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Paul and Barnabas Return to Antioch, etc. ACTS, XV.

Council at Jerusalem, etc. been at the subsequent visit, v. 21, for the reason given before had not been proselytes. See on ch. 11, 21; and on 2 Timothy, 3. 10, 11; while at the third visit, ch, 16. of the language- see 1 Corinthians, 16.9; 2 Corinthians. 1-3, he was already a Christian.) he rose up-It is just 2. 12; Colossians, 4. 3. The ascribing directly to God possible that this recovery was natural; the insensi- of such access to the Gentiles is to be noted. 28. there bility occasioned by such treatment as he had received, they abode long time (no little time). From the comsometimes passing away of itsell, and leaving the , mencement of the mission till they left Antioch to go patient less hurt than appeared. But certainly the im- up to attend the council at Jerusalem, some four or pression naturally left on the mind by the words is that five years elapsed; and as the missionary journey would the restoration was miraculous; and so the best inter- probably occupy less than two years, the rest of the preters understand the words. This is confirmed by time would be the period of their stay at Antioch. what follows. came into the city. Noble intrepidity! (But see Chronological Table.) next day he departed with Barnabas to Derbe-a journey

CHAPTER XV. for which he could hardly be fit if his recovery had Ver. 1-35. COUNCIL AT JERUSALEM TO DECIDE OX been natural. See as to Derbe, on v. 6.) and when they | THE NECESSITY OF CIRCUMCISION FOR THE GENTILE had preached to that city and had taught many-rather, CONVERTS. 1, 2, certain men. See the description of 'had made many disciples' (Margin); but probably them in Galatians, 2. 4. Paul and Barnabas (now the rewithout suffering any persecution, as Derbe is not men | cognised heads of the church at Antioch,) had no small tioned along with Antioch, Iconium, and Lystra, 2 dissension and disputation with them, they determined i.e.. Timothy, 3. 11.

