill:—Good!
Intelligence from India of a singular court-martial on Lieut. Fenwick, who, incidentally employed in the service of a native Rajah, took it into his head one day, after dinner, to hang one of his prisoners of war. He is found guilty, but recommended to mercy, on the ground of extraordinary circumstances and inexperience.—Poor lieutenant! he probably thought it was the custom of the country, and there was no harm in following it.
Went again to hear Mr. Boone. Think him rather fanciful in his notions. He thought society would get into a strange state, by the working classes becoming enlightened with useful knowledge, and the gentry remaining with only their present accomplishments. Do not see it in that light; the commercial and manufacturing classes may cultivate chemistry and mechanics, and the opulent music and polite literature, without confusion: it would be a division of labour, perhaps beneficial to all parties.
30. From the returns of Christenings and Burials within the bills of mortality, for the past year, it appears the burials have decreased 350. A favourable sign, as the number of inhabitants has greatly increased.
Old Birmingham canal shares have fallen 400/., in consequence of the projected iron rail-road.
There are at Rome 81 principal churches, 32 bishops, 1,470 priests, 1,613 monks, 1,318 nuns, 460 seminaries, 1,210 poor in the hospitals, and 1,080 detained in prison. The number of marriages was 1,369 (a hundred more than in the last year.) The number of families is 33,774. At the commencement of 1824, the population had increased by 2,241 persons, and within these nine years, by 10,126.
31.—Farewell to the old year! It will certainly rank among the most auspicious in English history, for internal peace and general prosperity. Neither the government nor the people have been altogether stationary; the former have improved our commercial system, the latter made a prodigious intellectual progress. It has been been a year remarkable for high winds, overwhelming floods, and a rage for speculation.
An order has been issued in Poland, by which all Jews, natives as well as foreigners, are forbidden to come to the capital to settle there. Every Jew who visits the capital must ask at the gate for "a license to sojourn," for which he must pay 20 Polish groats for one day.
It appears from an official statement, that there are 256 Catholic chapels in England, 71 charity and other schools, and 348 officiating priests: of these, 12 chapels, 1 school, and 8 priests, are in the county of Hants; 6 chapels and 5 priests in Sussex; 3 chapels and 2 priests in Wiltshire; 6 chapels and 6 priests in Devonshire; 7 chapels, 1 school, and 8 priests in Dorsetshire. In Lancashire there appears to be the greater number, there being 81 chapels, 6 schools, and 79 priests.
The average number of daily passengers over Blackfriars bridge estimated at 40,000.
Jan. 1.—The snow drifted so deep on the road between Hawick and Selkirk, that the Carlisle coach last week could not get through, and it was found necessary to forward the mail on horseback.
A mistake is generally current with respect to the supposed necessity for dissolving parliament at the close of the next session. As the general elections usually take place in the autumn, there can, under
the Septennial Act, only be six sessions^ unless the crown was to suffer the legal duration of .parliament to be exhausted; but as the last general election, that on" the king's accession, occurred in the Spring, there may be seven complete sessions of the present parliament, and almost an eighth. Its legal right of existence will not expire till the month of March 1827. We may therefore, without the least risk of inconvenience, have two more sessions; and under all the circumstances it is probable that the duration of parliament will not be unnecessarily abridged of eighteen or twenty months.
The British trade to Buenos Ayres is now estimated annually at one million and a half sterling. The general improvement of Buenos Ayres within ten years is described to be almost incredible,—persons returning after that period do not know the place again. From 80 to 100 square-rigged vessels, averaging 200 tons burden, are usually within the harbour of Buenos Ayres, 30 of which are English. The new states of South America are likely to find abundant employment for all our capital, steam-engines, and railroads for years to come.
3.—Several individuals summoned before the lord Mayor for making false returns in Mark-lane, to enhance the price of corn. The case is adjourned.
It appears government has at length determined to acknowledge the independence of Mexico, Buenos Ayres, and Columbia, and commissioners are about being sent to these States to conclude treaties of commerce between them and this country, founded on that recognition. This event has long been expected, and has diffused very general satisfaction.
High Water, Morn. IV, 19m...Aft. IV. 3!) m.
Anniversary Chronology.—A. D. 1642, expired near Florence in Tuscany, the celebrated Galileo, who was born at Pisa in the north of Italy, in 1564. He was the author of several noble and useful discoveries in astronomy, geometry, and mechanics, and was the first person who improved telescopes, so as to answer astronomical purposes. He taught the true nature of the earth's motion, but this truth he was constrained to recant on his knees, in homage to the bigotry of the age. Milton alludes to this great man: The moon whose orb Through optic glass the Tuscan artist views, M evening from the top of Ferol^ Or in Valdarno to descry new lands, Rivers, or mountains on her spotty globe,
DIARY OF OCCURRENCES.
