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Circumspection, with a

2 JOHN.

Vier to the Full Reward "I request thee," implying some degree of authority. heavenly reward proportioned to the degrees of apa not...new commandment-It was old in that Christiansbility of receiving heavenly blessedness. Each vessel heard it from the first in the gospel preaching : new. of glory hanging on Jesus shall be fully happy. But in that the gospel rested love on the new principle of the larger the vessel, the greater will be its capacity filial imitation of God who first loved us, and gave for receiving heavenly bliss. He who with one pound Jesus to die for us, and also in that love is now set made ten, received authority over ten cities. He who forth with greater clearness than in the Old Testa made five pounds received five cities: each according ment dispensation. Love performs both tables of the to his capacity of rule, and in proportion to his faithlaw, and is the end of the law and the gospel alike (cf. fulness. Cf. 1 Corinthians, 15. 41. There is no falf Note, 1 John, 2. 7, 8). that we-Implying that he already reward of the saints. It is either lost altogether, or rehad love, and urging her to join him in the same Chris ceived in full: in full communion with God." (BENGEL tian grace. This verse seems to me to decide that a Still no service of minister or people shall fail to rechurch, not an individual lady, is meant. For a man ceive its reward. 9. The loss (0.8) meant is bere er to urge a woman ("THEE;" not thee and thy children) | | plained: the not having God, which results from that he and she should love one another, is hardly like abiding not in the doctrine of Christ. transgresselban apostolic precept, however pure may be the love | The oldest MSS. and versions read. "Every one who enjoined: but all is clear if the lady" represent a | takes the lead: lit., goes, or leads on before ; ci, Jolin, church. 6. "Love is the fulfilling of the law." and the 10. 4, "He goeth before them" (not the same Grect. fulfilling of the law is the sure test of love. This is CP. 3 John, 9,"Loveth to have the pre-emencRCE. the coinmandment - Greek, "The commandment is hath not God-(1 John, 2. 23; 6. 15.) The second of this," viz., love, in which all God's other command Christ" is omitted in the oldest MSS., but is under ments are summed up. 7. As love and truth go hand stood in the sense. he-Emphatical: He and He alone in hand (v. 3, 4), he feels it needsul to give warning | 10. If there come any-as & teacher or brother. The against teachers of untruth. For-Giving the reason Greek is indicative, not subjunctive: implying that why he dwelt on truth and on love, which manifests such persons do actually come, and are sure to con: itself in keeping God's commandments (v. 6). many when any comes, as there will. True love is combined -1 John, 2. 18; 4. 1.) are entered-The oldest MSS. with hearty renunciation and separation from all the read, “have gone forth," piz., from us. confess not... is false, whether persons or doctrines. receive him not Jesus...in the flesh--the token of antichrist. is come ... neither bid him God speed- This is not said of those Greek, * coming." He who denies Christ's coming in who were always aliens from the church, but of those the flesh, denies the possibility of the incarnation : he who wish to be esteemed bretbren, and subvert the who denies that he has come, denies its actuality. | true doctrine. (GROTIUS.) The greeting salutation They denied the possibility of a Messiah's appearing. forbidden in the case of such a one is that waal or coming, in the flesh. (NEANDER.) I think the among Christian brethren in those days, not a mere Greek present participle implies both the first and the formality, but & token of Christian brotherhood. Ik second advent of Christ. He is often elsewhere called | By wishing & false brother or teacher "God (or pood the Coming One (Greele), Matthew. 11, 3: Hebrews, 10. speed," you imply that he is capable as sucha of good 37. The denial of the reality of His manifestation in speed and joy (the lit. meaning of the Greek), and that the flesh, at His first coming, and of His personal l you wish him it whilst opposing Christ: 80 you idenadvent again, constitutes anticbrist. "The world | tify yourself with "his evil deeds." The Greek di turns away from God and Christ, busily intent upon “partaker is “having communion with." We cand its own husks; but to OPPOSE God and Christ is of the have communion with saints and with antichrist ! leaven of Satan." (BEXGEL) This is a--Greek, "This once. Here we see John's naturally flery zeal directed (such a one as has been just described) is the deceiver | to a right end. POLYCARP, the disciple of Jobin, told and the antichrist." The many who in a degree fulfill contemporaries of IRENÆUS, who narrates the story the character, are forerunners of the final personal I on their authority, that on one occasion when Joba antichrist, who shall concentrate in bimself all the was about to bathe, and heard that Cerinthus, tho features of previous anti-Christian systems. 8. Look heretic, was within, he retired with abhorredor, Elle to yourselves-amidst the wide-spread prevalence of claiming, Surely the house will fall in ruins since the deception so many being led astray. So Christ's warn-enemy of the truth is there. 12. I would not writeing, Matthew, 24, 4, 5, 24. we lose not ... we receive heart full of love pours itself out more ireely face to The oldest MSS. and versions read, "That ye lose not, face, than by letter. paper-made of Egyptian papyrus, but that re receive." which we have wrought-So one Pens were then reeds split. ink-made of sout usd oldest MS. reads. Other very old MSS., versions, and water, thickened with gum. Parchment was used bt fathers, read," which Ye have wrought." The we being the permanent MSS, in which the epistles were pre seemingly the more difficult reading is less likely to served. Writing tablets were used merely for tempo have been a transcriber's alteration. Look that ye lose ary purposes, as our slates, face to face-lit,“ mouth 1 not the believing state of "truth and love," which we mouth." fuil-Greek, "filled full." Your joy will be (as God's workmen, 2 Corinthians, 6.1; 2 Timothy, 2. complete in hearing from me in person the joyful gospel 16) were the instruments of working in you. a fnll re- / truths which I now defer communicating till I see you ward-of grace, not of debt. Fully consummated glory. I on other occasions his writing the glad truths was ik If "which ye have wrought" be read with very old the same purpose. 13. ALFORD confesses, The LORauthorities, the reward meant is, that of their “work mention of the "lady" herself here seems rather to tof faith) and labour of love." There are degrees of favour the hypothesis that a church is meant

