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long; the legs are short and stout, the fore feet furnished with four toes, the hind feet with three: the tail is very short and naked, the skin isvery]tough, and is covered with short dark coloured hair, which in young animals is spotted with white. This species is found on the eastern coasts of South America from the isthmus of Darien to the river Amazons. It is said to be greatly sought after by the natives, who consider its flesh a delicacy, and they make shields of its skin, which cannot be pierced by an arrow.
Malay Tapir. (Tapirus Malay anus. —Raffles.) This species in its manners and form resembles the American, but is easily distinguished by its having the ears bordered with white, and wanting the mane. The general colour is a glossy black, the hind part and sides of the belly are white, and separated by a defined line from those parts that are black. Major Farquhar observed, that until the age of four months it is black, and beautifully marked with spots and stripes of a fawn colour above, and white below; after that period it began to change colour, and the spots disappeared, and at the age of six months it had become of the usual colour of the adult.
Sir Stamford Raffles states, that a living specimen sent from Bencoolen to Bengal when young, became very tractable. It was allowed to roam occasionally in the park at Barrackpore, and the man who had the charge of it, informed sir Stamford that it frequently entered the ponds, and appeared to walk along the bottom under water, and not to make any attempt to swim. The flesh is eaten by the natives of Sumatra.
The length of a female tapir, killed at Bencoolen, was from the nose to the tail eight feet one inch; the circumference 'of the body six feet three inches; and the height of the shoulder three feet five inches. The first specimen of this animal arrived in England in September, 1820, and was sent by sir T. S. Raffles. A more detailed account of the Malay species, illustrated with a coloured engraving, may be found in Dr. Horsfield's Zoological Researches in Java, and an anatomical description by Sir Everard Home, in the Transactions of theRoyal Society, for 1821.
Mr. T. Moore is preparing for publication a poetical work, of a novel character; it is to be called "Evenings in Greece," aud is to consist of short Ivrical poems, which are to be accompanied with music.
The newly published "Memoirs 'of the Affairs of Europe from the Peace of Utrecht," are written by Lord John Russell.
The Remains and Memoirs of the late Rev. Charles Wolfe, A. B. author of the poem on the " Burial of Sir John Moore," which lately
excited such interest, will, it is said, be'printed from the author's manuscript.
Frederick Reynolds, the Dramatist, sold the Reminiscences of his Public Life to a London bookseller, for a considerable sum of money, even before they were written.", This witty and eccentric author intends to publish them in two volumes. They will include anecdotes of all the play-writers and actors that have figured upon the stage during the last forty years.
Lord Byron.—The Paris booksellers are about to publish the correspondence of Lord Byron with a friend, with the addition'of letters written to his mother, from Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and .Greece; edited by R. C. Dallas. This is the work, the publication of which has been interdicted in this country by an injunction of the Lord Chancellor.
©tarj) of ®rcuron«K.
Dec. 21. To-day the winter quarter begins, forming a good epoch for the commencement of my diary, which I purpose continuing regularly from this time forward.
A celebrated actress, Miss Foote, obtains from J. Hayne,Esq., 3000/. damages for breach of promise of marriage: strange doings in high life! Saw Miss F. perform, and thought her an angel of light. The Chronicle remarks, thatjexcess of riches tend to make men profligate. Youth and beauty too are great temptations, and catching snares for females as well as the other sex. Poor Maria! though twice near the haven of Hymen, is now stranded.
Went in the evening to hear Mr. Boone's Lectures.
22.—Yesterday Mr. O'Connell was arrested on a charge of having uttered sedition at a meeting of the Catholic Association. The sedition imputed to him is an allusion to the victories of the Independents in South America, and the expression of a hope, that if Ireland be oppressed beyond endurance, she may find a Bolivar.
Subscriptions to the amount of between 3000/. and 4000/. have been received in behalf of the distressed Spanish and Italian refugees.
23.—The king of France opens the Legislative Session. Allusion is made to measures in contemplation for augmenting the revenues of the clergy, and for indemnifying the emigrants.
