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Love and the Neo-Birth Abide:


Fleshly Glory Perishes. spiritually, then he must know the Son by whom alone yet not without the use of means, but by the word of we can come to the Father. In Christ we have life: if God. The word is not the begetting principle itself, we have not the doctrine of Christ, we have not God. but only that by which it works: the vehicle of the The only living way to God is through Christ and mysterious germinating power. (ALFORD.) which His sacrifice. that raised him-The raising of Jesus by liveth and abideth for ever-It is because the Spirit of God is the special ground of our believing" (1.) be- God accompanies it that the word carries in it the cause by it God declared openly His acceptance of germ of life. They who are so born again line and Him as our righteons substitute; (2.) because by it and abide for ever, in contrast to those who som to the His glorification He received power, viz., the Holy flesh. “The gospel bears incorruptible fruits, not Spirit, to impart to His elect "faitb:" the same power dead works, because it is itself incorruptible." IBEXenabling us to believe as raised Him from the dead. GEL) The word is an eternal divine power. For Our faith must not only be in Christ, but BY and though the voice or speech vanishes, there still reTHROUGH Christ. "Since in Christ's resurrection and mains the kernel, the truth comprehended in the consequent dominion our safety is grounded, there | voice. This sinks into the heart and is living: yes, it faith' and 'hope find their stay." (CALVIN.) that is God Himself. So God to Moses, Exodus, 4. 12. "I your faith and hope might be in God-the object and ef- will be with thy mouth." ILUTHER ) The life is in fect of God's raising Christ. He states what was the God, yet it is communicated to us through the trore. actual result and fact, not an exhortation, except in- / "The gospel shall never cease, though its ministry directly. Your faith flows from His resurrection; your shall." (CALOv.] The abiding resurrection-glory is hope from God's having "given Him glory" (cf. v. 11. always connected with our regeneration by the Spirit. "glories"). Remember God's baving raised and glori. Regeneration beginning with renewing man's soul at fied Jesus as the anchor of your faith and hope in God, the resurrection passes on to the body, then to the and so keep alive these graces. Apart from Christ we whole world of nature. 24. Scripture proof that the could have only feared, not believed and hoped in God. word of God lives for ever, in contrast to mad's mo C. y. 3, 7-9, 13, on hope in connexion with faith: lore tural frailty. Il ye were born again of flesh, corruptible is introduced in . 22. 22. purified... in obeying the truth seed, ye must also perish again as the grass; but DOW -Greck, "in your for the) obedience of (ie., to) the that from which you have derived life remains eternal truth" (the gospel way of salvation), i.e., in the fact of ly, and so also will render you eternal flesh-man in your believing. Faith purifies the heart as giving it bis mere earthly nature. as-Omitted in some of the the only pure motive, love to God (Acts, 16. 9: Ro- oldest MSS. of man-The oldest MSS. read. "of it mans, 1. 6. "obedience to the faith"). through the (ie, of the flesh). "The glory” is the wisdome, Spirit-Omitted in the oldest MSS. The Holy Spirit strength, riches, learning, bonour, beauty, art, viride, is the purifier by bestowing the obedience of faith (0.2; and righteousness of the NATURAL man texpressed 1 Corinthians, 12, 3). unto-with a view to: the proper by "flesh"), which all are transitory (John, s. e. not result of the purifying of your hearts by faith. "For | OF MAN (as English Version reads) absolutely, for the what end must we lead a chaste life? That we may glory of man, in his true ideal realized in the believer thereby be saved? No: but for this, that we may is eternal. withereth-Greek aorist: lit., * withered." serve our neighbour." (LUTHER.) unfeigped-ch, 2. i.e., is withered as a thing of the past. So also the 1. 2. " laying aside...hypocrisies...sincere," love of the | Greek for "falleth" is "fall away," i.e., is fallen awar: brethren--i.e.. of Christians. Brotherly love is distinct | no sooner is than it is gonethereof-Omitted in the from common love. "The Christian loves primarily best MSS. and versions. “The grass" is the fast: tbose in Christ : secondarily, all who might be in "the flower" its glory. 25. (Psalm 119.89.) this is Christ, viz., all men, as Christ as man died for all, and the word... preached unto you-That is eternal which is as he hopes that they, too, may become his Christian born of incorruptible seed (e. 20): but ye have received brethren." (STEIGER.) BENOEL remarks that as here, the incorruptible seed, the word (v. 25); therefore so in 2 Peter, 1. 6-7, "brotherly love" is preceded by are born for eternity, and so are bound now to live for the purifying graces, "faith, knowledge, and godli. I eternity (v. 22, 23). Ye have not far to look for the ness." &e. Love to the brethren is the evidence of our word; it is among you, even the joyful gospel message regeneration and justification by faith. love one an | which we preach. Doubt not that the gospel preached other-When the purifying by faith into lore of the to you by our brother Paul, and which ye have et brethren bas formed the habit, then the act follows, sobraced, is tho eternal truth. Thus the oneses that the "love" is at once habit and act. with a pure Paul and Peter's creed appears. See my Intro heart-The oldest MSS. read, "love) from the heart." | tion, showing Peter addresses some of the sea fervently-Greek, "intensely:" with all the powers on churches as Paul laboured among and wrote to. the stretch (ch. 4. 8). "Instantly" (Acts, 26. 7). 23.