Field Sports.—Grouse shooting closed on the tenth of last month, and therefore these birds are no longer an object for the sportsman. Poachers have various devices by means of which they bring grouse within their reach. When the hills are covered with snow, they approach them by placing a shirt over their clothes, and render themselves as nearly the colour of snow as possible. On the first of next month, the season for shooting partridges and pheasants will close, leaving a more than ordinary residue of the latter, perhaps, in consequence of the general and continued wetness of the season. Wild fowl have continued in the immediate neighbourhood of large rivers, and on the coast, in the usual quantity. Few have yet made their appearance in the interior of the country. Coursing and fox-hunting have both suffered in consequence of the wet weather.
High Water, Morn. IV. 59m. Aft. V. I9m.
Anniversary Chronology.—A. D. 1766, died near Hampstead, Dr. Thomas Birch, a distinguished historical and biographical writer, being the author of many much approved works, particularly "The General Dictionary, Historical, and Critical," 10 vols, folio.
Francis Moore predicts fair weather and frost on the 8th and 9th days of this month.
Plough Monday. — Customs.—On this day, or about this time, in the north, the Fool Plough goes about, a pageaDt that consists of a number of sword dancers, dragging a plough with music, &c. sometimes two, in very fantastic dress; the Bessy in the grotesque habit of an old woman, and the fool almost covered with skins, wearing a hairy cap, and the tail of some animal hanging from his back.
Anniversary Chronology.—A. D. 1645, Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, beheaded onTower-hill for high treason,in the 71st year of his age. He fell a sacrifice to party violence, and a weak attempt to impose the doctrine, dicipline, and hierarchy of the church of England, on the three kingdoms. He was a native of Reading in Berkshire.
Ou this day, A. D. 1778, expired the celebrated Linnseus, the father of modern botany. Ten years after the death of this great man, a new society of naturalists, distinguished by his name, was founded in London, and has since been incorporated by royal charter. This appellation was also chosen on account of the Museum of Lin
naeus having fallen into the hands of sir JamesEdward Smith, its original projector. This treasure, comprehending the library, herbarium, insects, shells, and all other natural curiosities, with all the MSS. of the illustrious Swede, were obtained by private purchase from his widow, after the death of his son, in 1783.—A.d. 1824, died J. E. Bowdich, aged 31, author of a Mission to Ashantee.
High Water, Morn. VI. 29 m.-Aft. VI. 57 m.
Sun rises, VII. 57 m.; sets IV. 3 m.
Length of day, VII. 50 m.—Day's increase 22 m.
Garden.—Make hot-beds; sow Sandwich beans and hotspur peas; earth-up peas, beans, and celery.
Anniversarycronology.—A.D.1698, Peter the Great, czar of Russia, came to' England, and remained incognito. He improved himself at Deptford in the art of ship-building, and king William presented him with one of his royal yachts.
A. D. 1753, sir Hans Sloane, bart. died, at his house in Chelsea, in the 93rd year of his age. His immense collection of books, manuscripts, and curiosities, now form a valuable part of the British Museum. The beautiful botanical garden, at Chelsea, was left by him to the Company of Apothecaries, on condition'of their introducing every year 50 new plants, till their number should amount to 2000, His tomb inChelsea church-yard is surmounted by the mystic symbols of the egg and the serpent, in a good style of sculpture.
Sfanuarj) XII.— Wednesday. High Water, Morn. VII. 25 m.— Aft.VII.57m. Angling.—The only fish that will take a bait during January, are jack, pike, roach, and chub, which should be angled for in the middle of the day, and if the water is free from ice and tolerably clear, an hour or two's sport may be expected. The two last years have been very unfavourable for angling; a cold backward spring, wet summer, and unsettled weather during the autumnal months, have baffled, and generally speaking.disappointed the skill and perseverance of the angler. We do not recollect from many year's experience, such a succession of floods as the last has produced. The rivers were hardly ever in a fit state for angling, from the foulness of the heavy waters, which continually presented themselves to the lovers of angling in their piscatory excursions.
Bartuarr) XIII. St. Hilary.—
HiKh Water, Morn. VIII. 30 m.—Aft. IX. 6 m. Jupiter will be a morning star till the 28th. Cambridge Term begins.
St. Hilary was bora at Poictiers, in COMMERCE, JLONDON, Jan. 4.