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THE THIRD EPISTLE OF

JOHN.

Ver. 1-14. ADDRESS: WISH FOR GAIUS PROS-Gentiles, we onght to take them up so as to support PERITY: JOY AT HIS WALKING IN THE TRUTII. His them. fellow-helpers-with them. to the truth-ie.. HOSPITALITY TO TUE BRETHREN AND STRANGERS, to promote the truth. 9. I wrote-The oldest MSS. add THE FRUIT OF LOVE. DIOTREPHES' OPPOSITION AND "something." a communication, probably, on the subAMBITION. PRAISE OF DEMETRIUS, CoxCLUSION. 1. ject of receiving the brethren with brotherly love (v. 8. I-Emphatical: I personally, for my part. On Gaius or 10). That epistle was not designed by the Spirit for Caius, see Introduction before second epistle. love in the universal church, or else it would have been prethe truth-12 John, 1.) "Beloved" is repeated often in served. unto the church-of which Caius is a member. this epistle, indicating strong affection (v. 1, 2, 6, 11). 2. loveth... pre-eminence-through ambition. Evidently above all things-Creek, "concerning all things:" so occupying a high place in the church where Cains was ALFORD:in all respects. But WAHL justifies English | (v. 10). among them-over the members of the church. Version cf. 1 Peter, 4.8). Of course, since his soul's receiveth us not-virtually, riz, by not receiving with prosperity is presupposed, "above all things" does not love the brethren whom we recommended to be reimply that John wishes Caius' bodily health above ceived (v. 8, 10; cf. Matthew, 10. 40). 10. if I comethat of his soul, but as the first object to be desired (v.14.) I will remember-lit., "I will bring to mind" before neat after spiritual health. I know you are prospering all, by stigmatizing and punishing. prating-with mere in the concerns of your soul, I wish you similar silly tattle. neither doth he...receive the brethren-with prosperity in your body. Perhaps John had heard | hospitality. "The brethren" are the missionaries on from the brethren (v. 3) that Caius was in bad health, their journey. forbiddeth them that would - receive and was tried in other ways 'v. 10), to which the wish, I them. casteth them-those that would receive the v. 2. refers, prosper-in general. be in health-in par. | brethren, by excommunication from the church, which ticular. testified of the truth that is in thee-Greek, "of his influence, as a leading man (v. 9) in it, enabled him for to) thy truth" thy share of that truth in which to do. NEANDER thinks that the missionaries were thou walkest. (ALFORD.) even as thou-In contrast | Jews by birth, whence it is said in their praise they to Diotrephes (0.9). 4. my children-members of the took nothing from THE GENTILES: in contrast to church; confirming the view that the elect lady is a other Jewish missionaries who abused ministers' right church. 5, faithfully--an act becoming a faithful man of maintenance elsewhere, as Paul tells us, 2 Corinwhatsoever thou doest-A distinct Greele word from the thians, 11. 22; Philippians, 3, 2, 5, 19. Now in the Gen former "doest;" translate, “workest;" whatsoever tile churches there existed an ultra Pauline party of work, or labour of love, thou dost perform. So Mat | anti-Jewish tendency, the forerunners of Marcion: thew. 28. 10. "She hath wrought a good work upon me." Diotrephes possibly stood at the head of this party, and to strangers-The oldest MSS." And that (i.e., and which fact, as well as his domineering spirit, may those brethren) strangers." The fact of the brethren account for his hostility to the missionaries, and to whom thou didst entertain being "strangers," en-| the apostle John, who had, by the power of love, tried hances the love manifested in the act. 6. borne witness to harmonize the various elements in the Asiatic of thy charity before the church-to stimulate others by 1 churches. At & later period Marcion, we know, the good example. The brethren so entertained by attached himself to Paul alone, and paid no deference Chius were missionary evangelists (v.7); and, probably, to the authority of John. 11. follow not that which is in the course of narrating their missionary labours for evil-as manifested in Diotrephes (v. 9, 10). but...good the edification of the church where John then was, -as manifested in Demetrius (v. 12). is of God-is born incidentally mentioned the loving hospitality shown of God, who is good. bath not seen God-spiritually, them by Cains. bring forward on their journey-"ir | not literally. 12, of all men-who have had opportunity thou (continue to) forward on their journey by giving of knowing his character of the truth itself-The them provisions for the way. after a godly sort-Greek, I gospel standard of truth bears witness to him that he

