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The Fall of Baby'on

REVELATION, XIV. Blessedness of the Dead in the Lord. Gd manifested in the gospel Pepentance accompanies 80 earnestly longed for by former martyrs is now wil futb. give glay to him-and not to the beast ief. ch. but come: the full number of their fellow-servats is 13. 4; Jeremiah, 13.16). the boar of his judgment--"The on the verge of completion: they have no longer to hour" implies the definite tumu. "Judgılent, not the rest the same Greek as here, anapausis yet for a little general judgment, but that upon Babylon, the beast, season." their eternal rest. Or ceration from souls and his worshippers (r. 8-12. worship him that made (2 Thessalonians, 1. 1, Grock anesis. relaxation after Leaveb-Dot Antichrist-wbo “sitteth in the temple of hardships. Hebrews, 4. 9. 10, sabbatuss of rest: and God, showing Himself that He is God" (cf. Act, 14. 16). Greek catapausis, akin to the Greek bere), is close # ses...fountains-Distinguished also in ch. 8. 6. 10. 8. hand now. They are olessed in being about to sit down anstber-So l'ulgate. Bat A, B, Syriac, and ANDREAS to the marriage supper of the Lamb ich. 19. 9. &ad in add. "a second * ** another, a second angel' Babylon having part IN TRE first resurrection sch. 30. R. and is -Here first mentioned : identical with the harlot, the haring right to the tree of We ch. 2. 14. ID . 14apostate church: distinct from the beast, and judged follows the explanation of why they are pronounced separately. is fallen-Anticipation of ch. 18. 2. A, "blessed' nou in particular, riz, the Son of mana T'ulgate, Syriac, and ANDREAS support the second " is the cloud is just coming to gather them in as the harus fallen." But B. C. and Coptic omit it. that great city ripe for His garner. Write-to put it on record fut