A Perambulating Advertiser announced, for superseding the present race of billstickers, and doing away entirely with the nuisance of placarding.
Arkhnethy V. The Lancet.—Injunction refused, because Mr. A. had no written copy of his lectures, prior to their delivery. The principle in this case is plain. Any one may have a property in an oral discourse, or even his own thoughts but then they must be enrolled,—there must be some title-deed of the intellectual estate, otherwise how can it be identified l Foresaw the Doctor would be at fault here. Remember hearing him lecture some years ago: he had certainly no MS. or notes then, except those inscribed in "the volume of his brain." His manner has all the ease of familiar conversation, and he delivers his discourse with as de'gage'e an air, as one would tell a tale over a gate-post on a fine summer evening. I wonder whether Mr. A. performs with hands in pocke, as in auld lang syne I 24.—New Era.—The first export of wool from England for two centuries tools
filace last week ; 50 bags of a coarse quail y were exported to the United States of America. The exportation of wool was prohibited till last session of Parliament, when a bill was introduced, allowing the export of wool on the payment of a trifling duty: under the new act the export has taken place.
Advice from the Bay of Callao, that Bolivar had completely defeated Canterac, killing 6000 of his best troops. The Columbian general is establishing a noble reversion for himself in the opinion of posterity. Few men, like Washington and Bolivar, can resist the illusion of military glory, and place their ambition in liberating, instead of enslaving mankind.
A process has been discovered in France for giving to bricks the consistency and quality of those used by the Romans.
25.—Spent Christmas-day after the old English fashion.
Messrs. Bray and Malohave succeeded, by means of a curious composition, in imitating the most valuable species of wood and the most beautiful marbles. In the wood of their composition, the veins and shades may be carried to any depth, so that the wood may be planed without any alteration of colour. This curious invention is supposed to open a vast field to the arts connected with cabinet-making and ornamental architecture.
27.—Inundation In Hanover.—This year has been remarkable for the extraordinary floods which have inundated different districts in Europe. In England, in consequence of incessant rains, the rivers Ayre and the Severn overflowed their banks and did considerable mischief. Accounts from Hanover relate, that on the 15th ult. the Elbe rose nearly twenty feet above the usual level. The dikes being already soaked could no longer withstand the immense mass of water pressing against them. They gave way in thirty different places, and the floods bursting through the openings, some of them 500 feet wide, tore up the meadows and fields, in many parts to the depth of from thirty to forty feet, washed away whole houses and barns,
and in a few hours the whole country resembled a vast sea.
Later accounts from St. Petersburg show the loss of life, and the destruction of property, to be much greater than at first was expected. Whole villages have been swept away by the watery avalanche. At Cronstadt, the sea rising above the great battery, laid the whole town under water, and the inhabitants were forced to take refuge in the second stories. Two steamboats were floated into the middle of the town, and a ship of the line, of 100 guns, was left by the flood in the middle of the square. The total loss of property in St. Petersburg alone is estimated at 80,000,000 of silver rubles, without reckoning the damage done to the public buildings. The whole regiment of carabineers was carried away from the roof of the barracks. The total loss of lives during the inundations in Petersburg and the neighbouring places is estimated at 30,000.
UNDER this head will be comprised every memoranda necessary to be known on each day of the following week: namely, customs on festival days; anniversary chronology of remarkable events and occurrences; astronomical phenomena; holidays at the public offices; annual public meetings, for religious, charitable, or other purposes; opening of the theatres, opera, and other places of public amusement; the commencement of public lectures; the angling, shooting, and sporting seasons; farming and gardening intelligence; law and university terms; principal fairs; time of high water, See. In short, the WEEKLY CALENDAR will constitute a memento of information of all things worthy of notice, and business to be transacted throughout the ensuing week. The plan of this article is original, as well as of the DIARY OF OCCURRENCES, and form peculiar features in the "CIRCULATOR." They will both, we conceive, be of great utility for reference to the merchant, fanner, and general reader,— one forming a retrospect of the past week, the other a prospective of the week to come.