CHAPTER II. Christian brotherhood flows from our new birth of an Ver. 1-25. EXTORTATIONS: To guileless feeding a imperishable seed, the abiding word of God. This the word by the sense of their privileges as new-born is the consideration urged here to lead us to exercise babes, living stones in the spiritual temple built a brotherly love. As natural relationship gives rise to Christ the chief corner stone, and royal priesto, in E natural Affection, so spiritual relationship gives rise to trast to their former state: also to abstinence fico spiritual, and therefore abiding love, even as the seed fleshly lusts, and to walk worthily in all relations a from which it springs is abiding, not transitory as life, so that the world without which opposes the earthly things, of...of...oy-" The word of God" is not may be constrained to glorify God in seeing their goud the material of the spiritual new birth, but its mean works. Christ, the grand pattern to follow in patiens or medium. By means of the word the man receives under suffering for well-doing. 1. laying asidethe incorruptible seed of the Holy Spirit, and so be- for all : so the Greek aorist expresses, as a part comes one * born again : John, 3. 3-5, "Born of put of. The exhortation applies to Christians son water and the Spirit:" where there being but one for in none else is the new nature existing which Greek article to the two nouns, the close connexion of "the inward man" (Ephesians, 3. 16), can cast of the the sign and the grace, or new birth signified, is im- old as an outward thing, so that the Christian, three plied. The word is the remote and anterior instru- the continual renewal of his inward man, can also es ment; baptism, the proximate and sacramental instru- bibit himself externally as a new man. But to uke ment. The word is the instrument in relation to the lievers the demand is addressed. that inwardline individual; baptism, in relation to the church as a regard to the nous (mind), they must becoine changed society (Jarnes, 1. 18). We are born again of the Spirit. meta-nocisthai (re-pent). STLIGER.] The "th


rtice the grace. Otomote and an ental instru

vers the demas mind, they UERJ IRE

Guileless Feeding on the Word


and Coming to Christ. fore" resumes the exhortation begun in ch. 1. 22. followed by fuller and happier experiences. A taste Seeing that ye are born again of an incorruptible seed, I whets the appetite. (BENGEL.) gracious - Greek. be not again entangled in evil, which “has no sub-"good," benignant, kind; as God is revealed to us in stantial being, but is an acting in contrariety to the Christ, “the Lord" (v. 4), we who are born again onght being formed in us." (THEOPHYLACT.] "Malice," so to be good and kind to the brethren (ch. 1. 22). &c., are utterly inconsistent with the “love of the “Whosoever has not tasted the word to him it is not brethren," unto which ye have "purified your souls" sweet: it has not reached the heart; but to them who ich. 1. 22). The vices here are those which offend have experienced it, who with the heart believe. against the BROTHERLY LOVE inculcated above. / 'Christ has been sent for me and is become my own: Each succeeding one springs out of that which im- my miseries are His, and His life mine.' it tastes mediately precedes so as to form a genealogy of the sweet." (LUTHER.) 4. coming-drawing near (same sins against love. Out of malice springs guile; out of Greek as here, Hebrews, 10. 22) by faith continually:

uile, hypocrisies (pretending to be what we are not, I present tense : not having come once for all at converand not showing what we really are: the opposite of sion, stone-Peter (i, e., a stone, named so by Christ)

