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The Judgment on the Harlot :

REVELATION, XIX. the Heavenly Church's Thanksgiving. vain things of the world, in its manifold forms. The people-Greek, "multitude." Alleluia-Hebrero. "Praise

form of her wboredom is, where the church ye JAH. or JEHOVAH: here first used in Revelatior.. wishes to be itself a worldly power, uses politics and whence ELLIOTT infers the Jews bear a prominent part diplomacy, makes flesh her arm, uses unholy means in this thanksgiving. JAR is not a contraction of for holy ends, spreads her dominion by sword or JEHOVAH, as it sometimes occurs jointly with the money. fascinates mep by sensual ritualism, becomes latter. It means "He who is :" whereas Jehovah is

mistress of ceremonies' to the dignitaries of thelworld. "He who will be, is, and was." It implies God es. flatters prince or people, and like Israel, seeks the help perienced as & PRESENT help; so that * Hallelujah," of one world-power against the danger threatening sasy KIMCHI in BEXGEL, is found first in the Psalms from another." (AUBERLEN.) Judgment, therefore, on the destruction of the ungodly. "Hallelu-Jah occurs begins with the harlot, as in privileges the house of God. four times in this passage. Cl. Psalm 149. 4-9, which is 21. 2-Greek, "one. millstone-C1, the judgment on plainly parallel, and indeed identical in many of the the Egyptian hosts at the Red sea, Exodus, 16. 5. 10; phrases, as well as the general idea, Israel, especially, Nehemiah, 0. 11, and the foretold doom of Babylon, the will join in the Halleluia, when "her warfare is accomworld-power, Jeremiah, 61, 63, 64, with violence-Greck, plished" and her foe destroyed. salvation - Graak, * with impetus." This verse shows that this prophecy “The salvation...the glory... the power." and honour is regarded as still to be fulfilled. 22. pipers-flute- -So Coptic. But A, B, C, and Syriac omit. unto the players. " Musicians," painters, and sculptors, have Lord our God-So ANDREAS, But A, B, C, and Coptic desecrated their art to lend fascination to tbe sensuous read, " (Is) of our God," e.. belongs to Himn. 2. worship of corrupt Christendom. craftsman-artisan. which did corrupt the earth-Greek, "used to corrupt" 23. What a blessed contrast is ch. 22, 5, respecting the continually. "Instead of opposing and lessening, she city of God: "They need no candle (just as Babylon promoted shall no more have the light of a candle, but for own earthliness, allowing the salt to lose its savour." widely different reason) for the Lord God giveth them (AUBERLEN.) avenged--Greek, "exacted in retribulight. For candle." translate as Greek, "lamp." |tion." A particular application of the principle (Genebridegroom... bride...no more...in thee-Contrast the hea sis, 9. 6). blood of his servants-literally shed by the venly city, with its Bridegroom, Bride, and blessed Old Testament adulterous church, and by the New marriage supper (ch. 19. 7, 9; 21. 2, 9 Isaiah, 62. 4, 5). Testament apostate church; also virtually, though thy merchants were-So most of the best authorities not literally, by all who, though called Christians. read. But A omits the Greek article before "mer. hate their brother, or love not the brethren of Christ, chants," and then translates, " The great men of, &c., but shrink from the reproach of the cross, and show were thy merchants." sorceries--Greek, " sorcery." 24. unkindness towards those who bear it. 3. again Applied by Christ (Matthew, 23. 35) to apostate Jeru-Greck, "& second time." rose up-Greek, “goeth up.* salem, which proves that not merely the literal city for ever and ever-Greek, " to the ages of the ages.* 4. Rome, and the church of Rome (though the chief repre-beasts - rather, "living creatures." sat - Gruck, sentative of the apostasy), but the WHOLE of the "sitteth." 5. out of-Greek, "out from the throne in faithless church of both the Old and New Testament A, B, C. Praise our God-CI. the solemn act of praise is meant by Babylon the barlot; just as the whole performed by the Levites 1 Chronicles, 16. 36: 2. á church (Old and New Testament) is meant by "thel especially when the house of God was alled with the woman" (ch. 12. 1). As to the literal city. ARINGHUS | Divine glory (2 Chronicles, 6. 13). both-Omitted in A. in BENGEL says, Pagan Rome was the general shambles B. C. Vulgate, Coptic, and Syriac. Translate as Greek, for slaying the sheep of Jesus. FRED. SEYLER in "the small and the great." 6. nany waters-Contrast BENGEL calculates that Papal Rome, between A.D. 1540 ) the "many waters" on which the whore sitteth (ch. and 1680, slew more than 900.000 Protestants. Three 17. 1). This verse is the hearty response to the stirreasons for the harlot's downfall are given: (1.) The ring call "Halleluia ! Praise our God," &c. (c. 4. 5. worldly greatness of her merchants, which was due to the Lord God omnipotent - Greek, "the Omnipotent." unholy traffic in spiritual things. (2.) Her sorceries, or reignetulit.. reigned: hence reigneth once for all juggling tricks, in which the false prophet that minis- His reign is a fact already establisbed. Babylon, the ters to the beast in its last form, shall exceed her: harlot, was one great hindrance to His reign being recf. " sorcerers" ch. 21. 8: 22. 16). specially mentioned cognised. Her overthrow now clears the way for His among those doomed to the lake of fire. (3.) Her per advent to reign; therefore, not merely Rome, but the secution of (Old Testament) "prophets" and (New whole of Christendom in so far as it is carnal and Testament) "saints."