A, B, C, Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic omit "city. ever. Yea, saith the Spirit-The words of God the Then translate, *Babylon the great.* The ulterior and Father (the " voice from heaven) * are echoed back and exhaustive fulfilment of Isaiah, 21. 9. because--So Ax confirmed by the Spirit (speaking in tbe Word, eh, DREAS. But A, C, Vulgate, and Syriac read, "which." 7; 22. 17; and in the saints, 2 Corinthians 6. 5; 1 Peter, B and Copticomit it. Even reading "which." we must 4. 14). All “God's promises in Christ are yes 20 understand it as giving the reason of her fall. all na-rinthians, 1. 20. unto me-Omitted in A, B, C. Vulgai Lions-A, B, C read, all the nations." the wine of the Syriac, and Coptic, that they may-The Greek includes wrath of her fornication-the wine of the wrath of God, also the idea, They are blessed, in that they 8BALL US the consequence of her fornication. As she made the from theur toils (so the Gruk). and-So B and Asnations drunk with the wine of her fornication, so she DREAS read. But A, C, Vulgate, and Syriac read bersell shall be made drunk with the wine of God's "for." They rest from their toils, because their time wrath. 9. A, B, C, and ANDREAS read, "another, a for toil is past; they enter on the blessed rest, bagus third angel." Cr, with this verse ch. 13. 15. 16. 10. The of their faith evinced by their works, which, therefore same-Greck. " he also, as the just and inevitable re * follow WITU (so the Greckthem. Their scorks are tribution, wine of...wrath of God-(Psalm 75. 8.) with specified becanse respect is had to the Conos jude out mixtare-whereas wine was so commonly mixed ment, wherein every man shall be judged according with water, that to mir wine is used in Greek for to to his works." His works do not go before the be jour out wine: this wide of God's wrath is undiluted: liever, nor even go by his side, but follove him at the Here is no drop of water to cool its beat. Nou ht of same time that they go with him as a liroof that be grace or hope is blended with it. This terrible threat Christ's. 14. crow- reek stephanon), pariand of vie may wall raise us above the fear of man's threats. tory : not His dradem as a king. The victory is die This unmixed cup is already mingled and prepared for scribed in detail, ch. 19. 11-21. One sat--"one sitting Salan and the beast's followers. indigna:iou-Greck (Greek cathemenon homoion, is the reading of A, B, C forges), *abidung torath. But the Greek for "wrath | Fulgate, and Coptic. 15. Tarnst in-Grock, *Send." above (Greek thumou) is boiling indignation, from The angel does not command the "Son of mane. 14. (Grecl: thuo) a root meaning to boil: this is temporary but is the mere messenger Saloancing to the Son the ebullition of anger; that is lasting (AMMONIUS), and will of God the Father, in whose heads are kent the accompanied with a purpose of vengeance (ORIGEN on times and the seasons. thy sickle-Alluding to Mark Isalm 2. 5), tormented... in the presence of the... angels 4.29, wbere also it is "send th the sickle, Tue Sao - Psalm 49. 14; 58. 10: 139, 21; Isaiah, 66. 24.) God's sends His sickle-bearing angel to reap the righteous enemies are regarded by the saints as their enemies, when fully ripe. harvest--the harvest crop. By the and when the day of probation is past their mind shall harrest-reaping the elect righteous are gathered out: ks be so entirely one with God's, that they shall rejoice the rintage the anti-Christian offenders are removed in witnessing visibly the judicial vindication of God's out of the earth, the scene of Christ's coming kingdopl. righteousness in sinners' punishment. 11. for ever and The Son of man Himsell, with a golden crown, is ever-Greek, "unto ages of ages." no rest day nor night troduced in the harvest-gathering of the elect, & mere -Contrast the very different sense in which the same angel in the vintage (v. 18-20). is ripe it.. ** is dried is said of the four living creatures in heaven, "They Ripe for glory. 16. thrust in-Greer, "east. 17. cut rest pot day and night, saying. Holy, holy, holy," &c.: of the temple... in heaven-ch 11. 19.) 18. from the altar yet they do rest in another sense : they rest from sin upon which were offered the incense-accompanied and sorrow, wearinees and weakness, trial and tempta prayers of all saints, which bring down in answer Gods tion iv. 13,: the los: have no rest from sin and Satan, fiery judgment on the church's foes, the fire being takes terror, torment, and remorse. 12. Here, &c.-Resumed from the altar and cast upon the earth. faliy ripefrom ch. 13. 10, where see the Note. In the fiery ordeal | Greek, "come to their acine: ripe for punishment of persecution which awaits all who will not worship | 19. "The vine" is what is the subject of judg'nent be the beast, the faith and patience of the followers of cause its grapes are not what God looked for coustdes God and Jesus shall be put to the test, and proved. ing its careful culture, but "wild grapes" (Isaiah. 8.) patience-Greek (hupomene), patient, persevering endur- The apostate world of Christendom, not the world of ance. The second "here" is omitted in A, B, C. Vul heathendom, who have not heard of Christ, is the one gata Syriae. Coptic, and PRIMASIUS. Translate, "Pere 'ject of judgment. CT, the emblem, cb 19. 15: Istial is the endurance of the saints, who keep," &c. th: 63. 2. 3; Joel, 3. 13. 20. without the ci-y-Jerusalem faith of Jesus-he faith which has Jesus for its object. The scene of the blood-shedding of Christ and Ha 13. Encouragement to cheer those persecuted under the people shall be also the scene of God's vengeance du least. Blessed-in resting from their toils, and, in the the anti-Christian foe. CY, the "horsemen, ch. 9. 16 case of the saints just before alluded to as persecuted 17. blood-answering to the red wine. The sleuzbier by the beast, in resting from persecutions. Their full of the apostates is what is bere spoken of, not their blessedness is now “from henceforth," .e., FROM THIS eternal punishment. even unto the borse-bridles of the IIME, when the judgment on the beust, and the har avenging "armies of heaven." by the space of a thousand Vest-cathering of the elect are iminent. The time ... siz bnadied iuljuge-la.. "a thousand six bondal

The Victors over the Beast Sing


the Song of Moses and the Lamb. farlongs off." (W. KELLY) Sixteen hundred is a timbrels of Miriam and the Israelitesses. 3. song of square number: 4 by 4 by 100. The four quarters, Moses...and...the Lamb-The New Testament song of the North, South, East, and West, of the Holy land, or else Lamb (ie., the song which the Lamb siiall lead. as beof the world (the completeness and universality of the ing "the Captain of our salvation," just as Moses was world wide destruction being hereby indicated). It leader of the Israelites, the song in which those who does not exactly answer to the length of Palestine as cooquer through Him (Romans, 8. 97) shall join, ch, 12. given by JEROME, 160 Roman miles, BENGEL thinks 11) is the antitype to the triumphant Old Testament the valley of Kedron, between Jerusalem and the song of Moses and the Israelites at the Red sea mount of Olives, is meant, the torrent in that valley 1 (Exodus, 15.). The churches of the Old and New Tes. being about to be discoloured with blood to the extent tament are essentially one in their conflicts and of 1600 furlongs. This view accords with Joel's pro- triumphs. The two appear joined in this phrase, as pliecy that the valley of Jehoshaphat is to be the scene they are in the twenty-four elders. Similarly, Isaiah, of the overthrow of the anti-Christian foes.

