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• The obvious and customary situation for culinary hothouses is in the kitchen garden; for greenhouses or conservatories, in the parterre or shrubbery, or attached to the mansion. But modern taste has in some instances judiciously disposed the whole in one magnificent range en suite with the principal apartments of the house, and this is perhaps one of the greatest luxuries of a modern country residence. When subsequent improvements in communicating heat, and in ventilation, shall have rendered the artificial climates produced, equal or superior to those which they imilate, then will such an appendage to a family seat be not less useful in a medical point of view, than elegant and luxurious as a lounge for exercise or entertainment in inclement weather. Perhaps the time may arrive when such artificial climates will not only be stocked with appropriate birds, fishes, and harmless animals, but with examples of the human species from the different countries imitated, habited in their particular costumes, and who may serve as gardeners or curators of the different productions. But this subject is too new and strange to admit of discussion, without incurring the ridicule of general readers.
The most extensive range of glass houses attached to a mansion which I have any where seen (and as glass houses are almost entirely confined to Britain and the north of Europe, I may say I have seen every hothouse of any consequence in the world,) is at Gorinka, the magnificent domaiu of Count Razumowski, near Moscow. The house is in the centre, and the glass forms two wings fronting the lawn, the whole composing an immense semicircle terminating in one extremity in a building dedicated to natural history, and containing an extensive collection under the superintendance of an eminent professor (Fischer). The other ending in a theatre, capable like that at Versailles of being arranged as a ball-room, concert-room, tennis-court, or riding-house, in a few hours'.
· Independently of this range, there are at Gorinka nearly thirty detached houses in the botanic garden, there being in all above three English acres covered with glass. For how much
In England there are several magnificent orangeries attached to mansions, but few instances of all the glass being in one range and en suite. In general, where there is the greatest number of houses, as in the Royal gardens, Woodlands, St. Fagons, &c. they are scattered and disconnected in such a way as to produce no effect. To be under the necessity of walking some distance from the mansion before
you enter the conservatory, and then to be exposed to the open air between the inspection of each of the remaining glass houses, appears to me mal-adroit and insalutary.
The Design or plan to be adopted depends on the combined considerations arising from the situation and the object in view. Where a range, or a single house, is to be attached to a mansion, study elegance; but where the kitchen garden is selected as the place of erection, study utility and economy. As in the present mode of con, struction in timber, perpendicular front glass of two or three feet in height, and a sloping roof placed to an angle of forty or forty-five degrees, have been long found to answer most purposes, at least for vines, greenhouses, and botanic stoves; so, as a general design for corresponding objects, and adapted for iron astragals, I propose that of which Figs.1,2,and 3, Pl.V.are delineations. For peach-houses for a general crop, the same form may be adopted, with the glass in three or more parts, to be raised as in Fig. 4, PL. V. For fruiting pineries, I have no hesitation in saying that the section in Pl. V. Fig. 7, though inconvenient as to keeping the plants perpendicular in the bark pit, yet is in principle far superior to any in common use, and, if steam were substituted for bark, would in theory be as perfect in respect to the slope of the glass and pit as the nature of the subject admits. The earliest
mankind depend on this elegant material produced from seemingly the most useless of the débris of our globe, see a most eloquent paper by Professor Cuvier, in the Magasin Encyclopédique for 1816, entitled Réflexions sur la Marche actuelle des Sciences, et sur leurs Rapports avec la Société. See also A didactic Epistle to General Showalow on the Utility of Glass: Petersburg 1760, by the celebrated Russian poet and philosopher Lomonosow.
description of forcing-houses, whether for grapes or peaches, will be inost advantageously arranged after the manner of Fig. 6, PL. 1, with the improvements and variations of which that plan is susceptible.
As leading general data on this subject I submit the following, viz.
1. That where the glass is to be fixed', the roof should be formed
of astragals alone. See Pl. V. Figs. 1, 2, and 3, and the
explanation to these figures. 2. That in almost every case curved cast iron rafters, proceeding
at once from the front to the back wall, will be preferable to having upright front glass, as affording much more light,admitting the improved method of giving air shown in PL. VII., as well as being more elegant and less expensive. See Fig. 4,
PLATE V. 3. An outer or inner curtain will be found of great service in
every case; and it has this peculiar property, that, if it
does no good, it cannot possibly do harm. 4. Wherever a number of houses are together, and placed under
the management of a careful person, they will be best heated
by steam. 5. In addition to every house, there ought to be in the back shed
or other adjoining building a reservoir of temperate air. 6. In addition to the best arrangements and the most expert gar
dener, the artificial regulator of temperature invented by
Mr. Kewley will be found of real utility. 7. In remote parts of the country, on a small scale, and under
* Air admitted from the front wall and back wall, it would appear, is found sufficient in the case of vines; at least judging from Mr. Knight's experience, which, as a German critic judi. ciously observes, is particularly important, and has occasioned considerable improvement in England in this branch. “ Die erfahrungen des Hern Knight ueber diesen gegenstand sind besonders wichtig, und wir empfehlen sie vorzüglich dem Deutschen leser, da man in diesen anlegen weit fortschritte in England gemacht hat.” Göttengische Gelehrte Anziegen, Jan. 1817, p. 146.
