« НазадПродовжити »
Norfolk, which the Romans removed afterwards to Castor, near Norwich. - The Iceni CoriTAN1,” or, as they are often termed the CorIceni, appear chiefly to have inhabited the counties of Lincoln, Leicester, Nottingham, Derby, and Rutland, with the remaining part of Northamptonshire. Their chief city was Raga, or Ratae (Leicester). - ... The original Celtic population of the district now termed Wales, will be mentioned in a future page; and I, therefore, proceed towards the north, in which direction, to the westward of the Coritani, were seated the CARNAB11, or CoRNAVII,t whose territories are believed to have extended over a great part of the following counties:–Warwickshire, Worcestershire, Staffordshire, Shropshire, and Cheshire. (The remainder of the two former of these counties appears to have been possessed by a tribe which is termed Huiccii, by Bede, but is called Jugantes, by Tacitus, , and whose name is now commonly written Wiccii.) The metropolis of the Carnabii was Uriconium (Wroxeter.) To the north of the Carnabii and the Coritani, were situated the Brigantes,t who constituted the most numerous and powerful of the British nations, at the time of the Roman invasion.— Their dominions extended over the present counties of Durham, York, Westmoreland, Cumberland, and Lancaster. But parts of the western border of this great territory were occupied by two tribes, of distinct appellations, although subject to the government
• The Coritani are noticed in the Beauties for Rutlandshire, p. 4; for
Leicestershire, p. 313; for Nottinghamshire, p. 2; and for Derbyshire, p. 291. ... * * * --+ For notices of the Carnabii, or Cornavii, see Beauties for Warwickshire, p. 3–3; for Worcestershire, p. 3–5; for Staffordshire, p. 717–719; and for Cheshire, p. 183–184. . - o # For notices of the tribe termed Brigantes, see Beauties for Durham, p. 5–6; for Yorkshire, p. 1–8.; and 668–669; for Westmoreland, p. 1 ; for Cumberland, p. 3–5; and for Lancashire, p. 5–7. The Sistuntii and the Volantii are noticed in the same pages, with an exception of those for Yorkshire.
of the Brigantes. These were entitled the voluntil and sisTuntil." The interest created by their names, is, however, very slight, as the most important events connected with their story must be sought in the annals of the Brigantes. This latter potent and predominating tribe owned numerous towns, the principal of which was Isurium (Aldborough, near Boroughbridge.) In addition to the above particulars respecting Brigantia, it must be observed, that a people termed the Panism are mentioned, both by Richard and Ptolemy, as living in that district which is now termed the East Riding of York. But it is conjectured by Baxter, Whitaker, and other modern writers, that the Parisii did not constitute a separate tribe, and were merely the Cangi, or herdsmen of the Brigantes. It is certain, that they were subordinate to that powerful nation; and if they had not been separately noticed by early geographers, the historian would be quite indifferent as to their identity and presumed characteristics. Their only town, according to Ptolemy, was called Petuaria (Brough on the Humber) although a second, termed Portus Felix, is noticed by Richard of Cirencester, which, probably, was situated near the mouth of that river. g The most northern tribes of the country now denominated England were the Ottapinif and the GADENI, who held such parts of the counties of Northumberland and Cumberland as are north of the Tyne; and the domains of the former are supposed to have extended into Scotland, as far as the extremity of Lothian; thus comprising a long and fine extent of sea-coast. Ptolemy, to . c 2 whose
* The geographical positions of these tribes are marked in the annexed map ; and the following observations concerning their exact limits, together with those of the Brigantes, are presented in the notes on Richard of Cirencester, p. 51. The territory of the Brigantes proper, “stretched from the bounds of the Parisii, northward to the Tine; and from the Humber and Don to the mountains of Lancashire, Westmoreland, and Cumberland. To the Voluntil belonged the western part of Lancashire; and to the sistanti, the west of Westmoreland and Cumberland, as far as the Wall.” .
* The tribe termed Ottadini, is noticed in the Beauties for Northumberland, p. 1–2. ź . 3.