SitWtUary I. Circumcision.—Saturday,
High Waten, Morn. X. 39 m.—Aft. XI.
13 min. Sun rises VIII. 5 m.; sets III. 55 m. Venus is a morning star till May 19th. Holiday—Bank, India House, South Sea
House, and Exchequer.
New Year's Day.—Customs.—To give and receive presents—pay visits— mutual greeting—feasting—and general rejoicing. The morning salutation is " A happy New Year '" Many people make a point to wear some new clothes, and es* teem the omission of this unlucky. The few remaining customs on New Year's Day are descended from those anciently observed on the festival of Janus, from which the month derives its name.
Anniversary Chronology.— WilIiam the Conqueror crowned at Westminster, A. D. 1067.—William Tell emancipates the Swiss from Austrian tyranny, 1308.—Horson died, the noted Cambridge carrier; whence the proverb, "Hobson's choice," 1630.—Charles II. crowned at Scone, Perthshire, Scotland, 1651.—Union of Great Britain with Ireland, 1801.
High Waten, Morn. XI. 48 m.—Aft.
0. 0. Sunday Lesson, Morn. 41 Isa. 1 Matt.—
Even. 43 Isa. 2 Rom.
Anniversary Chronology.—Death of Ovid, the amatory poet, and of Livy, the Roman historian, R. c. 17.—General Wolfe born at Westerham in Kent, A. D. 1727.—Lavaten, the famous physiognomist, died, aged 60, at his native place, Zurich, in Switzerland.
High Waten, Morn. XII. 23 m.—Aft. I.
4 m. Sun rises, VIII. 4 m.; sets III. 56 m.—
Clock before sun 3 m. 57 sec.
Garden.—The feasting and holidays of Christmas are still too near to think of doing much in the garden, but if the weather continues open, it may be neither, unwholesome nor unseasonable to begin sowing a few radishes, carrots, spinage, and small salad.
Anniversary Chronology.—R. C. 107, Cicero, the Roman orator, philosopher, and statesman, born. A. D. 1670, died general Monk, duke of Albermarle; he was born at Potheridge in Devonshire, and was a principal instrument in restoring Charles II. : historians concur in placing general Monk among the vilest of mankind. Avarice, reserve, and dissimulation, made up the whole stock of his wisdom, and was redeemed by no virtue except personal courage. Lord Clarendon, a tory, and one who had greatly benefited by Monk's cunning and management, says, "profit was always the highest reason with Monk." See Varieties.—A. D. 1795, died in the 64th year of his age, at his seat, Etruria in Staffordshire, Josiah Wedgwood, to whose taste and ingenuity, England is indebted for the'establishment of a valuable manufacture'of earthenware, applicable not only to the useful purposes of life, but to the arts, antiquity, and history.
j&amiarg IV. St. Gregory, Tuesday. High Waten, Morn. I. 25 m.—Aft. I
55 m. Full Moon, 39 m. past 11, night.
Whether it arises from the increased
number of steam-engine fires, the greater density of the populatiou, or the less humidity of the atmosphere, is doubtful, but certainly the winters latterly have not been so severe, and we are seldom now reminded of the old song, which formerly used to be sung about this season, beginning,
^ Cold and raw the north wind blows,
Anniversary Chronology. •—Died Roger Ascham, tutor to queen Elizabeth, and a learned and elegant scholar, 1568. He was born at Kirby-Wiske in Yorkshire, and was buried in St. Sepulchre's church, London. Prince Eugene of Savoy arrived in England, 1712.
High Water, Morn. II. 25 m.—Aft.
II. 47 m.
Sun rises, VIII. 2 m.'; sets, III. 58 m. Francis Moore, physician, says, 7iear the beginning of the year we may expect frost and fair weather. We shall see, as the French say.
Anniversary Chronology.— 1809, died Isaac Reed, a much respected literary character, and many years proprietor and editor of the European Magazine.