ordinary circumstances, simple improvements, and such as when they go out of order can be readily repaired by local artists, should be adopted in preference to more perfect plans which require greater skill in the management, and more expert artisans to reinstate them in case of derangement.
Heat is artificially communicated to hothouses by fire, steam, and the putrefactive fermentation of vegetable substances. Heating by fires is the most ancient and general mode. Originally in this country hot embers were placed in a hole in the floor'. On the continent, fires were made in stoves erected within the house?; and subsequently they were kindled at one end of a large vault under the floor, the smoke going out by a chimney at the other3. To these plans succeeded horizontal fluest, reserve chambers of heated air , air flues®, and the introduction of hot air through metallic tubes in contact with the fire. One Watts, gardener to the company of Apothecaries at Chelsea, in 1684, seems to have been the first to convey heat by tunnels underneath the floor of his greenhouse 8; and Evelyn?, a few years after, gives a plan for introducing a constant supply of heated air from the fire-place, very similar to the mode for which a patent has been recently obtained by the Marquis de Chabannes. The various alterations and
'Ray's Letters, 172. This was originally the practice in private houses, and hence the curfew or couvre feu, &c. See Beckmann's History of Inventions, vol. ii. p. 103.
s Parkinson's Herbal, p. 588. Niederlandische Hesperides, 145.
: Ecole du Potager, Paris, 1750; and Kirchner's Praktische Anleitung für Gartenkunst, &c. Leipsig, 1796. • Linnæus in Descriptio Horti Upsaliensis. Maison rustique, 3icme edit. art. Serre.
Encyclopédie Méthodique, art. Serre. Van Oosten in Dutch Gardener, 1711. 6 Dr. Anderson in Patent Hothouse, and in Recreations.
? Evelyn in Kalendarium Hortense, App. to 4th edit. Gouger in Méchanique du Feu, Paris, 1713, and La Maison rustique, p. 14, tom. ii. edit. 1768.
Martyn in Miller's Dictionary, art. Store.
Explanation of a new method for warming and purifying the Air in private Houses, &c. London, 1815. Gouger's work, translated and improved by Desaguliers in 1715, contains the rudiments of the Marquis de Chabannes, and almost every other modern improvement in toves and fire places.
improvements that have been made from Evelyn's time to the present day, are so numerous as not to admit even of recapitulation in these Remarks. Most of them may be found in the Repertory of Arts, and the principal French and English Encyclopedias, particularly that of · Dr. Rees. In as far as respects hothouses, the subject has been treated
of in the most ingenious manner by Dr. Anderson; and Mons. Guyton in the Annales de Chimie has given the ablest view of its economy for domestic and general purposes.
The earliest proposal which I have met with for forwarding vegetation by steam is contained in the Gentleman's Magazine for January 1755; and the first who actually practised steam forcing appears to have been Mr. Wakefield of Liverpool in 1788. Mr. Hoyle of Halifax took out a patent for heating hothouses and other buildings by steam in 1791. Mr. Butler employed steam with success in a pinery at Knowlsby in Lancashire in 1792, and Mr. Green in dwelling-houses and greenhouses in London in 1793'. Mr. Mawer of Dalry near Edinburgh adopted steam in 17942 in three pineries, two peachhouses, and two vineries, and Mr. Weston of Leicester, in pits about the same time. : Subsequently Mr. Thomson at Tynningham, Mr. Williams, Dr. Lisle', Mr. Dennison, and various others, down to Mr. Fraser7, who at the Royal gardens at Kensington has recently commenced his operations for heating by steam more scientifically than (as far as I know) has hitherto been done. In all the above instances, excepting Hoyle's and Fraser's, the steam was admitted to mix with the air of the house, and condense on the plants;
Repertory of Arts. Buchannan on Heating by Steam, p. 164. • Robertson's View of the Agriculture of Mid Lothian, Appendix, Edinburgh, 1798..
The Earl of Haddington's seat near Dunbar. * London Hort. Trans. vol.i. * At St. Fagons near Cardiff.
• At Dorking: steam is also employed in a hothouse at Clapham, and at Mr. Loddige's nursery, Hackney.
? Ironmonger and Brazier, Long Acre, London.