the church did that Paul and Barnabas, and certain 21-28. PAUL AND BARNABAS RETRACE THEIR STETS, others of them--Titus was one, Galatians, 2. 1; probably RETURN TO ANTIOCH IN SYRIA, AND THUS COMPLETE as an uncircumcised Gentile convert endowed with the THEIR FIRST MISSIONARY JOURNEY. 21, 22. they re- gifts of the Spirit. He is not mentioned in the Acts. turned to Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch, confirming the butonly in 2 Corinthians, Galatians, 2 Timothy. and souls, &c. At Derbe, Paul was not far from the well- the Epistle addressed to him. (ALFORD.) they deterknown pass which leads down from the central table- mined that Paul and Barnabas should go up to Jerusalem land to Cilicia and Tarsus. But his thoughts did not ... about this question. That such a deputation should centre in an earthly home. He revisited the places be formally despatched by the church of Antioch was where he had been reviled and persecuted, but where natural, as it might be called the mother church of he had left as sheep in the desert the disciples whom Gentile Christianity. 3-6. being brought on their way his Master had enabled him to gather. They needed by the church - a kind of official escort. they passed building up and strengthening in the faith, comforting I through Phenice. See on ch. 11. 19. and Samaria, declar in the midst of their inevitable suffering, and fencing ing the conversion of the Gentilea, and they caused great round by permanent institutions. Undaunted there- joy to the brethren. As the converts in those parts were fore by the dangers that awaited them, our missionaries Jewish (ch, 11, 19), their spirit contrasts favourably with return to them, using words of encouragement which that of others of their nation, and when they were con none but the founders of a true religion would have to Jerusalem. This was Paul's THIRD VISIT TO JERUventured to address to their earliest converts, that "we SALEM after his conversion, and on this occasion took can only enter into the kingdom of God by passing place what is related in Galatians, 2. 1-10. See there through much tribulation." (Hows.] 23, 24. when were received of the church, and the apostles and elders they had ordained them elders-lit., 'chosen by show of evidently at a meeting formally convened for this hands.' But as that would imply that this was done purpose; the deputation being one so influential, and by the apostles' own hands, many render the word, as from a church of such note. they declared all things in our version, "ordained." Still, as there is no evid- that God had done with them. See on ch, 14-27. the ence in the New Testament that the word had then apostles and elders came together to consider of this-but lost its proper meaning; as this is beyond doubt its in presence, as would seem, of the people (u. 12, 22, 23). meaning in 2 Corinthians, 8. 19; and as there is indis- . Peter, &c. This is the last mention of him in the putable evidence that the concurrence of the people Acts, and one worthy of his standing, as formally pro was required in all elections to sacred office in the nouncing, from the divine decision of the matter earliest ages of the Church-itis perhaps better to un-already in his own case, in favour of the views which derstand the words to mean, when they had made a Paul's whole labours were devoted to establishing. choice of elders,' i.e., superintended such choice on the good while ago--probably about fifteen years before this. part of the disciples and had prayed with fasting- made choice ... that the Gentiles by my mouth. See on lit., 'fastings,' thus setting them solemnly apart. This ch. 11. 21. God which knoweth the hearts--implying that last clause confirms our interpretation of the former, the real question for admission to full standing in the For if “ordination" was by prayer and fasting see ch. visible church is the state of the heart. Hence, thouch 13.3, why should it be said they first "ordained elders," that cannot be known by men, no principle of admission and after that "prayed with fasting?" Whereas if the to church privileges which reverses this can be sound, first clause refer to the choice and the second to the put no difference between us and them: Purifying their ordination, all is natural. they commended ('commit- hearts by faith. "Purification” here refers to " sprink ted") them i.e., all these churches. to the Lord Jesus. ling (of the conscience by the blood of Jesus) from dead when they had preached the word iu Perga-now doing works to serve the living God." See on 1 Corinthians what, for some reason, they had not done on their 6. 11.) How rich is this brief description of the inwand former visit, but probably with no visible fruit. they revolution wrought upon the genuine disciples of the went down into Attaleia --& seaport on the Gulf of Lord Jesus! 10. why tempt('try,' 'provoke,') ye God Pamphylia, drawing to itself the commerce of Egypt by standing in the way of his declared purpose. to pat and Syria. 26. sailed to Antioch, from whence they had a yoke upon the neck of the disciples, &c. He that was been recommended. See on ch. 13. 3. 27. when they had circumcised became thereby bound to keep the whole gathered the church together, they rehearsed all that God law. See Galatians, 5. 1-6. It was not then the mere had done with them, &c.-As their call and mission had yoke of burdensome ceremonies, but of an obligation been solemn and formal, in the presence of and by the which, the more earnest and spiritual men became, tbe Church as well as the Holy Ghost, they dutifully, and more impossible they felt it to fulfil. (See Romans & no doubt with eager joy, convened the Church and gave 6; Galatians, 2. &c.) 11. through the grace of the Lord in their report of "all that God had done with them," Jesus-i.e., by that only. we shall be saved even as they: 1.e., by and for them, and how (in particular) he had -'Circumcision in our case being no advantage, and in opened the door of faith to the Gentiles-to such even as their case uncircumcision no loss; but grace doing all

Peazel at Jerusalem to Decide


on the Necessity of Circumcision, etc. Por bath, and the same for each.' 12. Then all ... gave | honour in which they held the church at Antioch and

Biance to Barnabas and Paul. On this order of the the deputies they had sent to the council, and as the rimes here, see on u. 25. declaring what miracles and matter affected all Gentile converts, to give weight to

To God wrought among the Gentiles by them. This the written decision of this important assembly. They mail of facts, immediately following up those which were “prophets" v. 32, (and see on ch. 11. 27), and as hter bad recalled to mind, would lead all who waited such, doubtless their eminence in the church at Jeruby for divine teaching to see that God had himself salem had been obtained, and they wrote ... by them. nounced the Gentile converts to be disciples in as This is the first place in the New Testament history of

standing as the Jews, without circumcision; and writing as an element in its development. And the be attesting miracles to which Paul here refers would combination here of written and oral transmission of arl, in such an assembly, to silence opposition. 13. an important decision reminds us of the first occasion ames answered, saying, &c. Whoever this James was of writing mentioned in the Old Testament where a bon Galatians, 1. 19, he was the acknowledged head similar combination occurs-Exodus, 17. 14. But where

he church at Jerusalem, and here, as president of as there it is the deep difference between Israel and the e assembly. speaks last, winding up the debate. His Gentiles which is proclaimed, here it is the obliteration Prision, though given as his own judgment only, could of that difference through faith in the Lord Jesus. K bat be of great weight with the opposing party, [BAUMGARTEN.) greeting-The only other place in the un his conservative reverence for all Jewish usages | New Testament where this word occurs (except in the in the circle of Israelitish Christianity. 14-17. letter of Lysias, ch. 23. 26) is James 1.1, which seems