compromised Christ for the world is comprehended CHAPTER XLX.

in the term "harlot." The beast hardly arises when Ver. 1-21. THE CAURCH'S THANKSGIVING IN HEA he at once "goeth into perdition:" 80 that Christ is VEN FOR THE JUDGMENT ON THE HARLOT. THE propbetically considered as already reigning, so soon MARRIAGE OF THE LAMB: THE SUPPER: THE BRIDE'S does His advent follow the judgment on the harlot. PREPARATION : JOHN 18 FORBIDDEN TO WORSHIP | 7. glad...rejoice-Greek, "rejoice... exult." five-So B THE ANGEL: THE LORD AND HIS Hosts COME FORTA and ANDREAS. But A reads, “we will give." gloryTOR WAR: THE BEAST AND THE FALSE PROPHET Greek, "the glory." the marriage of the Lamb is coCAST INTO THE LAKE OF FIRE: THE KINGS AND The full and final consummation is at eh. 21. 2-9, &c. THEIR FOLLOWERS SLAIN BY THE SWORD OUT OF Previously there must be the overthrow of the beast, CARIST'S MOUTH. 1. As in the case of the opening of 1 &c., at the Lord's coming, the binding of Satan, the the prophecy, ch. 4. 8; 6, 9. &c.: so now, at one of the millennial reign, the loosing of Satan, and his last over great closing events seen in vision, the judgment on the throw, and the general judgment. The elect-church, harlot (described in ch, 18.), there is a song of praise in the heavenly Bride, soon after the destruction of the beaven to God: cf. ch. 7, 10, &c., towards the close of harlot, is transfigured at the Lord's coming, and joins the seals, and ch, 11, 16-18, at the close of the truinpest:with Him in His triumph over the beast. On the ch. 16. 3, at the saints' victory over the beast. And-Soemblem of the heavenly Bridegroom and Bride. c. ANDRRAS. But A, B, C, Vulgate. Syriac, and Coptic Matthew, 22. 2; 25. 6. 10; 2 Corinthians, 11. 2. Per omit. a great voice-A, B, C, Vulgate, Coptic, and AN- fect union with Him personally, and participation is DREAS read, “as it were a great voice." What a con- His holiness, joy, glory, and kingdom, are included in trast to the lamentations, ch. 18 ! CY. Jeremiah, 61. 48. this symbol of "marriage;" cl, Song of Solomon every The great manifestation of God's power in destroying where. Besides the hearenly bride, the transfigured, Babylon calls forth a great voice of praise in heaven. translated, and risen church, reigoing OVET the earth

The Blessedness of those


Called to the Marriage Feast, with Christ, there is also the earthly bride, Israel, in apostles, all alike have the testimony of (bear testi." the flesh, never yet divorced, though for a time seps-mony concerning) Jesus by the operation of one and rated, from her Divine husband, who shall then be the same Spirit, who enables me to show you these re-united to the Lord, and be the mother-church of the revelations, and enables you to record them: wheremillennial eartb, Christianized through her. Note, we fore we are fellow-servants, not I your lord to be ought, as Scripture does, restrict the language drawn worshipped by you. Cf.ch, 22. 9, "I am fellow-servant from marriage-love to the Bride, the church as a whole, of thee and of thy brethren the prophets;" whence the not use it as individuals in our relation to Christ, "FOR the testimony," &c., here may be explained as which Rome does in the case of her nuns. Indi. I giving the reason for his adding "and (fellow-servant) vidually believers are effectually-called guests : collec- l of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus," I tively, they constitute the bride. The harlot divides mean, of the prophets; "for it is of Jesus that thy

affections among many lovers: the bride gives hers brethren, the prophets, testify by the Spirit in them." exclusively to Christ. 8. granted-Though in one sense | A clear condemnation of Romish invocation of saints, she "made herself ready," having by the Spirit's work as if they were our superiors to be adored. 11. behold