in 8 manner worthy of God," whose ambassadors walks conformably to it, in acts of real love, hospithey are, and whose servant thou art. He who tality to the brethren (in contrast to Diotrephes), &c. honours God's missionary servants (v. 7), honours Cf. John, 3. 21, "He that doeth truth cometh to the God. 7. his name's sake-Christ's. went forth-as mis- light, that his deeds may be made manifest, that they sionaries. taking nothing-refusing to receive aught are wrought in God" we also-besides the testimony by way of pay, or maintenance, though justly entitled of "all men." and of "the truth itself." ye knowto it. As Paul at Corinth and at Thessalonica, Gen. The oldest MSS. read, "thou knowest." 13. I will not tiles-the Christians just gathered out by their labours - rather as Greek, "I wish not...to write" more. 14. from among the heathen. As Caius himself was & face to face-Greek, “mouth to mouth." peace-Peaco Gentile convert, "the Gentiles" here must menn the inward of conscience, peace fraternal of friendship. concerts just made from the heathen, the Gentiles to | peace supernal of glory (LYRA). friends-a title selwhom they had gone forth. It would have been inex- dom used in the New Testament, as it is absorbed in pedient to have taken aught (the Greek meden implies, the higher title of "brother, brethren." Still Christ not that they got nothing, though they had desired it. recognises the relation of friend also, based on the but that it was of their own choice they took nothing) highest grounds, obedience to Him from love, and from the infant churches among the heathen: the case entailing the highest privileges, admission to the inti

as different in receiving hospitality from Caius, 8. macy of the holy and glorious God and sympathizing We In contradistinction to "the Gentiles" or "hea. Saviour: so Christians have "Friends" in Christ. Here then” referred to, t. 7. therefore-as they take nothing in a friendly letter, mention of "friends" appropriately From the Gentiles or heathen, receive-The oldest occurs. by name-no less than if their names were WISS. read, "take up." As they take nothing from the written. (BENGEL)

THE GENERAL EPISTLE OF

JUDE.