-a Hebrew variation of Simon, as in 2 Peter, to show that both letters were drawn up by the same 1: Gr.) the Jewish and family name of Peter. hath | hand. (BENGEL.) the Gentile brethren in Antioch, and dered how God at the first-answering to Peter's own Syria, and Cilicia-showing that churches then existed pression "a good while ago," v.7. did visit the Gentiles in Cilicia as well as Syria, which owed their existence,

he oat of them in the exercise of His adorable in all likelihood, to Paul's labours during the interval Tereisnty. a people for (the honour of) his name- between his return to Tarsus (ch. 9. 30) and his deparOur His glory. to this agree the words of the prophets ture in company with Barnabas for Antioch (see on Penerally; but those of Amos (ch. 9. 11) are specified ch. 11. 25, 26). 24-27. Forasmuch as we have heard that berty as in the Septuagint version). The point of the certain which went out from us have troubled you with s e lies in the predicted purpose of God, under the words – without authority or even knowledge of the

Economy, that the heathen” or “Gentiles" should church at Jerusalem, though they belonged to it, and

alled by His name," or have “His name called probably pretended to represent its views. subverting on them. By the "building again of the fallen your souls. Such strong language is evidently designed bernacle of David," or restoring its decayed splendour, to express indignation at this attempt, by an unauthor. pent that only and glorious recovery which it was ised party, to bring the whole Christian Church under Esperience ander David's "son and Lord." 18, 19. Judaical and legal bondage. our beloved Barnabas and

M ato God are all his works from the beginning-He Paul. Barnabas is put first here, and in v. 12, on acbo announced these things so long before, and Ale who count of his former superior position in the church at

por brought them to pass, were one and the same; Jerusalem (see ch. 9. 27; 11. 22-an evidence this that that they were no novelty. wherefore, my sentence (or we have the document precisely as written, as also of dment) is, that we trouble not (with Jewish obliga the credibility of this precious history. Men that have

** tem which from among the Gentiles are turned to hazarded (lit., 'rendered up,' as in will they did) their e-ratber, are turning.' The work is regarded as in lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Noble testiCatess, and indeed was rapidly advancing. 20. But mony to those beloved men! It was doubtless prompt

that they abstain from pollutions of idols-1.e., thingsed more immediately by the narrative they had just

utet by having been offered in sacrifice to idols. listened to from their own lips, o. 12, and judiciously beheathen were accustomed to give away or sell por inserted in this letter, to give them the highest weight Us of rach animals. From such food James would as the bearers of it, along with their own deputies. Judas

in the Gentile converts to abstain, lest it should I and Silas shall tell you the same by mouth. Mark here how

to the Jews that they were not entirely weaned considerate and tender it was to send men who would za idolatry. and from fornication-The characteristic be able to say of Barnabas and Paul what could not be Obrathendom, unblushingly practised by all ranks I expected to come from themselves. 28, 29. For it seemed

classes and the indulgence of which on the part of good to the Holy Ghost and to us-The One, inwardly e Gentile converts would to Jews, whose Scriptures guiding to and setting His seal on the decision come uded it as an abomination of the heathen, proclaim to; the other, the external ecclesiastical authority deen to be set joined to their old idols. and from voutly embracing, expressing, and conveying to the

ancied--which had the blood in them and churches that decision a great principle this for the Wood-in every form, as peremptorily forbidden to Church in all time. to lay upon you no greater burden e Jews, and the eating of which, therefore, on the than these necessary things... from which if ye keep

of the Gentile converts, wonld shock their pre yourselves, ye shall do well. The whole language of these MoesSee on t. 28, 29. For Moses of old time hath in prohibitions, and of v. 20, 21, impiies that they were

citr them that preach him... every Sabbath-day designed as concessions to Jewish feelings on the part keeping alive in every Jew those feelings which of the Gentile converts, and not as things which were

actices would shock, and which, therefore, the all of unchanging obligation. The only cause for le couverts must carefully respect, if the onenes3 hesitation arises from "fornication" being mixed up

classes in Christ was to be practically preserved, with the other three things; which has led many to

doro of these suggestions commended itself to regard the whole as permanently prohibited. But the

ent. 22. 23. Judas surnamed Barsabas-therefore remarks on v. 20 may clear this. The then state of She apostle " Judas the brother of James" (ch. 1. 13), heathen society in respect of all the four things seems

ped "Thaddeus" (Matthew, 10. 3); nor can it be the reason for so mixing them up. 30-33. they rejoiced

that he was a brother of "Joseph called Bar- for the consolation. As the same word is in the next a ch. 1. 23. But nothing is known of him beyond verse properly rendered "exhorted," the meaning proba

here said and Silas-the same as "Silvanus" | bly is, rejoiced for the exhortation' (margin.) or advice:

pistles. He became Paul's companion on his so wise in itself and so contrary to the imposition atd missionary journey (v. 40). chief men ainong the tempted to be practised upon them by the Judaizers.

