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Fig. 326.-Spare Washers, Nuts, Bolts, etc., That Can be Used to Ad.

vantage for Replacing Lost Members on All Makes of Cars.

fumes are present by the light of an oil lamp. The syringe or oil · gun shown at I is of value when one wishes to inject oil or grease

into some inacessible oil hole and for drawing gasoline from the tank for priming the engine or cleaning off a tire inner tube before patching. The small vise shown at J may be screwed to the running board or work bench and will prove invaluable when needed. The small torch depicted at K burns gasoline and is a useful adjunct to the tool kit shown at Fig. 324 as it will supply heat for the soldering iron.

Q. How are tools, spare tires, clothing, etc., carried on the average automobile?

A. In many cars, especially those with the gasoline tank under the front seat, there is not sufficient room for stowing away all the tools, etc., needed when touring so various forms of trunks and cases

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Fig. 327.–Useful Tools and Appliances to Assist in Caring For or Repairing Automobile Mechanism.

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Fig. 328.—Containers for Carrying Tools, Spare Parts, etc., Designed

Especially for Motor Car Service.

are made for the purpose as outlined at Fig. 328. The tire trunk shown at A is intended for attachment to the running board and will fit inside of the tire casings usually carried at that point. It provides considerable space in its interior for inner tubes, tire repair outfit or other supplies. The trunk at B is designed for clothing and it carries two individual dress suit cases, protecting them thoroughly from the dirt. It may be carried on a trunk rack at the back of the car. The box at C is designed for attachment on a running board and the drawers may be used to advantage in carrying tools or spare parts of that nature. When spare outer casings are carried it is customary to enclose these in a protecting cover of enameled duck or leather as outlined at D.

Q. Enumerate some other useful accessories that will complete equipment of average car.

A. A car that is operated in traffic a large part of the time can be provided with a front bumper or fender as shown at A, Fig. 329,

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Fig. 329.-Various Useful Devices to Complete Motor Car Equipment.

to advantage as these protect the lamps and radiator from damage in event of collision with any other vehicle. The mirror at B is attached to the side of the windshield and provides a rear view appreciated by some drivers. The robe rail at C is a convenience that can be fitted to the back of the front seats at little expense if the car is not already provided with one. The strap and holder shown at D will keep the starting crank from rattling and as the handle is thrust in the small case when not in use that member is kept clean at all times. The usual set of brackets attached to the running board for carrying a spare tire casing is shown at E. A folding trunk rack for use in carrying trunk shown at B, Fig. 328, or other baggage is clearly outlined at F. While these accessories are not absolutely necessary they are very convenient and contribute materially to the pleasure of motoring.

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NOTE.—For complete discussion of electric lighting and self-starting systems see “Automobile Starting, Lighting, and Igniting Systems." By Victor W. Page. Price, $1.50.

LESSON THIRTY-SEVEN

DEVELOPMENT OF 1917 AUTOMOBILE DESIGN

Q. Name some of the latest improvements in design.

A. Prominent among these may be mentioned the eight and twelve cylinder V motors, the universal adoption of electric starting and lighting systems, the use of cantilever springs, and wide introduction of the Stewart vacuum feed fuel system.

Q. What are the advantages of the eight cylinder V motor over the "all-in-line form”?

A. The announcement of a prominent motor-car maker in the late fall of 1914 that it was to market an eight cylinder motor vehicle in 1915 created a furor in the automobile trade. This type of motor appealed strongly to the motorist as well as to the manufacturer, as is evidenced by the announcement of the production of eight cylinder models by more than a dozen makers. That manufacturers of engines anticipate a general demand for eight cylinder types can be judged by the fact that all of the leading engine builders are developing eight cylinder engines. Those who have followed the development of the gasoline engine will recall the arguments that were made when the six cylinder motor was introduced at a time that the four cylinder type was considered standard. The arrival of the eight cylinder has created similar discussion of its practicability.

The reason the V type shown at Fig. 330-A is favored is that the "all-in-line form” which is shown at Fig. 330-B is not practical for motor vehicles because of its length. Compared to the standard four cylinder engine it is nearly twice as long and it required a much stronger and longer crank shaft. It will be evident that it could not be located to advantage in the automobile frame. These

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