France, of an illustrious family; and of J^ZteT^^i^Z "£
this place he was chosen bishop in the a little in advance. Sugar looks up, and
year 353 Havin" taken an active part Is. advance generally obtained. Refined
against the AriaTM he was banished to large^nd^ayu^are ^r^de^and,
Phrygia, by order ot the emperor Con- age price of Brown or Muscovado Sugar
stantius, in 356, where he remained for 30s. lljd. the cwt. exclusive of the duty.
three years. He died at his native place, TALLOjv.-Very steady, and in good de
.. Z%£ Tti ll _, «.,t_n mand. Hemp looking up and firm. A good
in 368. Hilary was an excellent orator deal of busin£ss has b|e„^ione in these two
and poet; his style abounds with rhe- articles notwithstanding the holidays,
torical figures. Spirits.—Brandy continues steady. The
A "n ..».».....«.« • .* market for rum has been lively during the
NNIVERSARY CHRONolOGY.—A. D. t week d COTsiderabIe sal», of T^ard
1790, Monastic establishments were proofs have been made.
suppressed in France.—A. D. 1800, ex- Silk.—There is a good demand for silk
pired Dr. James Macknigiit, an emi- generally at advanced prices, which is in
r , ,., , , ia ,, _i anticipation of a good demand for manufac
nent clergyman of the church of Scotland. tureiig0oAt in tbe spring.
—A. D. 1824, died Edward Grainoer; Provisions.—Butter and'bacon continue
aged 27. At the age of 22 he commenced very dull, and not much business doing.
a course of lectures on anatomy and phy- . „„ MARKETS< Jan. 7.
siology in the Borough; and his class, -. , ., • ,
• ?i • u _.. _TM__ll.^l tn Corn.—The market being moderately sup
rapidly increasing, he was compelled to Jg**.^ all linds of ^m tbig m0\a^
erect a comodious theatre near uuy s „ne wheat sold readily at an advance of 2,.
hospital. But amid this prosperity, an per quarter on the price of last Monday.
insidious disease, the result of excessive Malting barley, 1x. and Oats 1.. per quarter
application, displayed itself, and in spite t"i^r',ve.—Wheiit 64*. 9<l.—Barley 40t. Oil.
of every effort to prevent its encroach- —Oats 23*. Ml.—Rye 40«. 9.(.—Beans 40s. 4</.
ments, terminated' his career. The highest price of Bread is llrf. for the
'• 41b. ioat; but the majority of bakers sell
3>attUaVti XIV.—Friday. from Id. to -Id. below ihat price.
High Water, Morn. IX. 42'm.—Alt. X. 17 m. Cattle.—Smitiipielo.—Trade this day
Sua rises, VII. 53 m.—Sets IV. 7 m. brick, every article looking upward. Beasts
Clock 9 in. 27 sec. too last. 2/. in 20i. dearer than Itiis day fortnight, and
Oxford Term begins. sheep nearly in proportion.
Mr. Partington commences this evening Meat per stone of 81bs. ^ ^
acourse of Lectureson Optics, at the Lon- Beef . \ 2 8 to 3 8
don Mechanics' Institution. Mutton 3 0 4 4
„ TT T , Veal 3 4 5 8
Natural History. — Larks now pUrkV. 3 * 5 8
congregate, and fly to the warm stubble' .
for shelter, and the nuthatch is heard. Price of Poultry, &c.
The slug makes its appearance, and com- Tnrkcys I' n to 20 o'
mences its depredations on garden plants Geese ............ 6 0 9 0
and green wheat. The hedge-sparrow, Fowls (each) 2 0 8 0
and missel-thrush begin to sing. The Bucks (each) 2 6 3 «
, ,. . , ° • , , „ Ekes per ll;0 12 0 14 0
wren also "pipes her perenmal lay. Rabbits 12 10
The titmouse pulls straw out of the thatch pigs ..." 10 0 12 »
in search of insects. Linnets congregate, Butter, fresh 15 16
and rooks retreat to their nest trees. TO~CORRESPONDENTS.
Pullets beoin to lav; voun? lambs are
ruura ue u ui iav, yu B We should like—but are too modest to insert
dropped. Spiders shoot out their webs, WjKkjlK ^ Wwrtet nattering epistie.
and the blackbird whistles. The field- Will T. permit us to select from his papers i
fares, redwings skylarks and titlarks ZZ^Zltt"Z "' *" ^ *"
resort to watered meadows tor toou, ana We cannot promise till we see P. C. JFymeiil's
are in part supported by the gnats, which papers.
frequent such places. The tops oftender &Q-J"" "fcgSf* .^."drawing ot
turnips and ivy-berries afford food for the place he describes.
the graminivorous bird.,;., the ring-dove, tf. &*-x«**£'o*at^publisher..y
&C farther commnnication with a real name.
—" -— Communications received after Tuesday can
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