- selected purposely as such, to express the 1 Judas and Silas being prophets themselves-1.e., inspired

Paul and Barnabas Part Company

ACTS, XV. to Prosecute Separate Missionary Tours. teachers. exhorted the brethren with many words or place between Paul and him, 80 cordial that the apostle 'much discourse,') and confirmed them-opening up, no expresses more than once the confidence he had in doubt, the great principle involved in the controversy him, and the value he set upon his services (Colossians, now settled, of gratuitous salvation, or the purification 4, 10, 11; 2 Timothy, 4. 11)-it may seem that events of the heart by faith alone (as expressed by Peter, v. 9, showed Barnabas to be in the right, and Paul too harsh 11), and dwelling on the necessity of harmony in prin. and hasty in his judgment. But, in behalf of Paul, ciple and affection between the Gentile disciples and it may well be answered, that not being able to see into their Jewish brethren were let go in peace-'with the future he had only the unfavourable past to judge peace,' as the customary parting salutation. 34, 35. by; that the gentleness of Barnabas (ch. 4. 36; 11. 24) had it pleased Silas (Silas determined') to abide there still. already laid him open to imposition (see on Galatians, (The authorities against the insertion of this verse are 2. 13), to which near relationship would in this case strong. It may have been afterwards added to explain make him more liable, and that in refusing to take 0.40.) Doubtless the attraction to Antioch for Silas was John Mark on this missionary journey he was not Paul's presence there, to whom he seems to have now judging his Christian character nor pronouncing on formed that permanent attachment which the sequel his fitness for future service, but merely providing in of this Book and Paul's Epistles show to have existed. the meantime against being again put to serious incon. Paul and Barnabas continued in Antioch, teaching (to the venience and having their hands weakened by a pos. disciples) and preaching to those without) the word of sible second desertion. On the whole, then, it seems the Lord, with many others (other labourers) also-How clear that each of these great servants of Christ had rich must Antioch at this time have been in the min- something to say for himself, in defence of the position istrations of the Gospel! (For a painful scene on this which they respectively took up; that while Barnabas occasion, betroeen Paul and Peter, see Galatians, 2. 11, was quite able to appreciate the grounds on which Paul dc.)