12., foretells the song of the redeemed (Israel foremostu CHAPTER XV.

after the second antitypical exodus and deliverance at Ver. 1-3. THE SEVEN LAST VIALS OF PLAQUES: the Egyptian sea. The passage through the Red ser SONG OF THE VICTORS OVER THE BEAST. 1. the seven | under the pillar of cloud was Israel's baptism, to which last plagues-Greek, "seven plagues which are the last." the believer's baptism in trials corresponds. The elect is filed up-lit.. "was finished," or "consummated:" | after their trials (especially those arising from the beast) the prophetical past for the future, the future being to shall be taken up before the vials of wrath be poured God as though it were past, so sure of accomplishment on the beast and his kingdom. So Noah and his fam is His word. This verse is the summary of the vision were taken out of the doomed world before the that follows: the angels do not actually receive the | deluge: Lot was taken out of Sodom before its destrucvials till v. 7: but here, in o. l. by anticipation they | tion; the Christians escaped by a special interposition are spoken of as haring them. There are no more of Providence to Pella, before the destruction of Jeru. plagues after these until the Lord's coming in judginent. salem. As the pillar of cloud and fire interposed beThe destruction of Babylon ch, 18.) is the last: then tween Israel and the Egyptian foe, so that Israel was in ch. 19. He appears. 2. sea of glass-Answering to safely landed on the opposite shore before the Egypthe niolten sea or great brazen laver before the mercy. tians were destroyed; so the Lord, coming with clouds seat of the earthly temple, for the purification of the and in flaming fire, shall first catch up His elect people priests; typifying the baptism of water and the Spirit "in the clouds to meet Him in the air," and then shall of all who are made kings and priests unto God. mingled | with fire destroy the enemy. The Lamb leads the song with fire-Answering to the baptism on earth with fire, in honour of the Father amidst the great congregation. i.e., fiery trial, as well as with the Holy Ghost, which This is the "new song" mentioned ch.14. 3. The singChrist's people undergo to purify them, as gold is puri-ing victors are the 144,000 of Israel, "the first fruits,* fied of its dross in the furnace. them that had gotten and the general "harvest" of the Gentiles. servant the victory over-Greek, "those (coming) off from the of God-(Exodus, 14, 31; Numbers, 12. 7; Joshua, 22. 5.) conflict with) the beast conquerors." over the number The Lamb is more: He is the Sox. Great and marvelof his name-A, B, C, Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic omit lous are thy works, &c.-Part of Moses' last song. The the words in English Version, "over his mark." The vindication of the justice of God that so He may be glomark, in fact, is the number of his name which the faith-rified, is the grand end of God's dealings. Hence Ilis ful refused to receive, and so were victorious over it. servants again and again dwell upon this in their praises stand on the sea of glass-ALFORD and DE BURGli ex- (ch. 16.7; 19. 2; Proverbs, 16. 4; Jeremiah, 10. 10; Daniel, plain" on (the shore of) the sea:" at the sea. So the 4. 37). Especially at the judgment (Psalm, 60, 1-6; 145. preposition (Greek) epi, with the accusative, is used for 17). sainte-There is no MS. authority for this. A, B, at, ch. 3. 20. It has a pregnant sense: "standing" im- | Coptic and CYPRIAN read, " of the NATIONS." C reads plies rest, Greek epi with the accusative implies motion | "of the ages," and so Vulgate and Syriac. The point towards. Thus the meaning is, liaving come to the at issue in the Lord's controversy with the earth is, sea, and now standing at it. In Matthew, 11. 26. whether He, or Satan's minion, the beast, is "the King where Christ walks on the sea, the Greek oldest MSS. of the nations ;" here at the eve of the judgments dehave the genitive, not the accusative as here. Allusion scending on the kingdom of the beast, the transfigured is made to the Israelites standing on the shore at the | saints hail Him as "the King of the nations" (Ezekiel, Red sea, after having passed victoriously through it, and 21.27). 4. Who shall not-Greek. " Who is there but must after the Lord bad destroyed the Egyptian foe (type fear thee?" Cf. Moses' song, Exodus, 16. 14-16, on the of antichrist) in it. Moses and the Israelites' song of fear which God's judgments strike into the foe. thee triumph (Exodus, 15. 1) has its antitype in the saints' So Syriac. But A, B, C, Vulgate and CYPRIAN reject * song of Moses and the Lamb" (v. 3). Still English "thee." all nations shall come-Alluding to Psalm 22. Version is consistent with good Greek, and the sense 27-31 ; cf. Isaiah, 66. 23; Jeremiah, 16. 19. The converwill then be, As the sea typifies the troubled state outsion of all nations, therefore, shall be when Christ of which the beast arose, and which is to be no more shall come, and not till then ; and the first moving in tbe blessed world to come (ch. 21. 1), so the victori-cause will be Christ's manifested judgments preparing ous saints stand on it, having it under their feet (as tho all hearts for receiving Christ's mercy. Ale goall effect sroman had the moon, ch. 12. 1, see Note); but it is now | by His presence what we have in vain tried to effect is no longer treacherous wberein the feet sink, but solid His absence. The present preaching of the gospel is like glass, as it was under the feet of Christ, whose gathering out the elect remnant; meanwhile "the triumph and power the saints now share. Firmness mystery of iniquity" is at work, and will at last come of footing amidst apparent instability is thus repre- / to its crisis, then shall judgment descend on the sented. They can stand, not merely as victorious apostates at the harvest-End of this age (Greek Matthew. Larael at the Red sea, and as John upon the sand of 13. 39, 40) when the tares shall be cleared out of the the sbore, but upon the sea itsell now firm, and reflect- earth, which thenceforward becomes Messiah's kin:ing their glory as glass : their past conflict shedding dom. The confederacy of the apostates against Christ the brighter lustre on their present triumph. Their becomes, when overthrown with fearful judgments, the happiness is heightened by the retrospect of the very means, in God's overruling providence, of predangers through which they have passed Thus this paring the nations not joined in the anti-Christian corresponds to ch. 7. 14. 16. harps of God-in the hands league to submit themselves to Him. are--lit.,“ were: of these heavenly virgine, infinitely surpassing the the propheticul past for the immediate future. iudg.

