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Q. Describe the Dyneto "non-stalling" feature.

A. One of the distinctive features of the Dyneto System is that it is non-stalling. This makes driving in traffic perfectly easy without changing gears every time the car is slowed down. This is because when the engine tends to run slower than a certain number of revolutions the device ceases to be a generator and becomes

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Fig. 374.–View at Left Shows Simple Control Switch of Dyneto-White

Starting and Lighting System. Rear View of Motor at Right Shows
Large Starting Sprocket Used on White Engine Flywheel.

a motor, automatically drawing current from the storage battery instead of putting current into it. It is contended by those who do not favor the one unit system that the non-stalling feature makes a serious drain on the battery. It is said that no current is drawn from the battery at speeds above 8 M.P.H. and that very little is taken at any lower speed at which the car can be driven. When any current is drawn from the battery back through the motor generator, the series field is strengthened and as this causes an increase of voltage it prevents to a large extent a back flow of current. The device changes from a motor to a generator at 5 miles per hour,

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Fig. 375.—Motor Characteristic Curves of 12-Volt Dyneto Machine.

It is necessary to take into consideration the engine to which the machine is to be fitted and proportion the windings accordingly, It may be desirable on a car having a certain gear ratio to have the back flow occur at a somewhat higher speed than on another

These factors are taken into consideration in designing the various systems. A number of curves are given at Fig. 375 show



Fig. 376.—The Dyneto One Unit Motor-Generator at A and Latest

Method of Installing It on Franklin Engines Shown at B.

ing the motor characteristics of a 12 volt Dyneto size B. It will be observed by consulting the upper diagram that in this case the device changes from a motor to a generator at a speed of 71/2 M.P.H. If the speed is increased above this figure the machine becomes a generator and charges the storage battery. If the speed decreases the device becomes a motor and draws current from the storage battery. It will be observed that the minimum current output of 121/2 amperes is produced when the engine is turning over at a speed equivalent to 1712 M.P.H. From this point the current output falls so that at 471/2 M.P.H. but six amperes are being generated. At 600 R.P.M. the machine delivers .6 H.P. and is working at 60 per cent. efficiency. Similarly, if used as a generator it is consuming .6 H.P. at 600 R.P.M. At this speed it is capable of exerting the torque of 30 lbs. feet, which means a pull of 30 pounds at a distance of one foot from crankshaft center. Those technically informed will have no trouble in following the motor characteristic curves presented. The reader who is more interested in the practical application of the system than in the technical aspects will not be interested in curves of this nature.

Q. What is the simplest “one unit” system and how is the "motor generator" driven?

As The complete starting system shown at Fig. 377, is one in which the motor generator replaces the gasoline engine flywheel. This means that it is directly connected to the motor crankshaft and does not employ any reduction gearing of any form. The various members comprising the starting system are indicated in heavy black lines, while the rest of the chassis is shown in light black lines. The system is simple and easily understood. An automatic switch which changes the electric machine into a generator for charging the storage battery when the gasoline engine is running and the starting button is in its released position is one of the important parts. The regulator which makes the rate of charging the battery the same at all engine speeds is placed on the dash. The simple operation of depressing the starting button when the gasoline engine is not turning changes the flywheel generator into an electric motor that draws current from the twenty-four volt storage battery and which rotates the motor crankshaft.

Q. Describe Auto-Lite starting and lighting system.

A. The arrangement of parts of a three unit starting, lighting and ignition system of the Auto-Lite manufacture is shown at Fig. 378, while the various important parts comprising the system are shown in the lower portion of the illustration. As will be apparent, the ignition is from an entirely different source, an independent high tension magneto being provided for this purpose. The generator is placed at the side of the engine and is driven by a silent chain connection from the motor crank shaft. The starting motor is attached to the rear of the engine on the magneto side and is used to turn the engine crank shaft by engaging directly with a gear cut on the outside of the fly-wheel. The system operates on the one wire method. An automatic circuit breaker is provided to which the generator is connected. This is interposed between the generator and storage battery and when the engine speed becomes so low that the generator output is less than the discharge of the battery the circuit breaker interrupts the connection and prevents the battery from discharging through the dynamo. The various circuits are clearly outlined in the diagram and no difficulty should be experienced in tracing the wiring to the various units. The lighting system is very complete, consisting of two head lights, two side lights, a dash light and rear signal. The wires leading to the various units and to the switch are of different colors, so that no trouble will result when tracing the various circuits. In order to prevent damage through short circuiting of a wire, a fuse box is provided, small fuses being interposed in all lamp circuits. When it is desired to start the motor, a switch on the master switch box is operated and a foot pedal depressed. This automatically engages the sliding pinion carried on the motor armature and also closes the starting switch contacts.

The storage battery used with this system is shown at Fig. 378-B. It differs from conventional construction as the three cells are placed end to end instead of side by side, making a long, narrow battery box instead of the type generally used, which is approximately square. The automatic circuit breaker is shown at C. The only parts needing inspection are the contact points. The

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