proceeded, Paul was not so competent to judge of the 36-46. DISSENSION BETWEEN PAUL AND BARNABAS considerations which Barnabas probably urged; that -THEY PART COMPANY TO PROSECUTE SEPARATE while Paul had but one object in view, to see that the MISSIONARY TOURS. And some days after--how long, is companion of their arduous work was one of thoroughly matter only of conjecture. Par said to Barnabas, Let congenial spirit and sufficient nerve, Barnabas, over us go again and visit our (the true reading is, 'the') and above the same desire, might not unreasonably be brethren in every city where we have preached .., and see afraid for the soul of his nephew, lest the refusal to bow they do-whether they were advancing or declining, allow him to accompany them on their journey might &c.: a pattern for churches and successful missionaries | injure his Christian character and deprive the Church in every age. (Reader. bow stands it with thee?') of a true servant of Jesus Christ; and that while both (BENGEL) Paul felt that he was not called to spend sought only the glory of their common Master, each a peaceful, though laborious life at Antioch, but that looked at the question at issue to some extent, through his true work was "far off among the Geptiles."! We the medium of his own temperament, which zace notice here, for the first time, a trace of that tender sanctifies and refines but does not destroy - Paul, solicitude for his converts, that earnest longing to see through the medium of absolute devotion to the Cause their faces which appears in the letiers which he wrote and Kingdom of Christ, which, warm and woman's as afterwards, as one of the most remarkable and attrac his affections were, gave å tinge of lofty sternuess to tive features of his character. He thought, doubtless his resolves where that seemed to be affected: Bar of the Pisidians and Lycaonians, as he thought after- nabas, through the medium of the same singleness of wards at Athens and Corinth of the Thessalonians, from heart in Christ's service, though probably not in equal whom he had been lately "taken in presence, not in strength (Galatians, 2. 13), but also of a certain natural heart, night and day praying exceedingly that he might gentleness which, where a Christian relative was consee their face and perfect that which was lacking in their cerned, led him to attach more weight to what seemed faith.” (Hows.) Barnabas determined to take with them for his spiritual good than Paul could be supposed to John ... Mark-his nephew (Colossians, 4. 10). But Paul | do. In these circumstances, it seems quite possible thought not good to take him with them who departed from that they might have amicably agreed to difler,' each them-i.c., who had departed; but the word is stronger taking his own companion, as they actually did. But than this-'who stood aloof' or 'turned away' from the paroxysm' as the word is), the 'exacerbation them. from Pamphylia, and went not with them to the which is expressly given as the cause of their parting. work-the work yet before them. The allusion is to shows but too plainly, that human infirmity amidst the what is recorded in ch. 13. 13 (on which see). And the great labours of the church at Antioch at length sundercontention was so sharp between them (such was the 'ir-ed those who had sweetly and lovingly borne together ritation,' or 'exacerbation,"; that they departed asunder the heat and burden of the day during a protracted tour one from the other. Said they not truly to the Lystrians in the service of Christ. "Therefore let no man glory in that they were "men of like passions with them?" (ch. men" (1 Corinthians, 3. 21). As for John Nark, at 14. 15.) But vho was to blame! 1) That John Mark though through his uncle's warm advocacy of his canse had either tired of the work or shrunk from the dangers he was put in a condition to dissipate the cloud that and fatigues that yet lay before them, was undeniable; hung over him, how bitter to him must have ever after and Paul concluded that what he had done he might, wards been the reflection that it was his culpable oor and probably would, do again. Was he wrong in this: duct which gave occasion to whatever was sinful in the (See Proverbs, 25. 19.) But (2), To this Barnabas might strife between Paul and Barnabas, and to a separation reply that no rule was without exception; that one in action, though no doubt with mutual Christian refailure, in a young Christian,was not enough to condemn gard, between those who had till then wrought Dobly him for life; that if near relationship might be thought together. How watchful does all this teach Christian to warp his judgment, it also gave him opportunities and especially Christian ministers and missionaries. of knowing the man better than others; and that as he to be against giving way to rash judgment and bo was himself anxious to be allowed another trial, and temper towards each other, especially where on bots the result makes this next to certain.) in order that sides the glory of Christ is the ground of difference. he might wipe out the effect of his former failure and How possible is it that in such cases both parties may show what "hardness he could now endure as a good on the question at issue, be more or less in the right: soldier of Jesus Christ," his petition ought not to be How difficult is iteven for the most faithful and devote rejected. Now since John Mark did retrieve his servants of Christ, differing as they do in their natura character in these respects, and a reconciliation took 'temperament even under the commanding influence

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Pauls Second Missionary Journey.


Visitation of the Churches, etc.. af race, to see even important questions precisely in | tination to the ministry of Christ had already been the same light. And if, with every disposition to attested (1 Timothy, 1. 18; 4, 14); and though some ten reld wbatis unimportant, they still feel it a duty each | years after this Paul speaks of him as still young (1

o stand to his own point, how careful should they be Timothy, 4. 12)," he was already well reported of by the to do it lovingly, each pursuing his own course without brethren that were at Lystra and Iconium" (v. 2), and disparagement of his Christian brother! And how af consequently must have been well known through all feetingly does the Lord overrule such difference of that quarter, but his father was a Greek. Such mixed jedement and such manifestations of human infirmity, marriages, though little practised, and disliked by the by making them "turn out rather unto the furtherance stricter Jews, in Palestine, must have been very freof the Gospel:" as in this case is eminently seen in the quent among the Jews of the dispersion, especially in tro missionary parties instead of one, not travelling remote districts, where but few of the scattered people over the same ground and carrying their dispute over were settled. (Hows.) Him would Paul have to go forth all the regions of their former loving labours, but divid- with him. This is in harmony with all we read in the ing the field between them! and so Baruabas took Mark, Acts and Epistles, of Paul's affectionate and confiding vi sailed unto Cyprus; and Paul chose Silas (see on v. disposition. He had no relative ties which were of