One of the Four Beasts Presents


Seven Vials to the Seren Angels. mnant-Greek.righteousnesses." 5. So ch, 11, 19, et.ch, fire into the earth previous to the series of trumpets 16. 17. "The tabernacle of the testimony" appropri- ich. 8. 5). upon-So Coptie. But A, B, C, Tolgate and ately here comes to view, where God's faithfulness in Syriac read," into." sore a pon the meantitype to the avepaid. His people with judgments on their foes is sixth Egyptian plague. "Noisotne."lit.. evil d. Deuabout to be set forth. We need to get a glimpse within teronomy, 28. 27, 35). The very same Greek word is used the Holy place to understand" the secret spring and in the LXX. as here, Greek hellous. The reason why the the end of God's righteous dealings. behold-Omitted sixth Egyptian plague is the first here, is because it was by A, B, C, Syriac, and ANDREAS. It is supported directed against the Eyptian magicians, Janpes and only by Vulgate, Coptic, ar.d PEDASIUS, but no MS, Jambres, so that they could not stand before Moses : 6. haviog-So B reads. But A, C, read "who bave:" pot and so here the placue is sent upon those who in the that they bad them yet cf. . 7). but they are by anti- beast-worship bad practised sorcery. As they sob cipation described according to their office, lines-So mitted to the mark of the beast, so they must bear the B reads. But A. C. and Vulgate, ** stone.” On the mark of the avenging God Contrast ch.7.3: Ezekiel principle that the harder reading is the one least likely : 9. 4, 6. "Grievous," distressing to the sufferers. BEN to be an interpolation, we sbould read, *a stone pure which had the mark of the beast-Therefore this first land is omitted in A, B, C, and ANDREAS) brilliant" (80 vial is subsequent to the period of the beast's rule. the Greek : probably the diamond. With Englush Ver. 3. angel-So Band ANDREAS. But A, C, and Vulgata slon, of. Acts, 1. 10; 10. 30. golden girdles-resembling omit itapon-Greek, "into." became as..blood-80the Lord in this respect (ch. 1. 13). 7. one of the four swering to another Egyptian plague. of a desd 185beasts-Greek. " living creatures. The presentation of putrefying. living soul-S0 B and ANDREAS. But the vials to the angels by one of the living creatures, C. and Syriac, “soul of life" ici. Genesis. I. 30. 7. 21, implies the ministry of the church as the medium for 22). in tbe sea-So B and ANDREAS. But A, C. and manifesting to angels the glories of redemption Ephe- Syriac read, as respects) the things in the sea" 4 sians, 8. 10. vials-"bowls :" a broad shallow cup or (Exodus. 7. 20.) angel-So Syriac, Coptic and ANDREAS bowl. The breadth of the vials in their upper part | But A, B, C. and Vulgate omit it. 5. angel of tee waters would tend to cause their contents to pour out all at -.., presiding over the waters. O Lord-Omitted by once, implying the overwhelming suddenness of the A, B, C, Vulgate, Syriac, Coptic and ANDREAS and woes. full of... wrath-How sweetly do the vials full of shalt be-A, B, C. Vulgate and ANDREAS for this clause odours, i.e., the incense-perfumed prayers of the saints, read, "which art and wast) holy." The Lord 18 DOW contrast with these ! 8. temple... filled-Isaiah, G. 4; cf. no longer He that shall come, for He is curme in vet Exodus, 40. 34; 2 Chronicles, &. 14, as to the earthly geance; and therefore the third of the three clauses temple, of which this is the antitype. the glory of God, found in ch. 1, 4, 8; and 4. 8. is here and in ch. 11. 11. and...power-then fully manifested. 10 man was able to omitted. judged thus-lit., "these things." "Thoe enter... the teinple because of God's presence in His | didst inflict this judgment." 6. Ch. 11. 18, end, Genes, manifested glory and power during the execution of | 9 6; Isaiah, 49. 26. An anticipation of ch. 18. 20, 24; these judgments.