INTRODUCTION. AUTHOR-Ile onlls himself in the address the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James." See Introduction to

the epustle of Jamex, in proof of James the aposte, and James the Lord. brother, the bishop of Jerusalem, Icing one and the same person. Galatians, 1. 19, alone seems to me to prove this Similarly Jude the brother of our Lord, and Jade the apostle, seem to be one and the same. Jerome, contra Hdvidium, rightly maintains that by the Lord's brethren are meant his cousins, children of Mary and Cleophas (the same as Alphous). From I Corinthians, 9.5 as brethren of the Lord" stands between other apostles" and "Cephas"), it seems natural to think that the brethra of the Lord are distinguished from the apostles only because all his brethren were not apostles, but only James and Jade Jade's resca for calling himself brother of James," was that James, as bishop of Jerusalem, was better known than himseit Had he been, in the strict sense, brother of our Lord, he probably would have so enuitled himself. His own ission of mention of his apostl:ship is no proof that he was not an apostle for so also James omits it in his heading : sad Paol, in the epistles to the Philippians, Thessalonians, and Philemon, omits it. Had the writer been a counterfeter of the apostle Jade he would doubtless have called himself an "apostle." lle was also called Leblæus and Thaddæus, probably to distinguish him from Judas Iscariot, the traitor. Leblæus, from Herra leeb, ** heart," means courageoux. Thaddaeus is the onses Theudas, from Herew thad, the breast." Luke and John writing later than Matthew, when there would be no confesten between him and Judas Iscariot, give his name Judas. The only circumstance relating to him recorded in the gospel occurs John, 14. 24,"Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself uuto us, and not auto the world ? &c. Jerome, Annotationes in Matthaum, says, that he was sent to Edessa, to Ahgarus, king of Osrorez, or Edessa, and that he preached in Syria, Arabia, Mesopotamia, and Persia, in which last country he suffered martyrdes The story is told on Eusebius authority, that Abgarus, on his sick-bed, having heard of Jesus' power to beal, sent to be Him to come and cure him, to which the Lrd replied, praising his faith, that though he had not seen the Saviour, be yet believed ; adding, " As for what thou hast written, that I should come to thee, it is necessary that all those things for which I was sent, should be falolled by me in this place, and that having fulfilled them I should be received up to Home that sent me. When, therefore, I shall be received into heaven, I will send unto thee some one of my dise ples who shall both beal thy distemper and give life to thee and those with thee." Thomas is accordingly said to bare been ibspired send Thaddæus for the cure and baptism of Abgarus. The letters are said to have been shown Thaddæus among the archive of Edessa. It is possible such a message was verbally sent, and the substance of it registered in writips afterwards 2 Kings, 5., and Matthew, 15. 92). Hegesippus, in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 20, states, that when Domiuian equired after David's posterity, some grandsons of Jude, called the Lord's brother, were brought into his presence. Being aated to their possessions, they said that they had thirty-nine acres of the value of 9000 denarii, out of which they paid be taxes, and lived by the labour of their hands, a proof of which they gave by showing the hardness of their hands. Being interrogated as to Christ and His kingdom, they replied, that it was not of this word, but heavenly; and that it would be manifested at the end of the world, when He would come in glory to judge the living and the dead.

AUTHENTICITY.--Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 3. 25, reckons it among the Antilegomena or controverter Serie tures, "though recognised by the majority." The reference to the contest of Michael, the archangel, with the devil, er the body of Moses, not mentioned elsewhere in the Old Testament, but found in the apocryphal "Book of Enoch," per Lably raised doubts as to its authenticity, as Jerome, Catalogus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum. 4., says. Moreover, is being addressed to one particular church, or individual, caused it not to be so iminediately recognised as canon el counterfeiter would have avoided using what did not occur in the Old Testament, and which might be regarded as apocryphal.