er put on the wedding parment," yet in the fullest a white horse: and he tbat sat upon him-Identical with sepse it is not she, but her Lord, who makes her ready I ch, 6. 2. Here as there he comes forth “conquering by "oranting to her that she be arrayed in fine linen." and to conquer." Compare the ass-colt on which Ho It is He who by giving Himself for her. presents her to rode into Jerusalem. The horse was used for war: Himself a glorious church not having spot, but holy and I and here He is going forth to war with the beast. The without blemish. It is He also who sanctifies her, natu ass is for peace. His riding on it into Jerusalem is an rally vile and without beauty, with the washing of earnest of His reign in Jerusalem over the earth, as water by the word, and puts His own comeliness on the Prince of peace, after all hostile powers have been her, which thus becomes hers. clean and white - So overthrown. When the security of the world-power, ANDREAS. But A, B transpose. Translate, “Bright | and the distress of the people of God, have reached and pure :" at once brilliantly splendid and spotless as the highest point, the Lord Jesus shall appear visibly is the bride herself. righteousness-Greek, "righteous from heaven to put an end to the whole course of the nesses:" distributively used. Each saint must have world, and establish His kingdom of glory. He comes this righteousness : not merely be justified, as if the to judge with vengeance the world-power, and to righteousness belonged to the church in the aggregate: bring to the church redemption, transfiguration, and the saints together bave righteousnesses, viz., He is ac- power over the world. Distinguish between this coming counted as "the Lord our righteousness" to each saint (Matthew, 24. 27, 29, 37, 39: Greek parousia) and the on his believing their robes being made white in the end, or final judgment (Matthew, 25. 31; 1 Corinthians, blood of the Lamb. The righteousness of the saint is 16. 23). Powerful natural phenomena shall accompany not, as ALFORD erroneously states, inherent, but is His advent. (AUBERLEN.) 12. Identifying Him with imputed: if it were otherwise, Christ would be merely | the Son of man similarly described, ch. 1. 14. many enabling the sinner to justify himself. Romans, 6. 18, is crowns-Greek, "diadems:" not merely (Greek stephanoi) decisive on this. Cf. Article XI., Church of England. I garlands of victory, but royal crowns, as KING OF The justification already given to the saints in title | KINGS. Christ's diadem comprises all the diadems of and unseen possession, is now GIVEN them in mani. the earth and of heavenly powers too. Contrast the festation : they openly walk with Christ in white. To Papal tiara composed of three diadems. Cf. also the this rather than to their primary justification on earth, little horn (antichrist) that overcomes the three horns the reference is here. Their justification before the or kingdoms, Daniel, 7. 8. 24 (Quare, the Papacy? or apostate world which had persecuted them, contrasts | some three kingdoms that succeed the Papacy, which with the judgment and condemnation of the harlot. | itself, as a temporal kingdom, was made up at first

Now that the barlot has failen, the woman triumphs." of three kingdoms, the exarchate of Ravenna, the TAUBERLEN) Contrast with the pure fine linen (in- | kingdom of the Lombards, and the state of Rome. dicating the simplicity and purity) of the bride, the obtained by Pope Zachary and Stephen II. from Pepin, tawdry ornamentation of the harlot. Babylon, the the usurper of the French dominion). Also, the seren apostate church, is the antithesis to new Jerusalem, crowns (diadems) on the seven heads of the dragon (ch. the transfigured-church of God. The woman (ch. 12.). 12. 3), and ten diadems on the ten heads of the beast. the harlot (ch. 17.), the bride (ch. 19.), are the three These usurpers claim the diadems which belong to leading aspects of the church. 9. He-God by His | Christ alone, he had a name written-B and Syriac angel saith unto me. called - effectually, not merely insert, "He had names written, and a name written," externally. The "unto," or "into," seems to express &c., meaning that the names of the dominion which this : not merely invited to (Greek epi), but called LNTO, each diadem indicated, were written on them seveso as to be partakers of (Greek eis), cf. 1 Corinthians, rally. But A, Vulgate, ORIGEN, and CYPRIAN omit the 1. 9. marriage supper-Greek, "the supper of the mar- words, as English Version, name...that no man knew but riage." Typified by the Lord's supper. true-Greek, 1... himself - (Judges, 13, 18: 1 Corinthians, 2. 9, 11: * genuine;" veritable sayings which shall surely be 1 John, 3. 2. The same is said of the "new name" of fulfilled. viz.. all the previous revelations. 10. at- I believers. In this, as in all other respects, the disciple Greek, “before." John's intending to worship the is made like his Lord. The Lord's own "new name" is angel here, as in ch. 22. 8, on having revealed to him to be theirs, and to be in their foreheads;" whence the glory of the new Jerusalem, is the involuntary im we may infer that His as yet unknoron name also is pulse of adoring joy at so blessed a prospect. It forms written on His forehead: as the high priest had "Hoa marked contrast to the sorrowful wonder with which I liness to the Lord" inscribed on the mitre on his brow. he had looked on the church in her apostasy as the John saw it as "written" but knew not its meaning. harlot (ch. 17, 6). It exemplifies the corrupt tenden-Jt is, therefore, & name which in all its glorious sig. cies of our fallen nature that even John, an apostle, nificancy can be only understood when the union of should bave all but fallen into "voluntary humility His saints with Him, and His and their joint triumph and worshipping of angels," which Paul warns us and reign, shall be perfectly manifested at the final against. aud of thy brethren-i.e., a fellow-servant of consummation. 13. veature dipped in blood - Isaiah, tby brethren, have the testimony of Jesu8-(Note, ch. 63. 2, is alluded to here, and in v. 16, end. There the 12. 17.) the testimony of-i.e., respecting Jesus. is the blood is not His own, but that of His foes. So here gpirit of prophecy-is the result of the same spirit of the blood on His "vestnre," reminding us of His own prophecy in you as in myself. We angels, and you blood shed for even the ungodly who trample on it.