ch. 13. 15. For-A,B,C. and AXDREAS omit. 7. another CHAPTER XVI.

out of-Omitted in A, C, Syriac, and Coptic Translate Ver. 1-21. THE SEVEN VIALS AND THE CONSEQUENT then, " I heard the altar (personified) saying. On tt PLAQUES. The trumpets shook the world kingdoms in the prayers of saints are presented before God: be a longer process; the vials destroy with a swift and neath it are the souls of the martyrs crying for vet sudden overthrow the kingdom of the beast in parti-geance on the foes of God. 8. angel--So Coptie in cuiar who had invested hinsell with the world.king- I ANDREAS. Dut A, B, C, Vulgate and Syriac omit il dom. The Hebrews thought the Egyptian plagues to upon-Not as in v. 2, 3, "into." sun-whereas by the have been inflicted with but an interval of a month fourth trumpet the sun is darkened (ch. 8. 12) in a third between them severally. (BENGEL referring to Neder part, here by the fourth vial the sun's bright scorching Olam.) As Moses took asbes from an earthly common power is intensified, power was given unto hin-ratbet, furnace, so angels, as priestly-ministers in the heavenly 1 * unto ut," the sun, men-Greek," the men." ris, those temple, take holy fire in sacred vials or bowls, from the who had the mark of the beast fv. . 9. men-Greek, heavenly altar to pour down (cf. ch. 8. 5). "The same "the men." repented not to give him glory-ich. 9. S. heavenly altar which would have kindled the sweet Afiction, if it does not melt, bardens the sidner, incense of prayer bringing down blessing upon earth, by the better result on others ch. 11, 13; 14. T: 16. & 10 man's sin kindles the fiery descending curse. Just as angel--Omitted by A, B, C, Vulgate and Syriac. Bal the river Nile, which ordinarily is the source of Egypt's Coptic and ANDREAS support it. Sea-Groek, "throne fertility, became blood and a curse through Egypt's sin. 1 of the beast." set up in arrogant mimicry of Goals 1. a great voice-piz, God's. These seven vials (the de- throne; the dragon gave his throne to the beast ich 11 tailed expansion o' the rintage, ch. 14. 18-20, being called 2). darkness-parallel to the Egyptian plague of dart

the last." must belong to the period just when the ness, Pharaoh being the type of antichrist fcf. ch. ll. term of the beast's power has expired whence refer- 2, 3, Notes: cf. the fifth trumpet, ch. 9. 9. grawed the ence is made in them all to the worshippers of the tongues for pain-Greek, "owing to the pain occasioned beast as the objects of the judgments), close to the end by the previous plagues, rendered more appailing by or coming of tue Son of man. The first four are dis- the darkness. Or, as "gnasbing of teeth is one of the tinguished from the last three, just as in the case of accompaniments of hell, so this "gpawing of their the seven seals and the seven trumpets. The first tongues" is through rage at the baffling of their bopes four are more general, affecting the earth, the sea, and the overthrow of their kingdom. They meditate springs, and the sun, not merely & portion of these revenge and are unable to effect it; hence their freasy natural bodies, as in the case ol the trumpets, but the [GROTIUS.) Those in anguish, inental and bodily. bite whole of them, the last three are more particular, their lips and tongues. 11. sores-This shows that each

fecting the throne of the beast, the Euphrates, and fresh plague was accompanied with the continuanoce the grand consummation. Some of these particular of the preceding plagues: there was an accumulation judgments are set forth in detail in che. 17.-20. out of not a mere succession, of plagues. repented bsi-d. the temple--Band Syriac omit. But A. C, Vulgate and l v. 9.) 12. angel-So Coptie and ANDREAS, ABC ANDREAS support the words, the vials-So Syriac Vulgate and Syriac omit. kings of the east-Gret. and Coptic, But A, B, C, Vulgate and ANDREAS read, "the kings who are from the rising of the sun." Lie * the seven vials." upon-Greek, " into" 2. wet- ference to the Euphrates similarly occurs in the sixth Grecke. " wont away," ponred out--so the ausel castrumput. The drying up of the Euphorales, I think..

The World Kings Ga'hered


to battle at Armageddon.