o ing two and two, as the twelve and the seventy service to him in his work; his companions were few Eurk, 6. 7: Luke, 10. 1). and departed, being recom- and changing; and though Silas would supply the place mended... to the grace of God-no doubt by some of Barnabas, it was no weakness to yearn for the society solen service; see ch. 13. 3, as in ch, 14. 26. It does of one who might become, what Mark once appeared pot follow from the historian's silence that Barnabas to be, a son in the Gospel. (Hows.) And such he inTas not so recommended too; for this is the last men deed proved to be, the most attached and serviceable tion of Barbabas in the history, whose whole object of his associates Philippians, 2. 19-23;1 Corinthians, 4. son is to relate the proceedings of Paul. Nor does it 17; 16. 10, 11; 1 Thessalonians, 3. 1-6). His double con

em quite fair (with DE WETTE, MEYER, Hows, | nexion, with the Jews by the mother's side and the ALFORD. HACKET, WEBSTER & WILKINSON, &c.) to Gentiles by the father's, would strike the apostle as a conchude from this that the church at Antioch took peculiar qualification for his own sphere of labour. that marked way of showing their sympathy with Paul 'So far as appears, Timothy is the first Gentile who In gwosition to Barnabas. And he went through Syria, | after his conversion comes before us as a regular mis

Cilicia confirm ng the churches. It is very likely sionary; for what is said of Titus (Galatians, 2. 3) refers - Paul and Barnabas made a deliberate and amic-| to a later period.' (WIES.) But before his departure, she arrangement to divide the region of their first | Paul - took and circumcised him (a rite which every stejns between them; Paul taking the continental, Israelite might perform) because of the Jews... for they od Bumabas the insular, part of the proposed visita- | knew all that his father was a Greek. This seems to imtio Barnabas visited Salamis and Paphos, and if ply that the father was no proselyte. Against the Paul, travelling westward) after passing through Derbe, wishes of a Gentile father no Jewish mother was, as Istrs, and Iconium, went as far as Antioch in Pisidia, the Jews themselves say, permitted to circumcise her the whole circuit of the proposed visitation was actually son. We thus see why all the religion of Timothy is recomplished, for it does not appear that any converts traced to the female side of the family (2 Timothy, 1. had been made at Perga and Attaleia.' (Hows.) This 5). "Had Timothy not been circumcised, a storm econd missionary tour appears to have proceeded at would have gathered round the apostle in his further first solely from the desire of visiting the churches progress. His fixed line of procedure was to act on

ready planted. In the end, however, it took a much the cities through the synagogues; and to preach the sider sweep, for it brought the apostle to Europe.' | Gospel to the Jew first and then to the Gentile. But TOLLACSEN.)

such a course would have been impossible had not CHAPTER XVI.

Timothy been circumcised. He must necessarily have CHAPS. 15. 41-18. 22.-PAUL'S SECOND

been repelled by that people who endeavoured once to MISSIONARY JOURNEY.

murder St. Paul because they imagined he had taken a CEAN 15. 41--16.5. VISITATION OF THECHURCH ES Greek into the temple (ch, 21, 29). The very interFOKKERLY ESTABLISHED, TIMOTHEUS HERE JOINING course of social life would have been almost impossible, TEEMSTONAKY PARTY. Ch. xv. 41. he went through for it was still "an abomination" for the circumcised Syria ad Cilicia (see on v. 23)-taking probably the same to eat with the uncircumcised.' (Hows.] In refusing ronte as wben despatched in haste from Jerusalem to to compel Titus afterwards to be circumcised, (

GalTurss, he then went by land (see on ch. 9. 30). Ch. xvi. latians. 2. 3) at the bidding of Judaising Christians, as 1-5. Then came he to Derbe and Lystra; and, behold, a necessary to salvation, he only vindicated "the truth of Q uin disciple was therei.e., at Lystra (not Derbe, as the Gospel" (Galatians, 2. 5); in circumcising Timothy.