The Word of God and His Armies

REVELATION, XIX. Going forth to War rith Antichrist is a premonition of the shedding of their blood in lowers of the beast. Again, the giving of their flesh righteous retribution. He sheds the blood, not of the to the fowls to eat, is a richteous retribution for their godly, as the harlot and beast did, but of the blood- not suffering the dead bodies of Christ's scitnesses to stained ungodly, including them both. The Word of be put in graves. 19. gathered together at Arms God-who made the world, is He also who under the geddon, under the sixth vial For their armies" in same character and attributes shall make it anew. B and ANDREAS, there is found “His armies" in A. Alis title, Son of God, is applicable, in a lower sepse, war-So ANDREAS. But A, B read, "the war." ris also to His people; but * the Word of God" indi- that foretold, ch. 16. 14:17. 4. 20 and with him, &c.-A cates His incommunicable Godhead, joined to His reads, and those with him." B reads, and he who manhood, which He shall then manifest in glory. was with him, the false prophet." miracles-Grect ** The Bride does not fear the Bridegroom: her love "the miracles" (lat.. "sigos") recorded already ich. 13. casteth out fear. Sbe welcomes Him: she cannot be 14) as wrought by the second beast before lit., in sight happy but at His side. The Lamb (v. 9, the aspect of of) the first beast. Hence it follows the second beast Christ to his people at His coming) is the symbol of is identical with the false prophet. Many expositors. Christ in His gentleness. Who would be afraid ol & represent the first beast to be the secular, the second lamb? Even a little child, instead of being scared, de- beast to be the ecclesiastical power of Rome: and sires to caress it. There is nothing to make us afraid account for the change of title for the latter from the of God but sin, and Jesus is the Lamb of God that "other beast to the false prophet," is because by taketh arcay the sin of the world. What a fearful con- the judgment on the harlot, the ecclesiastical power trast is the aspect which He will wear towards His will then retain nothing of its formuer character save enemies! Not as the Bridegroom and the Lamb, but the power to deceive. I think it not unlikely that the as the (avenging] judge and warrior stained in the false prophet will be the successor of the spiritual blood of His enemies." 14. the armies... in beaven pretensions of the Papacy: whilst the beast in its last C. "the horse-bridles," ch. 14. 20. The glorified saints form as the fully-revealed antichrist will be the secular whom God "will bring with" Christ at His advent; cf. representative and embodiment of the fourth worldch. 17. 14, *they that are with Him called, chosen, kingdom, Rome, in its last form of intensified opposifaithful" as also "His mighty angels," white and tion to God. CY, with this prophecy, Ezekiel. 58. 59: clean - Greele, "pure." A, B, Vulgate, Syriac, and Daniel, 2. 34, 35, 44; 11. 44, 45; 12. 1; Joel, 3. 9-17; CYPRIAN omit "and," which ORIGEN and ANDREAS Zechariah, 12. ; 13.; 14. Daniel (7.8) makes to menretain, as English Version. 15. out of his mouth...sword tion of the second beast, or false prophet, but mentions

