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Fig. 322.—Principal Forms of Shock Absorbers and Auxiliary Springs. other forms outlined are used to steady the action of the springs regardless of the spring strength.

Q. Describe tool equipment for mechanical repairs.

A. A kit of tools suitable for general adjustments around a small car is shown at Fig. 323, while a more complete outfit adapted for any size car and for making road repairs of any nature is shown at Fig. 324. This outfit includes double ended S wrenches to fit standard nuts and bolts; an adjustable Stilson wrench for pipe and round rods; a monkey wrench which can be adjusted for various size nuts; a set of four files, including round, three cornered, half round, and flat, with a suitable handle; a soldering copper which fits the file handle and some wire solder; three pairs of pliers, one of these being provided with cutting jaws, and various small tools such as a chisel and punch set, a cotter pin extractor and small three cornered scraper.

Other tools that may be added to advantage if a motorist is possessed of any mechanical skill are shown at Fig. 325. The pliere at A are specially made for inserting cotter pins. The punch and chisel set at B can be included to advantage if these tools are not already incorporated in the main tool outfit. The assortment is useful as it includes a double end offset screw driver and small adjustable bicycle wrench in addition to the punches, chisels and drifts. The set of scrapers shown at C are used for removing carbon from the interior of the motor cylinder by inserting through valve caps or spark plug holes where the motor construction permits. The socket wrench depicted at D is useful in removing spark plugs when these members fit recessed valve caps or cylinder castings. The scrapers illustrated at E are used in refitting bearings and are tools for mechanic and repairman rather than the average motorist. The very complete socket wrench outfit shown at F is also useful for any one who does much repairing because it permits the removal of nuts in very inaccessible places. Tubular sockets are provided that will fit practically any standard nut or bolt used in automobiles regardless of how inaccessible they are located. A number of standard size double end socket wrenches and Tommy bar as shown at G are useful if the larger set illustrated at F is not at hand. The brush at H is provided for cleaning spark plugs and other parts of soot or carbon and also includes small pieces of spring stock for scraping dirt out of corners not reached by the brush.

Q. Name spare parts and supplies that can be carried on car when touring.

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Fig. 323.—Typical Small Tool Kit Suited for Ordinary Motor Car

Repairs.

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Fig. 324.—Complete Tool Outfit for Repairing Motor Car Mechanism

That Occupies but Little Space.

A. A group of standard small parts arranged in tin boxes that are adapted for most makes of automobiles is shown at Fig. 326. The box at A contains spring or lock washers, that at B castellated nuts in assorted sizes. The box at C has an assortment of regular standard nuts, the container D is full of assorted split or cotter pins, that at E contains set screws. An assortment of standard cap screws and bolts is shown at F and a box' full of assorted taper pins is illustrated at G. The supplies shown at Fig. 327 may be carried on a car if the tour is to go to sections remote from repair shops. Some of the appliances are useful under all conditions. The hydrometer shown at A, Fig. 327, is employed for testing the solution of storage batteries. A combination syringe and hydrometer shown at B may be used to advantage in its place if an electric lighting or starting system is included in the car equipment because it enables the motorist to test the specific gravity of the electrolyte in the storage battery from time to time and thus determine the amount of current available. The hydrometer shown at C is used in testing fuels. The folding water pail shown at D takes but little space and is a very convenient receptacle for filling the radiator from any wayside stream and also for holding water for washing the hands when repairs have been made. If an electric lighting system is fitted spare buibs for all lamps should be carried. A typical Edison base tungsten filament lamp is illustrated at E. The valve grinding tool shown at F is more properly a garage or repair shop tool though many motorists who look after their own cars find it valuable when grinding in the valves to a new seating. The spring provided with the valve grinding tool is placed under the valve head vo raise the valve from its seat when the weigni holding the valve to its seat is relieved, while the small can contains abrasive valve grinding compound.

The hand oil can at G and bracket by which it may be attached to the dash is standard equipment. When sufficient current is available as when a storage battery is supplied for lighting or starting, the small trouble lamp and length of wire shown at H can be used to illuminate various parts of the mechanism when making repairs after dark. A lamp of this nature is practically a neces. sity because it is dangerous to make adjustments where gasoline

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Fig. 325.–Useful Tools that Facilitate Motor Car Repairs.

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