Vegetation. — Straight screw moss is about this time in fructification, and yellow tremella may be found on palings, rotten wood, &c.
Sfanuar» VI. Epiphany.—Thursday.
High Waten, Morn. III. 9 m.—Aft.
III. 27 m.
Sun rises, VIII. 1 m.; sets, III. 59 m. Holiday. — Bank, East India House,
South Sea House, and Exchequer.
Twelfth-day.—Customs.— This is old Christmas day, and the custom of eating twelfth-cake, and drawing for king'and queen, served to beguile the long evenings at this season. The customs of Twelfthnight were originally instituted in honour of the eastern sages, who came to adore and bring presents to Jesus Christ at Bethlehem. In allusion to this circumstance, the King offers, annually, by proxy, in the chapel-royal, St. James's, gold, frankincense, and myrrh. During the festival at Paris, the grand annual procession of a fat ox, with all its motley accompaniments of buffooneiy, the glory of Pans and the pride and joy of the Boulevards, lasts for three days together. The custom of Twelfth-night is doubtless derived from the festival of Saturn, when the ancient Greeks and Romans drew lots for imaginary kingdoms.
High Waten, Morn. IIT. 45 m.—Aft.
IV. 2 m.
This being the day after Twelfth-day is sometimes called St. Distaff's day, and Christmas holidays are said to be ended. The evergreens, and the berries of ivy, holly, and misletoe, which had given a liveliness to the decoration of houses and churches, now disappear.
Anniversary Chronology.—A. D. 1558, Calais surrendered to the French, after it bad been in possession of the English above 210 years.—1785, Mr. Blanchard, accompanied by Dr. JefFries, went in a balloon from Dover to Calais, in about two hours.
Natural History. — Except the hellcborus niger, or Christmas rose, which shows its pretty flower about this time, there is little or no amusement for the botanist. But though Flora does not make her appearance, Fauna ranges the fields, and there are many objects of interest to the student of nature ; wild fowl of several kinds still perform partial migrations; and when the weather is mild, the sportsman may find diversion in the fields. Snipes and woodcocks are still to be found in swampy situations, and many wild ducks and geese of various sorts^ in the fenny counties.
LIST OF WORKS PUBLISHED. Highways and Byways, second series, 3 vols. post 8vo. \l. 10s.—Novels and Romances, by the Author of Waverly, continued to Quentin Durward, 7i vols. l8mo. 21. 9s. fid.—PetersdortFs Abridgment of the ^Common Law Reports, vol. 1, royal 8vo. I/. lis. Gil.—Bickell's West Indies, as they are, 8vo. 6s. 6d.—Houghton's Wine Cellars Check Book, oblong 4to. 10s. fid.—Schroeder on Bail, 8vo. 7s. fid.—New Landlord's Tales, or Jedidiah in the South, 2 vols. 12mn. 14s.— Letters from Lisbon, by Marianne Baillie, 2 vols. foolscap 8vo. 15s.—Madame Campan's Private Journal, 8vo. 14s.—Napoleon's Memoirs, English, 4th livraison, 8vo. 14s.—Queen Hynde a poem, by James Hogg, 8vo. 14s.
COMMERCE, LONDON, Dec. -34.
Cotton.—The demand for cotton continues considerable ; the late prices are fully maintained.
Sugar.—The demand for Muscovadoes during the week has been languid; the good and fine maintain the late prices, the ordinary and soft are very heavy, and may be purchased at lower rates.
Coffee The market prices of this article remain nominally the same as in the preceding week.
Rice.—There is a renewed inquiry after rice to-day, but there is no alteration in the prices.
Tallow And Hemp.—Purchases of new yellow candle tallow are reported at 38*. since which the market has ibecome steady at 817, 3d, a m, U. Hemp is ill. a Vtl.
Rum, Brandy, And Hollands.—The rum market continues very firm, and higher prices are expected. Brandies are steady at 3*. a 3*. Id.