(ch, 1. 16: 2. 12. 16.) Here in its avenging power, that "the little horn" has "the eyes of a man," i. 2 Thessalonians, 2. 8, "consume with the Spirit of His cunning and intellectual culture: this is not a feature mouth” (Isaiah, 11. 4, to which there is allusion here: of the first beast in ch, 13., but is expressed by the not in its convicting and converting efficacy (Ephe Apocalyptic "false prophet," the embodiment of sians, 6. 17; Hebrews, 4. 12, 13, where also the judicial man's unsanctified knowledge, and the subtlety of the keepness of the sword-like word is included). The old serpent. The first beast is a political power; the Father commits the judgment to the Son, be shall second is a spiritual power-the power of ideas. Bat rule-The He is emphatical. He and none other, in both are beasts, the worldly anti-Christian wisdom contrast to the usurpers who have misruled on earth. serving the worldly anti-Christian power. The dragon * Rule," lit., *tend as a shepherd." but here in a is both lion and serpent. As the first law in God's punitive sense. He who would have shepherded them moral government is that judgment should begin at with pastoral rod and with the golden sceptre of His the house of God," and be execated on the barlot, the love, shall dash them in pieces, as refractory rebels, faithless church, by the world-power with which she with "a rod of iron." treadeth...wine-press (Isaiah, had committed spiritual adultery, so it is a second 63. 3.) of the fierceness and wrath-So ANDREAS reads. law that the world-power, after having served as God's But A, B, Vulgate, Coptic, and ORIGEN read, * of the instrument of punishment, is itself punished. As the fierceness (or boiling indignation) of the wrath," omit- harlot is judged by the beast and the ten kings, so these ting sand." Almighty-The fierceness of Christ's wrath are destroyed by the Lord Himself coming in person against His foes will be executed with the resources of So Zephaniah, ch. 1. compared with ch. 2. And Jere omnipotence. 16." His name written on His vesture miah, after denouncing Jerusalem's judgment by and on His thigh," was written partly on the vesture, Babylon, ends with denouncing Babylon's OwR doom. partly on the thigh itself, at the part where in an eques- Between the judgment on the barlot, and the Lord's trian figure the robe drops from the thigh. The thigh destruction of the beast, &c., will intervene that seasca symbolizes Christ's humanity as having come, after in which earthly.miudedness will reach its culmination the flesh, from the loins of David, and now appear and anti-Christianity triumph for its short three and ing as the glorilled "Son of man." On the other band a half days during which the two witnesses lie dead His incommunicable Divine name, "which no man Then shall the church be ripe for her gloritication, the knew," is on His bead (v. 12). (MENOCHUS.) KING anti-Christian world for destruction. The world at OF KINGS: cf. ch. 17. 14, in contrast with v. 17, the the highest development of its material and spiritual beast being in attempted usurpation a king of kings, power, is but a decorated carcase round which the the ten kings delivering their kingdom to him. 17. eagles gather. It is characteristic, that antichrist and an-Greek, "one." in the sun-80 as to be conspicuous his kings, in their blindness, imagine that they can in sight of the whole world. to all the fowls-(Ezekiel, wage war against the King of heaven with earthly 39. 17-20.) and gather yourselves-A, B. Vuloate, Syriac, hosts: herein is shown the extreme folly of Babylo Coptic, and ANDREAS read, "be gathered." omitting nian confusion, The Lord's pere appearance, with "and." of the great God-A, B, Vulgate, Syriac, Coptic, ont any actual encounter, shows antichrist his nothand ANDREAS read, “The great supper (i.e., banquet) ingness: cf. the effect of Jesus' appearance even in His of God." 18. ontrast with this "supper," v. 17. 18. humiliation, John, 18. 6. (AUBERLEN.) had received the marriage-supper of the Lamb, v. 9. captains-Greek, rather as Greek, "received," once for all them that "captains of thousands," i.e., chief captains. The worshipped-lit.. " them worshipping :** vot an act once "kings" are "the ten" who "give their power unto for all done, as the "received" implies, but those ir the beast." free and bond-specified in ch. 13. 18, as the habit of ** worsbipping." These both were cast... "receiving the mark of the beast." The repetition of into a lake-Greek, "... the lake of fire." Gehenna. Satan Nesh (in the Greek it is plural: masses of flesh) five times is subsequently cast into it, at the close of the one in this verse, marks the gross carnality of the fol- l break which succeeds the millennium (ch. 4 16.