to be taken figuratively, as Babylon itself, which is firms his testimony to the beast by miracles, as the situated on it, is undoubtedly so, ch. 17.6. The waters Holy Ghost attested similarly Christ's divine mission, of the Euphrates (cf. Isaiah, 8. 7,8) are spiritual Baby- unclean spirits like frogs-ihe antitype to the plague of lon's, i.e., the apostate church's (of which Rome is the frogs sent on Egypt. The presence of the "unclean chief, though not exclusive representative), spiritual spirit" in the land (Palestine) is foretold, Zechariah, 13. and temporal powers. The drying up of the waters of 2, in connexion with idolatrous prophets. Beginning Babylon expresses the same thing as the ten kings' with infidelity as to Jesus Christ's coming in the flesh, stripping, eating, and burning the whore. The phrase men shall end in the grossest idolatry of the beast, the "way may be prepared for is that applied to the Lord's incarnation of all that is self-deifying and God-opposed coming (Isaiah. 40. 3; Matthew, 3. 3; Luke, 1. 76). He I in the world-powers of all ages: having rejected Him shall come from the East (Matthew, 24. 27; Ezekiel, 43. that came in the Father's name, they shall worship one 2, "the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of that comes in bis own, though really the devil's reprethe East"): not alone, for His elect transfigured saints sentative: as frogs croak by night in marshes and of Israel and the Gentiles shall accompany Him, who quagmires, so these unclean spirits in the darkness of are kings and priests unto God" (ch. 1. 6). As the error teach lies amidst the mire of filthy lusts. They anti-Christian ten lings accompany the beast, so the talk of liberty, but it is not gospel liberty, but license saints accompany as kings the King of kings to the last for lust. Their being three, as also seren, in the dedecisive conflict. DE BURGH, &c., take it of the Jews, Iscription of the last and worst state of the Jewish 08. who also were designed to be a kingdom of priests to tion, implies a parody of the two divine numbers, three God on earth. They shall, doubtless, become priest of the rinity, and seven of the Holy Spirit (ch. 1. 4). kings in the flesh to the nations in the flesh at His Some observe that three frogs were the original arms coming. Abraham from the East (if Isaiah, 41. 2. 8. 9. of France, a country which has been the centre of infirefers to him, and not Cyrus) conquering the Chaldean delity, socialism, and false spiritualism. A, B, read. kings is a type of Israel's victorious restoration to the | "as it were frogs," instead of "like frogs," which is not priest-kingdom. Israel's exodus after the last Egyptian supported by MSS. The unclean spirit out of the plagues typifies Israel's restoration after the spiritual mouth of the dragon symbolizes the proud infidelity Babylon, the apostate church, bas been smitten. Is- which opposes God and Christ. That out of the beast's rael's promotion to the priest kingdom after Pharaoh's mouth is the spirit of the world, which in the politics downfall, and at the Lord's descent at Sinai to establish 1 of men, whether lawless democracy or despotism, sets the theocracy, typifies the restored kingdom of Israel man above God. That out of the month of the false at the Lord's more glorious descent, when antichrist prophet is lying spiritualism and religious delusion, shall be destroyed utterly. Thus besides the trans which shall take the place of the harlot wben she shall figured saints, Israel secondarily may be meant by have been destroyed. 14. devis-Greek, "demons." "the kings from the East" who shall accompany the working miracles-Greek, "signs." go forth unto-or "King of kings" returning "from the way of the East" "for," 2.6., to tempt them to the battle with Christ. the to reign over His ancient people. As to the drying up kings of the earth and-A, B, Syriac, and ANDREAS again of the waters opposing His people's assuming the omit "of the earth and," which clause is not in any kingdom, ct. Isaiah, 10. 26; 11, 11, 16; Zechariah, 10. 9-11. MS. Translate," Kings of the whole habitable world." The name Israel (Genesis, 32, 28) implies a prince with who are "of this world," in contrast to "the kings of God. Ct. Micah, 4.8, as to the return of the kingdom to from) the East" (the suurising), v. 12. viz., the saints Jerusalem. DURHAM, 200 years ago, interpreted the to whom Christ has appointed a kingdom, and who are drying up of the Euphrates to mean the wasting away "children of light." God in permitting Satan's mir. of the Turkish power, which has heretofore held Pales. acles, as in the case of the Exyptian magicians who tine, and so the way being prepared for Israel's restora- were His instruments in bardening Pharaoh's heart, tion. But as Babylon refers to the apostate church, I gives the reprobate up to judicial delusion preparatory not to Mahometanism, the drying up of the Euphrates to their destruction. As Aaron's rod was changed (answering to Cyrus' overthrow of literal Babylon by into & serpent, so were those of the Egyptian magi, marching into it through the dry channel of the cians. Aaron turned the water into blood : so did the Euphrates must answer to the draining off of the apos- magicians. Aaron brought up frogs: So did the matate cburch's resources, the Roman and Greek corrupt gicians. With the frogs their power ceased. So this, church having been heretofore one of the greatest bar- or whatever is antitypical to it, will be the last effort riers by its idolatries and persecutions in the way of of the dragon, beast, and false prophet. battle-Greck, Israel's restoration and conversion. The kings of the "war :" the final conflict for the kingship of the world earth who are earthly (v. 14), stand in contrast to the described ch. 19. 17-21. 15. The gathering of the worldkings from the East who are heavenly. 13. the dragon kings with the beast against the Lamb is the signal