As to the book of Enoch, if quoted by Jude, his quotation of a passage from it gives an inspired sanction only to the truth of that passage, not to the whole book; just as Paul, by inspiration, sanotions particular sentiments from Ant Epimenides, and Menander, but not all their writings. I think, rather, as there is some slight variation betwees Jades statement and that of the book of Enoch, that Jude, though probably not ignorant of the book of Enoch, stampe il inspired sanction the current tradition of the Jews as to Enoch's prophecies; just as Paul mentions the names Egyptian magicians, “Jannes and Jambres," not mentioned in the Old Testament. At all events, the prophecy agrile! to Enoch by Jude was really his, being sanctioned as such by this inspired writer. So also the narration as to the aretage Michael's dispute with Satan concerning the body of Moses, is by Jude's inspired authority (v. 9) declared truc. The book of Enoch is quoted by Justin Martyr, Irenau, Clement of Alexandria, &c. Bruce, the Abyssinian traveller, broeght bort three copies of it in Ethiopio, irvm Alexandria, of which archbishop Lawrence, in 1821. gave an English translaties In Ethiopio was a version from the Greek, and the Greek doubtless a version from the Hebrew, as the names of the sosch it show. The Apostolic Constitutions, Origen contra Celsum, Jerome, and Augustine, pronounce it not canonical 161 is in the main edifying, vindicating God's government of the world, natural and spiritual, and contradicting Dose of the Scripture statements. The name Jesus never occurs, though “Son of man." so often given to Messiah in tbe gospels, frequent, and terms are used expressire of His dignity, character, and acts, exceeding the views of Messiah in any Jewish book. The writer seems to have been a Jew who had become thoroughly imbued with the sacred writings of Des And, though many coincidences occur between its sentiments and the New Testament, the Messianie portions are distinct enough to prove that the writer knew the New Testament. Rather, he seems to have iminediately preceded in coming, about the time of Herod the Great, and so gives us a most interesting view of believing Jews' opinions before the advent of our Lord. The Trinity is recognised, 60. 13, 14. Messiah is "the Elect One" existing from eteruit, 34,14 "All kings shall fall down before Him, and worship and fix their hopes on, this Son of man," 61. 10-12. He is the best of worship, 48.3, 4; He is the supreme Judge, 60. 10, 11; 68 38, 39. There shall be a future state of retr.butjos, SL 94. 2, 4; chs. 95., 96, 99., 103. The eternity of future punishment, 103. 5. Volkmar, in A ford, thinks the book was at the time of the sedition of Barchochebas (A.D. 132), by a follower of Rabbi Akiba, the upholder of that impostor. would make the book anti-Christian in its origin. If this date be correct, doubtless it copied some things from Jade, puis them the Jewish, not the Christian, colouring. Eusebius, Demonstratio Evangelica 3. 5, remarks, it accords with John's humility that in 2 and 3 John he calls kissie

Introduction.

JUDE.

Introduction.

" the elder." For the same reason James and Jude call themselves "servants of Jesus Christ." Clemens Alexandrinus, Adumbrations, in Ep. Jud., p. 1007, says, Jude, through reverential awe, did not call himself brother, but servant, of Jesus Christ, and brother of James."

Tertullian, de Cultu Fuminarum, c. 3, cites the epistle as that of the apostle James. Clemens Alexandrinus quotes it (v. 8, 17) as Scripture. Stromata 3., 2. 11; and (0.5) in Palagogus 3., 8. 44. The Muratori fragment asserts its canonicity. (Routh, Reliquia Sacræ, 1. 306) Origen, Commentary on Matthew 13 55, says, "Jude wrote an epistle of few lines, but one filled full of the strong words of heavenly grace." Also, in Commentary on Matthew, 22, 23, he quotes v. 6; and on Matthew. 18. 10, he quotes v. l. He calls the writer "Jude the apostle," in the Latin reipains of his works (cf. Davidson, Introduction III. 498. Jerome, Catalogus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum, 4, reckons it among the Scriptures. Thongh the oldest MSS. of the Peschito omit it, Ephrem Syrus recognises it. Wordstorth reasons for its genuineness thus: St Jude, we know, died before St. John, ie, before the beginning of the secon i century. Now Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 2. 42. tells us that St. James was succeeded in the bishopric of Jerusalem by Symeon his lrother: and also that Symeon sat in that see till A.D. 107, when as a martyr he was crucified in his lloth year. We find that the epistle to Jude was known in the East and West in the second century; it was therefore circulated in Symeon's lifetime. It never would have received currency such as it had, nor would Symeon have permitted a letter bearing the name of an apostle, his owa brother Jude, brother of his own apostolical predecessor. St. James, to have been circulated, if it were not really St. Jude's