Satan Bound

a Thousand Years. Then Death and Hell, as well those not found at the be the manifestation of "the world to come," which has general judgment "written in the book of life:" this been already set up invisibly in the saints, amidst constitutes the second death." alive-a living death; "this world" (2 Corinthians, 4, 4; Hebrews, 2. 5; 5,5). not mere annihilation. "Their worm dieth not, their The Jewish Rabbis thought, as the world was created tire is not quenched." 21. the remnant-Greek, "the in six days and on the seventh God rested, so there rest." i.e.. "the kings and their armies" (v.19) classed would be six millenary periods, followed by a Sabbatogether in one indiscriminate mass. A solemn con- tical millennium. Out of seven years every seventh firmation of the warning in Psalm 2. 10.

is the year of remission, so out of the seven thousand CHAPTER XX.

years of the world the seventh millenary shall be the Ver. 1-16. SATAN BOUND, AND THE FIRST-RISEN millenary of remission. A tradition in the house of SAINTS REIGN WITH CHRIST, A THOUSAND YEARS: Elias A.D. 200, states that the world is to endure 6000 SATAN LOOSED GATHERS THE NATIONS, GOG AND years: 2000 before the law, 2000 under the law, and MAGOG, ROUND THE CAMP OF THE SAINTS, AXD 18 2000 under Messiah. Cf. Note and Margin, Hebrews, FINALLY CONSIGNED TO TRE LAKE OF FIRE: THE 4. 9; ch. 14. 13. PAPLAS, JUSTIN MARTYR, IRENÆUS, GENERAL RESURRECTION AND LAST JUDGMENT. 1. and CYPRIAN, among the earliest fathers, all held the The destruction of his representatives, the beast and doctrine of a millennial kingdom on earth : not till the false prophet, to whom he had given his power, millennial views degenerated into gross carnalism was throne, and authority, is followed by the binding of this doctrine abandoned. that he should deceive-So Satan himself for a thousand years. the key of the A. But B reads, "that he deceive" (Greek plana, for bottomless pit -- now trausferred from Satan's hands, planeesee). aud-So Coptic and ANDREAS. But A, B, who had heretofore been permitted by God to use it and Vulgate omit "and." 4, 5. they sat-the twelve in letting loose plagues on the earth: he is now to be apostles, and the saints in general. judgment was given made to feel himself the torment which he had inflict. unto them-(Note, Daniel, 7. 22.) The office of judging ed on men: but his full torment is not until he is cast was given to them. Though in one sense having to into the lake of fire" (v. 10). 2. the old-ancient ser-stand before the judgment seat of Christ, yet in another pent (ch. 12.9). thousand years-As seren mystically sense they do not come into judgment (Greek), but have implies universality, so a thousand implies perfection, I already passed from death unto life." souls-This term whether in good or evil. (AQUINAS on ch. 11.) Thou is made a plea for denying the literality of the first resand symbolizes that the world is perfectly leavened surrection, as if the resurrection were the spiritual one and pervaded by the Divine : since thousand is ten, I of the souls of believers in this life: the life and reign the number of the world, raised to the third power, being that of the soul raised in this life from the death three being the number of God. [AUBERLEX.) It may of sin by vivifying faith. But" souls" expresses their đenote literally also a thousand years. 3. sbut him- disembodied state (cf.ch.6.9) as John saw them at first; A, B, Vulgate, Syriac, and ANDREAS omit "him." set "and they lived" implies their coming to life in the & seal upon him-Greek, "over him," i.e., sealed up the body again, so as to be visible, as the phrase, v. 5," this door of the abyss over his head. A surer seal to keep is the first resurrection," proves: for as surely as "the him from getting out than his seal over Jesus in the rest of the dead lived not (again) until, &c.,” refers to tomb of Joseph, which was burst on the resurrection the bodily general resurrection, so must the first resurinorn. Satan's binding at this juncture is not arbi- rection refer to the body. This also accords with i Cotrary, but is the necessary consequence of the events rinthians, 16. 23. "They that are Christ's at His com(ch. 19. 20 : just as Satan's being cast out of heaven, ing." C1. Psalm, 49. 11-15. From ch. 6. 9, I infer that wbere he had previously been the accuser of the breth- "souls" is here used in the strict sense of spirits disren, was the legitimate judgment which passed on him embodied when tirst seen by John : though doubtless through the death, resurrection, and ascension of Christ'souls" is often used in general for persons, and even Ich. 12. 7-10). Satan imagined that he had overcome for dead bodies, beheaded-lit., "smitten with an axe." Christ on Golgotba, and that his power was secure for a Roman punishment, though crucifixion, casting to ever. but the Lord in death overcame him, and by beasts, and burning, were the more common modes of His ascension as our righteous Advocate cast out execution. The guillotine in revolutionary France. Satan tbe accuser from heaven. Time was given him still continued in imperial France, is a revival of the on earth to make the beast and harlot powerful, and ) mode of capital punishment of Pagan imperial Rome. then to concentrate all his power in antichrist. Tbe Paul was beheaded, and no doubt shall share the first anti-Christian kingdom, his last effort, being utterly resurrection, in accordance with his prayer that he destroyed by Christ's mere appearing, his power on "might attain unto the resurrection from out of the earth is at an end. He had thought to destroy God's | rest of the dead" (Greek excanastasis). The above facts people on earth by anti-Christian persecutions (just as I may account for the specification of this particular he bad thought previously to destroy Christ) : but the kind of punishment. for...for-Greek for the sake of;"" church is not destroyed from the earth, but is raised "on account of " " because of." and whicb-Greck, and to rule over it, and Satan himself is shut up for a thou- the which :" And prominent among this class (the besand years in the abyss" (Greek for "bottomless pit"). I headed), such as did not worship the beast, &c. So the preparatory prison to the "lake of fire," his final ch, 1. 7, Greek, "and the which," or "and such as," doom. As before he ceased by Christ's ascension to be particularizes prominently among the general class an accuser in heaven, so during the millennium he those that follow in the description. (TREGELLES.) ceases to be the seducer and the persecutor on earth. The catent of the first resurrection is not spoken of As long as the devil rules in the darkness of the here. In 1 Corinthians, 15. 23, 51; 1 Thessalonians, 4. world, we live in an atmosphere impregnated with 14, we find that all "in Christ" shall share in it. John deadly elements. A mighty purification of the air himself was not "beheaded," yet who doubts but that will be effected by Christ's coming. Though sin will he shall share in the first resurrection! The martyrs not be absolutely abolished for men will still be in | are put first, because most like Jesus in their suffering the flesh (Isaiah, 65. 20)-sin will no longer be a uni- and death, therefore nearest Him in their life and versal power, for the flesh is not any longer seduced reign; for Christ indirectly affirms there are relative by Satan. He will not be, as now,"the god and prince | degrees and places of honour in His kingdom, the of the world"-nor will the world "lie in the wicked highest being for those who drink His cup of suffering. one"-the flesh will become ever more isolated and be Next shall be those who bave not bowed to the world. overcome. Christ will reign with His transfigured power, but have looked to the things unseen and etercnints over men in the flesh. (AURERLEN.) This will / nal. neither-pot yet." reigned with Christ-over the