Satan, who gives his power and throne (ch. 13. 2) to l for Christ's coming: therefore He bere gives the charge the beast. false prophet-distinct from the harlot, the I to be watching for His coming and clothed in the apostate church of which Rome is the chief, though not garments of justification and sanctification, so as to be sole, representative), ch. 17. 1-3, 16; and identical with accepted. thief-(Matthew, 24. 43; 2 Peter, 3. 10.) they the second beast, ch. 13. 11-16, as appears by comparing 1-saints and angels. shamelit., "unseemliness" (Greel: ch. 19. 20 with ch. 13. 13; ultimately consigned to the aschemosuncer: Greek, 1 Corinthians, 13. 5: a different lake of fire with the first beast; as is also the dragon a word from the Greek, ch. 3. 18 (Greek aischunee). 16. little later (ch. 20. 10). The dragon, the beast, and the he-rather," they (the three unclean spirits) gathered false prophet, "the mystery of iniquity," form a blas- | them together." If English Version be retained." He" phemous anti-Trinity, the connterfeit of "the mystery | will refer to God who gives them over to the delusion of of godliness" God manifest in Christ, witnessed to by the three unclean spirits; or else the sixth angel (v. 12). the Spirit. The dragon acts the part of God the Armageddon-Hebrew Har, a monntain, and Megiddo Father, assigning his authority to his representative in Manasseh of Galilee, the scene of the overthrow of the beast, as the Father assigns His to the Son. They the Canaanite kings by God's miraculous interposi. are accordingly jointly worshipped; cf. as to the Father tion under Deborah and Barak; the same as the great and Son, John, 5. 23: as the ten-horned beast has its plain of Esdraelon. Josiah, too as the ally of Babylon, ten horns crowned with diadems (Greek, ch. 13. 1), so was defeated and slain at Megiddo; and the mourning Christ has on His head many diadems. Whilst the of the Jews at the time just before God shall interpose false prophet, like the Holy Ghost, speaks not of him- for them against all the nations confederate against self, but telis all men to worship the beast, and con Jerusalem, is compared to the mourning for Josiah at

The Whore that Sitteth

upon the Scarlet Beod. Meziddo. Mexiddo comes from root, gadad. "cut seduced from its first love" fch. 2. 4) to Christ, the off and means slaughter. CY Joel, 3, 2, 12, 14, where heavenly Bridegroom, and give its affections to "the valley of Jei osbapbat" (meaning in Hebrew worldly pomps and idols. The woman ch. 12. I) is the ** judgment of God", is nieptioned as the scene of God's congregation of God in its purity under the Old and final vengeance on the God-opposing foe. Probably | New Testament, and appears again as the Bride of the some great plain, antitypical to the valleys of Megiddo Lamb, the transfigured church prepared for the mar and Jehoshaphat, will be the scene. 17. angel-So riage feast. The woman, the invisible church, is latANDRRAN. But A. B. Vulgate and Syriac omit it. ent in the apostate church, and is the church militant: into-So ANDREAS Greek cis). But A, B. "upon" (Greek the Bride is the church triumphant. 3. the wilderness epe. great-So B, Vulgate, Syriac, Coptic and As. -Contrast her in ch. 12. 6. 14, having a place in the ril DREAS. But A omits. of heaven-So Band ANDREAS. derness-world, but not a home; a sojourner here, lockBut A. Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic opit. It is done ing for the city to come. Now, on the contrary, she is * It is come to pass." God's voice as to the final con contented to have her portion in this moral wildersammation, as Jesus' voice on the cross when the work Dess. upon a scarlet... beast-The same as in ch. 13. 1. of expiation was completed, "It is finished." 18 voices who there is described as here, “having seven beads ... thunders... lightnings-A has the order. "lightnings and ten horns (therein betraying that he is representa ... voices...thunders. This is the same close as that of tive of the dragon, ch. 12. 3). and upon his heads Dames the seven seals and the seven thunders; but with the (so the oldest MSS. read) of blasphemy:" d. also r.19-14. difference that they do not merely form the conclu- below, with ch. 19. te, 20, and ch, 17. 13, 14, 16. Rome, sion, but introduce the consequence, of the last vial, resting on the world-power, and ruling it by the disim tiz.. the utter destruction of Babylon and then of the of supremacy. is the chief, though not the exclusive, anti-Christian armies. earthquake-which is often pre- representative of this symbol. As the dragon is dery ceded by a lurid state of air, such as would result from red, so the beast is blood-red in colour: implying its the vial poured upon it. men were-So B, Vulgate, blood-guiltiness, and also deep-dyed sin. The park. Svriac, and ANDREAS. But A and Coptic read, “A is also the symbol of kingly authority. full-all over man was." 80 mighty-Greek, " such." 19. the great not merely "on his heads," as in ch. 13. 1. for its op city--the capital and seat of the apostate church, spirit. position to God is now about to develop itself in all ual Babylon (of which Rome is the representative, if its intensity. Under the harlot's superintendence, the one literal city be meant). The city in ch. 11. 8 (see world-power puts forth blasphemous pretensions worse Note), is probably distinct, viz., Jerusalem under anti-than ir. Pagan days. So the pope is placed by the christ (the beast, who is distinct froin the harlot or apos- cardinal in God's temple on the altar to sut there, and tate church). In ch. 11. 13, only a tenth falls of Jerusa tbe cardinals kiss the feet of the pope. This ceremony lem, whereas here the city Babylon) "became (Greek) is called in Romish writers the adoration. Histoire into three parts" by the earthquake, cities of the na- de Clergé Amsterd, 1716: and Lettenburgh's Notitia tions-other great cities in league with spiritual BabyCuriæ Romapæ, 1683, p. 125; Heidegger Myst. Bab.. L lon. great...came in remembrance - Greck, "Babylon 511, 614, 637: a Papal coin(Numismata pontificum, Paris, the great was remembered" (ch. 18. 6;. It is now that 1679. p. 5) has the blasphemous legend, "Quem creant. the last call to escape from Babylon is given to God's adorant." Kneeling and kissing are the worship mesat people in her (ch. 18. 4). Berceness-the boiling over by St. John's word nide times used in respect to the outburst of His wrath (Greek thumou orgces), cf. Note, rival of God (Greek proskuncin). Abomination, too, ch, 14. 10. 20. Plainly parallel to ch. 6. 14-17, and by is the scriptural term for an idol, or any creature wor anticipation descriptive of the last judgment. the shipped with the homage due to the Creator. Sull mountains-rather as Greek, "there were found no there is some check on the God opposed world-power mountains." 21. fell-Greek, "descends." upon men whilst ridden by the harlot: the consummated anti-Greek, " the men." was-Greek, "is," men-dot those christ will be when, having destroyed her, the beast struck who died, but the rest. Unlike the result in shall be revealed as the concentration and incarnation the case of Jerusalem (ch. 11. 13), where the remnant of all the self-deifying God-opposed principles which ...affrighted..gave glory to the God of heaven.'