me donckade from ch, 20. 4). named Timotheus. See "to the Jews he became as a Jew that he might gain the and 14. . As Paul styles him "his own son in the Jews." Probably Timothy's ordination took place now Iaith 1 Timothy, 1. 2), he must have been gained to (1 Timothy, 4. 14; 2 Timothy, 1.6); and it was a service, Christ at the apostle's first visit; and as Panl says he apparently, of much solemnity - "before many wit"hed inlly known his persecutions which came on bim nesses" (1 Timothy, 6. 12). And as they went through at Lystra (2 Timothy, 3. 10, 11), he may have been in the cities' they delivered the decrees ... And so were this top of disciples that surrounded the apparently the churches established in the faith, and increased in Ereless body of the apostle outside the walls of Lystra, 1 number daily - not the churches, but the number of and that at a time of life when the mind receives its | their members, by this visit and the written evidence Gerpest impressions from the spectacle of innocent laid before them of the triumph of Christian liberty at sorinand undaunted courage. (Hows.] His would | Jerusalemn, and the wise measures there taken to prebe oue of the souls of the disciples confirmed" at the serve the unity of the Jewish and Gentile converts. spostle's second visit," exhorted to continue in the 6-12. THEY BREAK NEW GROUND IX PHRYGIA AND fosth. and" warned "that we must through much trib- | GALATLA--THEIR COURSE IN THAT DIRECTION BEING station enter into the kingdom of God" (ch, 14, 21, 22). | MYSTERIOUSLY HEDGED UP, THEY TRAVEL WESTIbe son of a certain ... Jewess. “The unfeigned faith WARD TO TROAS, WHERE THEY ARE DIVINELY

hich dweit first in his grandmother Lois" decended DIRECTED TO MACEDONIA-THE HISTORIAN HIMSELF to his mother Eunice," and thence it passed to this | HERE JOINING THE MISSIONARY PARTY, THEY EMyonth 2 Timothy, 1. 6), who "from & child knew the | BARK FOR NEAPOLIS, AND REACH PHILIPPJ. 6-8. Hols Scriptures" (2 Timothy, 3. 10). His gifts and des. Now when they had gone throughout Phrygia and the