Blessedness of the partakers


in the First Resurrection. earth. foreheads... hands - Greek." forehead...hand." If revelation is to recommence in the millennial king5. But-B. Coptic, and ANDREAS read, "and." A and dom, converted Israel must stand at the head of humaVulgate omit it. again - A, B, Vulgate, Coptic, and nity. In a religious point of view, Jews and Gentiles ANDREAS omit it. Lived is used for liced again, as stand on an equal footing as both alike needing mercy: in ch.2. 8. John saw them not only when restored to but as regards God's instrumentalities for bringing life, but when in the act of reviving. (BENCEI) first about His kingdom on earth, Israel is His chosen resurrection-"the resurrection of the just." Earth is people for executing His plans. The Israelite priestpot yet transfigured, and cannot therefore be the meet kings on earth are what the transfigured priest-kings locality for the transfigured church; but from heaven are in hesven. There shall be a blessed chain of girthe transfigured saints with Christ rule the earth, there ing and receiving-God, Christ, the transfigured Bride being & much freer communion of the heavenly and the church, Israel, the world of nations. A new time earthly churches (a type of which state may be seen of revelation will begin by the out-pouring of tbe ful. in the forty days of the risen Saviour during which Heness of the Spirit. Ezekiel (chs. 40.48), himself son of appeared to His disciples), and they know no higher a priest, sets forth the priestly character of Isrsel: joy than to lead their brethren on earth to the same Daniel the statesman, its kingly character: Jeremiah salvation and glory as they share themselves. The (33. 17-21), both its priestly and kingly character. In millennial reign on earth does not rest on an isolated the Old Testament the whole Jewish national life was passage of the Apocalypse, but all Old Testament pro religious only in an external legal manner. The New phecy goes on the same view (cf. Isaiah, 4.3: 11. 9; 35. 81. Testament church insists on inward renewal, but leaves Jesus, whilst opposing the carnal views of the king its outward manifestations free. But in the millennial dom of God prevalent among the Jews in His day, kingdom, all spheres of life shall be truly Christianized does not contradict, but confirms, the Old Testament from within outwardly. The Mosaic ceremonial law view of a coming earthly, Jewish kingdom of glory : corresponds to Israel's priestly office : the civil law beginning from within, and spreading itself now spirit to its kingly oflice: the Gentile church adopts the ually, the kingdom of God shall manifest itself out. moral law, and exercises the prophetic office by the wardly at Christ's coming again. The Papacy is a false word working inwardly. But when the royal and the anticipation of the kingdom during the Church-histor priestly office shall be revived, then-the principles of ical period. "When Christianity became & worldly the epistle to the Hebrews remaining the same also power under Constantine, the hope of the future was the ceremonial and civil law of Moses will develop weakened by the joy over present success." (BENGEL) its spiritual depths in the Divine worship (cf. Matthew. Becoming a harlot, the church ceased to be a bride 6. 17-19). At present is the time of preaching; but then going to meet her Bridegroom: thus millennial hopes the time of the Liturgy of converted souls forming disappeared. The rights which Rome as a harlot "the great congregation shall come. Then shall our usurped, shall be exercised in holiness by the Bride.