TO WHOM ADDRESSED.-The references to Old Testament history, v. 5, 7, and to Jewish tradition, v. 14, & make it likely that Jewish Christians are the readers to whom Jude mainly (though including also all Christians, v. 1) writes, just as the kindred epistle, 2 Peter, is addressed primarily to the same class; of. Introductions to 1 and 2 Peter. The persons stigmatized in it were not merely libertines (as Alford thinks), though no doubt that was one of their prominent character. intics, but heretics in doctrine, denying the only Lord God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ." Ilence he urges believers ** earnestly to contend for the faith once delivered unto the saints." Insubordination, self-seeking, and licentiousness, the fruit of Antinomian teachings, were the evils against which Jude warns his readers; reminding them that, to build themfelves in their most holy faith, and to pray in the Holy Ghost, are the only electual safeguards The same evils, along with Inocking scepticism, shall characterize the last days before the final judgment, even as in the days when Enoch warned the ungodly of the coming flood. As Peter was in Babylon in writing 1 Peter, 5. 13, and probably also in writing a l'eter (cf. in. troductions to 1 and 2 Peter), it seems not unlikely that Jude addressed his epistle primarily to the Jewish Christiana in and about Mesopotamian Babylon (a place of great resort to the Jews in that day), or else to the Christian Jews dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bulhymia, the persons addressed by Peter. For Jude is express'y said to have preached in Mesopotamia (Jerome, Annotationes in Matthaum), and his epistle, consisting of only twenty-five verses, contuins in them no less than eleven passages from 2 Peter (see the list in my Introduction to 9 Peter). Probably in 2. 4 he witnesses to the fulfilment of Peter's prophecy, "There are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained (rather as Greek, forewritten,' Le., announced beforehand by the apostle Peter's written prophecy) to this condemnation, ungodly men denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ." Cf. 2 Peter, 2 1, "There shall be false teachers among you who privily shall bring in damnable beresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction." Also, v. 17, 18, plainly refers to the very worde of 9 Peter, 3. 3, "Remember the words which were spoken before of the apostles of our Lord Jesus; How they told you there should be mockers in the last time who should walk after their own ungodly lusts." This proves, in opposition to Alford, that Jude's epistle is later than Peter's (whose inspiration be thus confirins, just as Peter confirins Paul's, 2 Peter, 8. i5, 16), not vice versa.

TIME AND PLACE OF WRITING.-Alford thinks, tbat, considering St. Jude was writing to Jews and citing sig. pal instances of divine vengeance, it is very unlikely he would have omitted to allude to the destruction of Jerusalem, if he had written after that event which uprooted the Jewish polity and people. He conjectures from the tone and references, that the writer lived in Palestine. But as to the former, negative evidence is doubtful; for neither does John allude in tais epistles, written after the destruction of Jerusalem, to that event Mill fixes on A. D. 90, after the death of all the apostles, save John. I incline to think from u. 17, 18, that some time had elapsed since the second epistle of Peter (written probably about A. D. 68 or 69) when Jude wrote, and, therefore, that the epistle of Jude was written after the destruction of Jerusalem.

Ver. 1-25. ADDRESS: GREETING: His OBJECT IN Beloved of the Lord" 2 Thessalonians, 2. 13. preWRITING: WARNING AGAINST SEDUCERS IN Doc. se ved in Jesus Christ-"kept." Translate not "in." TRINE AND PRACTICE FROM God's VENGEANCE ON but as Greek. 'FOR Jesus Christ." "Kept continually APOSTATES, ISRAEL, THE FALLEN ANGELS, SODOM (so the Greek perfect participle means: by God the AND GOMOKRAH. DESCRIPTION OF THESE BAD | Father for Jesus Christ," against the day of His comMEN, IN CONTRAST TO MICHAEL : LIKE CAIN, BA ing. Jude, beforeband, mentions the source and LAAM, AND CORE: ENOCH'S PROPHECY AS TO THEM: guarantee for the final accomplishment of believers' THE APOSTLES FOREWARNING: CONCLUDING Ex salvation, lest they should be disheartened by the

OPTATION AS TO PRESERVING THEIR OWN FAITH, dreadful evils wbich he proceeds to anuounce. (BAN. AND TRYING TO SAVE OTHERS: DOXOLOGY. 1. | GEL) and called--Predicated of "them that are beservant of Jesus Christ-as His minister and apostle. loved in God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ: brother of James-who was more widely known as who are called." God's effectual cal ing in the exercise Bishop of Jerusalem and brother of the Lord" (.e.. of His Divine prerogative, guarantees their eternal either cousin, or stepbrother, being son of Joseph by a safety. 2. Mercy-in a time of wretchedness. ThereFormer marriage: for ancient traditions universally fore mercy stands first: the mercy of Christ (v. 21). aree that Mary, Jesus' mother, continued perpetually peace-in the Holy Ghost (v. 20). love-of God (v. 20.