whose geography we are chiefly indebted for our knowedge of this people, describes them as possessing two principal towns, named Bremenium,” and Curia. On the testimony of Richard, the former is believed to have been the capital of the Ottadimi, and is known to have occupied the site of Riechester, eight miles north of Risingham. # § The aboriginal population of WALES is noticed, at some Jength, in the pages which are introductory to the account of Cambria, forming part of the “Beauties”. But the respective territorial possessions of each tribe, are defined in terms so brief, yet perspicuous, in the following passages, that, with the permission of their learned author, I present them, as the most desirable means of communicating concise information on this head. “The Silures, with their two dependent tribes, the Dimecia, and the Ordovices, possessed all the country to the west of the Severn and the Dee, together with the island of Anglesey. “Of these territories, the Dimecia had the counties of Pembroke, Cardigan, and Caermarthen; while the Silures possessed all the rest of South Wales, as well as such parts of England as lay to the west of the Severn, and to the south of the Teme. The Ordovices occupied all North Wales, as well as all the country to the north of the Teme, and to the west of the Severn and the Dee, except a small tract of country to the west of Bangor and Pwlwelly-bay, which belonged, together with the isle of Anglesey, to their subordinale clan, the Cangiani.f.” After a long possession of this island, throughout all its most fertile districts, the original Celtic inhabitants were compelled to admit as participators in so fair a territory, the Belgie, a Teutonic people (and the common parent of the Romans, the Saxons, • See some curious particulars relating to the site and remains of this ahsient city, in the Beauties for Northumberland, p. 149–153. . + vide Beauties, Vol. XVII. p. 5-6. % . * Note on Tichard of Cirencester, by the Rev. Thomas Lemań.
the Danes, and the Normans,)" who are supposed to have first migrated into Britain, about three centuries previous to the arrival of Caesar. These invaders speedily effected a settlement in the southern and western parts of Britain; and, in process of time, extended their conquests from the shores of Kent, to the extremity of Cornwall. At the date of the first invasion of Julius Caesar, the Belgae, thus settled in Britain, consisted of the following seven colonies:—1. the Cantii, of Kent; 2. the Regni, or Rhemi, of Surrey and Sussex; 3. the Proper Belgae, of Hampshire and Wiltshire; 4. the Attrebates, of Hampshire and Berkshire; 5. the Morini, of Dorsetshire; 6. the Damnonii, of Devonshire and Cornwall; and 7, the Trinobantes, of Essex and Herts. . . . . ;
Thus, the before-mentioned Celtic inhabitants of the southern and western parts of Britain, were expelled by the following Belgic colonies: the Cantii, who gained possession of all the country, from the mouth of the Thames to the Rother; the Regni, or Rhemi, who extended their conquests from thence to the western borders of Sussex; the Belgae proper, who over-ran all the country westward, to the banks of the Stour in Dorsetshire; the Morini, who continued their conquests to the Ax; the Damnonii, who subdued the whole remainder of country on the west, to the banks of the Fal; the Attrebates, who drove the Segontiaci from the banks of the Thames; and the Trinobantes, who, crossing the Thames, and invading the Eastern Cassii, extended their conquests to the Stour, and the middle of Hertfordshire.f -
C 3 A more + g * See Remarks on the Early inhabitants of Britain, History of Hertfordshire, Vol. I. p. 12. - - . * + Genuine Hist. of the Britons asserted, p. 63–65. 3. From this statement of Belgic conquests must be excepted, “a confined territory, which was left to the Segontiuci, under its capital Wendomis; and the mountains of Somersetshire, Cornwall, and Devon, all which still remained possessed by the Carnabii and the Cimbri.” History of Hertfordshire, p. 11. - w
A more particular account of the geographical circumstances of each Belgic tribe, at the date of Caesar's first invasion, may, however, be desirable. * The Cantil " inhabited the country which is now termed Kent; and their territories comprised the whole of that county, with the exception of a small district that belonged to the Regni. They are described by Caesar as the most civilized of all the Britons, and as differing but very little in their manners from their brethren in Gaul. Their capital was Durovernum (Canterbury.) § ... 3. The REGNI, or RhEM1,f occupied the sea coast from Rye Harbour, on the border of Sussex, and the whole interior of that county, together with Surrey, a small part of Hants and Berks, and a very trifling portion of Kent. Noviomagus, written Neomagus by Ptolemy, (Holwood hill) was their metropolis. The territories of the Belgæ proper comprehended the greater part of Hampshire and Wiltshire; other parts being still retained by the Celtic Segontiaci. Certain portions of Wiltshire, are, however, supposed by some writers to have been occupied by the tribe denominated CEANg1,f nearly at the period of the invasion
* For a notice of the Cantii, and of some historical events relating to that people, see Beauties for Kent, p. 406, et seq. •
t See the Regni noticed in the Beauties for Sussex, p. 23; and for Surrey, p. 30. .
t The Cangi, Ceangi, or Cangani (for these terms are usually supposed to be descriptive of the same people,) are mentioned by Tacitus, as dwelling near the sea “which looks towards Ireland.” Camden is inclined to place them either in Somersetshire or Cheshire; but traces of the appellation by which they are known, may be discovered in various other counties. Some modern antiquaries, of whom Baxter (vide Gloss. Brit.) and Whitaker (vide Hist. of Manchester) are the principal, suppose that the Cangi were not a distinct tribe, but merely such of the youth of different British nations, as were employed in watching the herds and flocks. Persons engaged in such a duty would be armed, for the defence of their herds from the attack of rival Clans, or from the ferocity of beasts of prey; and as they were proba