chall ha avarniced in holiness by the Bride. I present defective governments give place to perfect They are kings" because they are "priests" (v. 6; ch. governments in both Church and State. Whereas un. 1.6; 6, 10); their priesthood unto God and Christ (ch. 7. der the Old Testament the Jews exclusively, and in 15) is the ground of their kingship in relation to man. the New Testament the Gentiles exclusively, enjoy the Men will be willing subjects of the transfigured priest revelation of salvation (in both cases humanity being kings, in the day of the Lord's power. Their power is | divided and separated), in the millennium both Jews that of attraction, winning the heart, and not coun and Gentiles are united, and the whole organism of teracted by devil or beast. Church and State shall mankind under the first-born brother, Israel, walks then be co-extensive. Man created "to have dominion in the light of God, and the full life of humanity is at over earth" is to rejoice over his world with unmixed, last realized. Scripture does not view the human race holy joy. St. John tells us that, instead of the devil, as an aggregate of individuals and nationalities, but the transfigured Church of Christ: Daniel, that instead as an organic whole, laid down once for all in the first of the heathen beast, the holy Israel, shall rule the pages of revelation (Genesis, 9, 25-27: 10, 1, 6, 18, 95, 52: world. (AUBERLEN.) 6. Blessed-(cf. ch. 14. 13; 19. 9.) Deuteronomy, 32. 8, recognizes the fact that from the on such the second death hath no power-even as it has first the division of the nations was made with a relanone on Christ now that He is risen. priests of God tion to Israell. Hence arises the importance of the Apostate Christendom being destroyed, and the believ. Old Testament to the church now as ever. Three grand ing church translated at Christ's coming, there will re groups of nations, Hamites, Japhetites, and Shemites. main Israel and the heathen world, constituting the correspond respectively to the three fundamental elemajority of men then alive,which, from not having come ments in man-body, soul, and spirit. The flower of into close contact with the gospel, bave not incurred Shem, the representative of spiritual life, is Israel, even the guilt of rejecting it. These will be the subjects as the flower of Israel is He in whom all mankind is of a general conversion (ch. 11. 16). "The veil" shall summed up, the second Adam (Genesis, 12, 1-3). This be taken off Israel first, then from off "all people." Israel is the mediator of Divide revelations for all times, The glorious events attending Christ's appearing, the | Even nature and the animal-world will share in the destruction of antichrist, the transfiguration of the millennial blessedness. As sin loses its power, decay church, and the binding of Satan, will prepare the and death will decrease. (AUBERLEN.) Earthly and nations for embracing the gospel. As indiridual-re heavenly glories sball be united in the two-fold elec generation goes on now, so there shall be a "regener tion. Elect Israel in the flesh shall stand at the head ation" of nations then. Israel, as a nation, shall be of the earthly, the elect spiritual church, the Bride, ** born at once-in one day." As the church began at in the heavenly. These two-fold elections are not Christ's ascension, so the kingdom shall begin at His merely for the good of the elect themselves, but for the second advent. This is the humiliation of the modern good of those to whom they minister. The heavenly civilized nations, that nations which they despise, most church is elected not merely to salvation, but to rule Jews and uncivilized barbarians, the negro descen- in love, and minister blessings over the whole earth, dants of Ham who from the curse of Noah have been as king-priests. The glory of the transfigured saints so backward, Kush and Sbeba, shall supplant and sur- shall be felt by men in the flesh with the same conpass them as centres of the world's history (cf. Den- sciousness of blessing as on the mount of transfigura teronomy, 32, 21; Romans, 10. 19; 11. 20, &c). The Jews tion the three disciples experienced in witnessing the are our teachers even in New Testament times. Since glory of Jesus, and of Moses and Elias, when Peter extheir rejection revelation has been silent. The whole claimed, "It is good for us to be here:" in 2 Peter, L. Bible, even the New Testament, is written by Jews. I 16-18, the transfiguration is regarded as the earnest of

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