virgin). Jude therefore calls himself inodestly The three answer to the Diine Trinity. be multiplied brother of James." See my Introduction to them -in you and towards you. 3. Design of the epistle

sanctified by God the Father- The oldest MSS. and .Sau

(cf. v. 20, 21.) all diligence-(2 Peter, 1. 5.) As the ersions, ORIGEN, LUCIFER, &c., read "beloved" for minister is to give all diligence to admonish, so the nctified. If English Version be read, cf. Colossians, people should, in accordance with his admonition, give

12: 1 Peter, 1. 2. The Greek is not "by." but "in." all diligence to have all Christian graces, and to make cod. the Father's love, is the element in which they their calling sure. the common saivation-wrought by

e beloved." Thus the conclusion, v. 21, corre- Christ. Cf. Note, "obtained LIKE precious faith " onds. "Keep yourselves in the love of God." C. 2 Peter, 1. 1. This community of faith, and of the

Israel and the Fallen Angels

JUDE.

a Warning against Apostasy. object of faith, salvation, forms the ground of mutual fectly is Jesus one with the God of the Israelite exhortation by appeals to common hopes and fears. theocracy. saved-brought safely, and into & state of it was needful for me-rather, “I felt it necessary to safety and salvation afterward-Greek. ** secondly;" write (now at once : so the Greek aorist means; the in the next instance "destroyed them that believed present infinitive "to write," wbich precedes, expresses not." as contrasted with His in the first instance har merely the general fact of writing) exhorting you." ing sared them. 6. (2 Peter, 2 4.) kept not their örst The reason why he felt it necessary "to write with estate - Vulgate translates," their own principality.* exhortation," he states 0. 4, "For there are certain men which the fact of angels being elsewhere called "pris. crept in," &c. Having intended to write generally of cipalities," favours: "their own" implies that, instead the common salvation, he found it necessary from the of being content with the dignity once for all assigned existing evils in the church, to write specially that to them under the Son of God, they aspired hiçber. they should contend for the faith against those evils. ALFORD thinks the narrative in Genesis. 6. 2 is alearnestly contend-Cr. Philippians, 1. 27, "striving to luded to, not the fall of the devil and his angels, as gether for the faith of the gospel." once-Greek." once he thinks" giving themselves over to fornication te. 7) for all delivered," &c. No other faith or revelation proves: cf. Greek, “in like manner to these riz, to the is to supersede it. A strong argument for resisting angels (0.6). It seems to me more natural to take heretical innovators (v.4). Believers, like Nehemiah's **sons of God" (Genesis. 6. 2) of the Sethites, than of workmen, with one hand "build themselves up in angels who, as "spirits," do not seem capable of carnal their most holy faith," with the other they "contend connexion. The parallel, 2 Peter, 2. 4. plainly refers earnestly for the faith" against its foes. the saints to the fall of the apostate angels. And "in like manall Christians, holy fi.e., consecrated to God) by their per to these," v. 7, refers to the inhabitants of Sodom calling, and in God's design. 4. crept in unawares- and Gomorrah, "the cities about them" singing * in stealthily and unlawfully. Note, 2 Peter, 2. 1, "privily like manner" as they did. (Estius & CALVIN.) Eren shall bring in damnable heresies." certain men-Im- if Greek "these," v. 7, refer to the angels, the sense of plying disparagement before...ordained-Greek, "fore-"in like manner as these will be, not that the 1. els written," dir., in Peter's prophecy, v. 17. 18; and in carnally fornicated with the daughters of men, but that l'aul's before that, 1 Timothy, 4,1; 2 Timothy, 3. 1; and their ambition whereby their affections went andy by implication in the judgments which overtook the from God and they fell, is in God's view a sin of like apostate angels. The disobedient Israelites, Sodom kind spiritually as Sodom's going away from God's and Gomorrah, Balaam, and Core, and which are writ-order of nature after strange flesh; the sin of the ten " for an example" (v. 7, and 5, 6, 11). God's eternal | apostate angels after their kind is analogous to that character as the Punisher of sin, as set forth in Scrip-of the human Sodomites after their kind. CL the ture "of old," is the ground in which such apostate somewhat similar spiritual connexion of whoremoncharacters are ordained to condemnation. Scripture gers and coretousness. The apocryphal book of Enoch is the reflexion of God's book of life in which believers interprets Genesis, 6, 2, as ALFORD. But though Jode are "written among the living." "Fore-written" is accords with it in some particulars, it does not follow Applied also in Romans, 16, 4, to the things written in that he accords with it in all. The Hebrews name the Scripture. Scripture itself reflects God's character fallen angels Aza and Azael. left-of their own accord from everlasting, which is the ground of His decrees their own-Greek, “their proper." habitation-Herven. from everlasting. BENGKL explains it as an abbre-all bright and glorious, as opposed to the dark viated phrase for, "They were of old foretold by to which they now are doomed. Their ambitious de Enoch (v. 14, who did not write his prophecies), and signs seem to have had a peculiar connexion with this afterwards marked out by the written word." to this earth, of which Satan before bis fall may have been condemnation-Jude graphically puts their judgment God's vicegerent, whence arises his subsequent coo as it were present before the eyes, "THIS." Enoch's nexion with it as first the Tempter, then the prince prophecy comprises the "upgodly men" of the last of this world." reserved-As the Greek is the same, days before Christ's coming to judgment, as well as and there is an evident reference to their having kes their forerunners, the * ungodly men" before the not their first estate," translate, “He hatb kert." flood, the type of the last judgment (Matthew, 24. 37-30; Probably what is meant is, He hath kept them in His 2 Peter, 3.3-7). The disposition and the doom of both purpose: that is their sure doom; moreover, as yet correspond. the grace of our God-A phrase for the Satan and his demons roam at large on the earth. AD gospel especially sweet to believers who appropriate I earnest of their doom is their having been cast out of God in Christ as "our God," and so rendering the heaven, being already restricted to "the darkness of more odious the vile perversity of those who turn this present world," the "air" that surround the the gospel state of grace and liberty into a ground of earth, their peculiar element now. They Jurk is licentiousness, as if their exemption from the law places of gloom and death, looking forward with gave them a licence to sin denying the only Lord-The agonising fear to their final torment in the bottoeless oldest MSS., versions, and fathers omit"God," which pit. He means not literal chains and darknese, bot follows in English Version, Translate as the Greck, figurative in this present world where, with restricted