LONDON MARKETS, Dec. 44.
Corn.—The corn market is scantily supplied with grain owing to the late boisterous weather; fine wheat was readily taken off on full as good terms as lost Menday.
Average.—Wheat 67s. 5d. Barley 41s. Od. Oats 27*. 7d.
The highest price of bread in the metro, polis is lid. for Oe 41b. loaf; the majority of bakers sell from Id. to 'Ml. below that ratej
L Meat market is rather improved. Per stone of 81bs. sinking the offal.
*. d. *.1 d.
Beef 3 0 to 4 4
Mutton 3 4 4 8
Veal 4 0 5 4
• Pork" 3 8 5 4!
. Price of Poultry, &c. r'
*. d. s. d.
Turkeys 5 0 to 18 0
Geese 4 0 12 0
Fowls (each) 16 20
Ducks (each) 16 3 6
Eggs per 100 12 0 0 0
Butter, fresh 13 15,
Rabbits 10 18
Pigs • • • • 5 o 10 o
. COAL EXCHANGE.
Newcastle . - 28 6 39 0
Sunderland 29 6 40 3
69J Ships at Market 16 sold.
PRICE OF STOCK.
Bank Stock 229 J
3 Per Cent reduced ... 94' Consols for Jan. Ace. ... 05 India Bonds 96
TO CORRESPONDENTS. 'D. G. D. will find on referring to our Prospectus that it does not embrace the subjects on which he treats.
We shall be happy to hear again from Nearchus, but his present subject is already well known.
The plan of An Observer we think impracticable ; it would only form an Encyclopssdia of " shreds and patches," more voluminous than those already published.
J. F. Stuart's proposal is accepted.
H. C. W. lies over for considertion. \
All communications not inserted remain at the Publisher's.
We should be sorry to reject a good article on account of its length, and we hope our Correspondents will spare us the alternative, by considering the restrictions imposed upon us by the limits of our publication and the variety of subjects it proposes to embrace. The articles in the present Number must not be taken as a criterion, as some of them are longer than we intend them to be in future/
T. has been received.
London: Printed for THOMAS BOYS, Xo. 7, Ludgate Hill, to whom all communications (free of expense) are requested to be addressed; and sold also by all Booksellers, Newsmen, and Venders in Town and Country, Published every Saturday,
CALDER Calder Castle, immortalized by the pea of Shakspeare, is situated near Nairn, a town of Scotlaud, and capital of a county of the same name. As far back as the time of king Malcolm I., Buchanan informs us that this castle was taken by the Danes, who treated the garrison with great cruelty. The river Nairn, which then ran hard by the castle, now flows into the Moray Frith, nearly half an English mile to the east of Nairn.
Calder castle derived its original name from the ancient family of Calder, and is supposed to have been the castle of Macbeth, and the site of the murder of king Duncan. The extensive property attached to the castle, then belonged to the king of Scotland,of which the Calders were thanes. It was for some time occupied by Macbeth, as guardian to his step son, Lulach Maormor, of Moray. Shakspeare denominates Macbeth the thane of Cawdor; but in the Chronicles more ancient than Hollinshed, from whom Shakspeare drew his information, Macbeth is _styled the thane
of Moray, and some have conjectured the scene of Duncan's murder to have been Balligowannan near Elgin.
Dr. Johnson visited this enchanted spot in his Tour to the Western Islands and felt the power of ancient associations. "We went forward," says he, " the same day to Fores, the town to which Macbeth was travelling when he met the weird sisters in his way.' This to an Englishman is classic ground. Our imaginations were heated, and our thoughts recalled to their old amusements."
The limits of the constabulary garden belonging to Calder castle are still visible. It is built on a rock, washed on the west by rapid brooks, and has formerly been a place of great strength. The tower is very ancient. Its walls are of great thickness, arched on the top with stone, and surrounded with battlements. The drawbridge is still to be seen, but the moat is now dry.
In 1791 Calder eastle was the scat of Mr. Campbell of Calder, In one of the c