have appeared in various forms and degrees heretoCHAPTER XVII.

fore. "The church has gained outward recognition by Ver. 1-18. THE HARLOT BABYLON'S GAUD: THE leaning on the world-power, which in its turn uses the BEAST ON WHICH SHE RIDES, RAVING SEVEN HEADS church for its own objects, such is the picture here AND TEN HORNS, SHALL BE THE INSTRUMENT OF of Christendom ripe for judginent." (AUBERLEN) The JUDGMENT ON HER. As ch. 16. 12 stated generally the seven heads in the view of many are the seven sec vial judgment about to be poured on the harlot, Baby- cessive forms of government of Rome: kings, consuls, lon's power, so chs. 17. and 18 give the same in detail. dictators, decemvirs, military tribunes, emperors, the so ch, 19. gives in detail the judgment on the beast and German emperors (WORDS WORTH), of whom Napoleon the false prophet, summarily alluded to in ch, 16. 13-15, is the successor (v. 1). But see the view given, Notes in connexion with the Lord's coming. 1. unto me A v. 9, 10, which I prefer. The crowns formerly on the ten B. Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic omit. many - So A. borns 'ch. 13. 1) have now disappeared, perhaps an inBut B, “the many waters" (Jeremiah, 61. 18): v. 15, | dication that the ten kingdoms into which the Ger below, explains the sense. The whore is the apostate manic-Sclavonic world (the old Roman empire, includ. church, just as the woman (ch. 12) is the church whilst ing the East as well as the West, the two less of the faithful. Satan having failed by violence, tries too image with five toes on each, ie, ten in all) is to be di successfully to seduce her by the allurements of the vided, will lose their monarchical form in the end word: unlike her Lord, she was overcome by this (AUBERLEN): but see u. 12, which seems to imply temptation : hence she is seen sitting on the scarlet- crowned kings. 4. The colour scarlet, it is remarkable, coloured beast, no longer the wife, but the harlot; no l is that reserved for popes and cardinals. Paul IL longer Jerusalem, but spiritually Sodom (ch. 11, 8). made it penal for any one but cardinals to wear bats 2 drunk with-Greek, " owing to." It cannot be Pagan of scarlet : cf. Caeremoniale Rom. 3. sect. 6. c. á This Rome, but Papal Rome, if a particular seat of error be l book was compiled more than 340 years ago by Marcel meant but I incline to think that the judgment (ch, llus, a Romish archbishop, and dedicated to Leo A. 18. 2) and the spiritual fornication (ch, 18. 3), though in it are enumerated five different articles of dress finding their culmination in Rome, are not restricted of scarlet colour. A vest is mentioned studded with to it, but comprise the whole apostate church, Roman, pearls. The pope's mitre is of gold and precious stores. Creek, and even Protestant, in so far as it has been | These are the very characteristics outwardly bica

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