the only Master;" here used of Jesus Christ, who is at powers and liberties, shut out from heaven, they like once Master and "Lord" (a different Greek word). So condemned prisoners, await their doom. 7. Even a 2 Peter. 2. 1. Note. By virtue of Christ's perfect one-1-ALFORD transiates. “I wish to remind you. e. & ness with the Father. He, as well as the Father, is that." &c. Sodom, &c.-(2 Peter, 2. 6.) giving the termed "the ONLY" God and " MASTER." Greek "Mag-selves over to fornication-following fornication de ter." implies God's absolute ownership to dispose of ordinarily. i.e., out of the order of nature. Osim His creatures as He likes. 5. (Hebrews, 3. 16.-4. 13.) like manner to them" (Greek), cf. Note. . 6. 1. therefore-Other oldest MSS. and Vulgate read, “ But?" spiritual fornication, go a whoring from thee." Pales, in contrast to the ungodly, . 4. though ye once-rather, 73. 27. going after strange flesh - departing from the " once for all." Translate. "I wish to remind you, as course of nature, and going after that which is u knowing ALL (vis., that I am referring to. So the old- | natural. In later times the most enlightened hestha est MSS., versions, and fathers) once for all." As nations indulged in the sin of Sodom without ce already they know all the facts once for all, he needs punction or shame. are set forth-before our eyes only to remind" them. the Lord-The oldest MSS. and suffering-undergoing to this present time ; aliading versions read, “Jesus." So "Christ" is said to have the marks of volcanic fire about the Dead sea 3 accompanied the Israelites in the wilderness: so per- vengeance-Greek, "righteous retribution." eternal in

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