Paw and Timothers are Divinely


Directed to Macedonia, etc. region of Galatia-proceeding in a north-westerly direc-, Heathendom. And Israel, going along the way which tion. At this time must have been formed "the churches God had marked out for him, had likewise arrived at of Galatia" (Galatians, 1.2: 1 Corinthians, 16. 1); found his end. At last he is in a condition to realise his ed, as we learn from the Epistle to the Galatians, par- original vocation, by becoming the gnide who is to lead ticularly ch. 4. 19, by the apostle Paul, and which were the Gentiles unto God, the only Author and Creator of already in existence when he was on his third mission- man's redemption; and St. Paul is in truth the very ary journey, as we learn from ch. 18. 23, where it ap- person in whom this vocation of Israel is now & prepears that he was no less successful in Phrygia. Why sent divine reality, and to whom, by this nocturnal these proceedings, so interesting as we should suppose, apparition of the Macedonian, the preparedness of the are not here detailed, it is not easy to say ; for the heathen world to receive the ministry of Israel towards various reasons suggested are not very satisfactory: the Gentiles is confirmed.' BAUMGARTEN) This coice ex. gr. that the historian had not joined the party cries from Heathendom still to the Christian Church, [ALFORD); that he was in haste to bring the apostle to and never does the Church undertake the work of misEurope [OLSHAUSEN): that the main stream of the sions, nor any missionary go forth from it, in the riakt Church's development was from Jerusalem to Rome, spirit, save in obedience to this cry. and after he had seen and the apostle's labours in Phrygia and Galatia lay the vision, immediately we endeavoured to go into Macequite out of the line of that direction. [BAUMGARTEN.ldonia. The "we," here first introduced, is a modest and were forbidden of the Holy Ghost (speaking by some intimation that the historian himself had now joined prophet, see on ch. 11. 27) to preach the word in Asia-- the missionary party. The modern objections to this not the great Asiatic Continent, nor even the rich are quite frivolous.) Whether Paul's broken health had Peninsula now called Asia Minor, but only so much of anything to do with this arrangement for having "the its western coast as constituted the Roman province of beloved physician with him (WIES), can never be Asia. After they were come to Mysia-where, as being known with certainty; but that he would deem himself part of Roman Asia, they were forbidden to labour (v. honoured in taking care of so precious a life, there can 8). they assayed (or attempted) to go into (or 'towards') be no doubt. 11, 12. therefore locsing from Troas, we Bithynia-to the North East. but the Spirit (speaking came (lit.. 'ran') with a straight course (i.e., 'ran before as before) suffered them not:-probably because (1) Europe the wind') to Samothracia-a lofty island on the Thracian was ripe for the labours of this missionary party; and coast, North from Troas, with an inclination westward. (2, other instruments were to be honoured to establish The wind must have set in strong from the South or the Gospel in the eastern regions of Asia Minor, es | South South East to bring them there so soon, as the pecially the apostle Peter (see 1 Peter, 1.1). By the end current is strong in the opposite direction, and they of the first century, as testified by Pliny the governor, afterwards took five days to what they now did in two Bithynia was filled with Christians. "This is the first (ch. 20.6). [Hows.] next day to Neapolis-on the Mact time that the Holy Ghost is expressly spoken of as donian, or rather Thracian, coast, about sixty-five miles determining the course they were to follow in their from Samothracia, and ten from Philippi, of which it efforts to evangelize the nations, and it was evidently is the harbour. Philippi ... the chief (rather, perhaps, designed to show that whereas hitherto the diffusion of the first') city of that part of Macedonia. The meaning the Gospel had been carried on in unbroken course, appears to he-the first city one comes to, proceeding connected by natural points of junction, it was now to from Neapolis. The sense given in our version hardly take a leap to which it could not be impelled but by an consists with fact. a colony-i.., possessing all the immediate and independent operation of the Spirit; and privileges of Roman citizenship, and, as such, both though primarily, this intimation of the Spirit was only exempted from scourging and (in ordinary cases) from negative, and referred but to the immediate neigh- arrest, and entitled to appeal from the local magistrate bourhood, we may certainly conclude that Paul took it to the emperor. Though the Pisidian Antiocha and for a sign that a new epoch was now to commence in Troas were also "colonies," the fact is mentioned in his apostolic labours. [BAUMGARTEN.) came down this history of Philippi only on account of the frequent to Troas,& city on the North East coast of the Egean references to Roman privileges and duties in the sequel Sea, the boundary of Asia Minor on the West; the of the chapter, region of which was the scene of the great Trojan war. 12-34. AT PHILJPPI, LYDIA IS GAINED AND WITH 9, 10. a vision appeared to Paul (while awake, for it is not HER HOUSEHOLD BAPTIZED-AN EVIL SPIRIT IS EXcalled a dream) in the night: There stood a man of PELLED, PAUL AND SILAS ARE SCOURGED, IMPRISON. Macedonia, and prayed him, saying, Come over into Mace ED, AND MANACLED, BUT MIRACULOUSLY SET FREE. donia, and help us. Stretching his eye across the Egean AND THE JAILOR WITH ALL HIS HOUSEHOLD CoxSea, from Troas on the North East to the Macedonian VERTED AND BAPTIZED. 12, 13. we were in bat city hills visible on the North West, the apostle could hardly abiding certain days-waiting till the Sabbath came fail to think this the destined scene of his future round: their whole stay must have extended to some labours; and if he retired to rest with this thought, he weeks. As their rule was to begin with the Jews and would be thoroughly prepared for the remarkable in-proselytes, they did nothing till the time when they timation of the divine will now to be given him. This knew that they would convene for worship. on the visional Macedonian discovered himself by what he Sabbath-day-the first after their arrival, as the words said. But it was a cry not of conscious desire for the imply. we went out of the city -- rather, as the true Gospel, but of deep need of it and unconscious pre reading is, 'outside of the city) gate.' by a diver-sidoparedness to receive it, not only in that region, but, we one of the small streams which gave name to the place may well say, throughout all that western empire ere the city was founded by Philip of Macedon. where which Macedonia might be said to represent. It was prayer was wont to be made-or a prayer-meeting held. & virtual confession that the highest splendour of It is plain there was no synagogue at Philippi (contrast Heathendom, which we must recognize in the arts of ch. 17. 1), the number of the Jews being small. The Greece and in the polity and imperial power of Pome, meeting appears to have consisted wholly of women. had arrived at the end of all its resources. God had and these not all Jewish. The neighbourhood a left the Gentile world to walk in their own ways (ch, streams was preferred, on account of the ceremonia 14. 2). They had sought to gain salvation for them- washings used on such occasions. we sat down and spake selves; but those who had carried it farthest along the unto the women, &c. - & humble congregation, and paths of natural development were now pervaded by simple manner of preaching. But here and thus were the feeling that all had indeed been vanity. This gathered the first fruits of Europe unto Christ, and they feeling is the simple, pure result of all the history of were of the female sex, of whose accession and services

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