love unfeigped." and "without dissimulation"): out | desires that all similarly should be living stones BUILT of hypocrisies, envies of those to whom we think our ON CHRIST, THE TRUE FOUNDATION-STONE; cf. his selves obliged to play the hypocrite; out of enries, evil speech in Acts, 4. 11. An undesigned coincidence and speaking, malicious. envious detraction of others. mark of genuineness. The Spirit foreseeing the Guile is the permanent disposition : hypocrisies the Romanist perversion of Matthew, 16. 18 (cf. 16, "Son of acts flowing from it. The guileless knows no envy. the LIVING God," which coincides with his language CT. v. 2. "sincere." Greele. "quileless." "Malice de- bere, “the LIVING stone"), presciently makes Peter lights in another's burt; envy pines at another's good: himself to refute it. He herein confirms Paul's teachguile imparts duplicity to the heart; hypocrisy flattery) | ing. Omit the as unto of English Version. Christ is imparts duplicity to the tongue; evil speakings wound positively termed the "living stone :" living, as having the character of another." (AUGUSTINE.) 2. new-born life in Himself from the beginning, and as raised from babes-altogether without "guile" (v. 1). As long as we the dead to live evermore (Revelation, 1. 18) after His are here we are "babes," in a specially tender relation rejection by men, and so the source of life to us. Like to God (Isaiah, 40. 11). The childlike spirit is in no earthly rock, He lives and gives life. C. 1 Corin. dispensable if we would enter heaven. "Milk" is thians, 10. 4, and the type, Exodus, 17. 6; Numbers. here pot elementary truths in contradistinction to 20. 11. disallowed-rejected, reprobated : referred to more advanced Christian truths, as in 1 Corinthians, also by Christ Himself; also by Paul: cf. tbe kindred 3. 2; Hebrews, 6. 12, 13; but in contrast to "guile, prophecies, Isaiah, 8. 14; Luke, 2. 34. chosed of God hypocrisies," &c. (v. 1): the simplicity of Christian lit., "with (or in the presence and judgment of God doctrine in gencral to the childlike spirit. The same elect" or chosen out (v. 6). Many are alienated from ** word of grace" which is the instrument in regebera- the gospel, because it is not every where in favour, but tion, is the instrument also of building up. "The mo- is on the contrary rejected by niost men. Peter anther of the child is also its natural nurse." (STEIGER.) swers that, though rejected by men, Christ is peculiarly The babe, instead of chemically analysing, instinctive the stone of salvation bonoured by God, first so desigly desires and feeds on the milk; so our part is not nated by Jacob in his deathbed prophecy. 5. Ye also, self-sufficient, rationalizing, and questionings, but as lively stones-partaking of the name and life which simply receiving the truth in the love of it (Matthew, is in “THE LIVING STONE" (v. 4; 1 Corinthians, 3. 11). 13. 25). desire-Greck, “have a yearning desire for," or Many names which belong to Christ in the singular are . lopging after," a natural impulse to the regenerate, assigned to Christians in the plural. He is "THE Son."

for as no one needs to teach new-born babes what “High Priest," "King." "Lamb:" they, "sons," food to take, knowing instinctively that a table is “ priests," "kings," "sheep," "lambs." So the provided for them in their mother's breast," so the be- Shulamite called from Solomon. (BENGEL.) are built liever of himself thirsts after the word of God (Psalm up-Greek, "are being built up, as in Ephesians, 2, 22. 19.). Ci. Tatius' language as to Achilles. of the word | Not as ALFORD, “Be ye built up." Peter grounds bis

Not as ALFORD, "spiritual," nor" reasonable," as exhortations, v. 2, 11, &c., on their conscious sense of English Version in Romans, 12. 1. The Greek logos in their high privileges as living stones in the course of Scripture is not used of the reason, or mind, but of being built up into a spiritual house (i.e., "the habi.

be WORD; the preceding context requires that the tation of the Spirit" ). priesthood-Christians are at uurd should be meant here ; the adjective logikos fol. once the spiritual temple and the priests of the temple: lows the meaning of the noun logos, “word.' James. There are two Greck words for "temple:" hieron (the 2. 22. "Lay apart all filthiness, &c., and receive with sacred place), the whole building, including the courts weekness the engrafted wORD," is exactly parallel, | wherein the sacrifice was killed; and naos (the dwell

ad confirms English Version here, sincere-Greek, I ing. viz., of God, the inner shrine wherein God * uileless." C. v. 1, " laying aside quile." IRENÆUS | peculiarly manifested Himself, and where, in the vayy of heretics, They mix chalk with the milk. The | Holiest place, the blood of the slain sacrifice was

icle " the," implies that besides the well known pure presented before Him. All believers alike, and not wilk, the gospel, there is no other pure unadulterated | merely ministers, are now the dwelling of God and Loctrine: it alone can make us guileless (v. 1). grow are called the naos Greek, not the hieron) and priests

The oldest MSS. and versions read, "grow unto unto God (Revelation, 1. 6). The minister is not, like

Iration." Being BORN again unto salration, we are the Jewish priest (Greek hiereus), admitted nearer to 1o to grow unto salvation. The end to which growth God than the people, but merely for order's sake leads

s is perfected salvation. "Growth is the measure the spiritual services of the people. Priest is the abthe fulness of that, not only rescue from destruc- breviation of presbyter in the Church of England on but positive blessedness, which is implied in | Prayer Book, not corresponding to the Aaronic priest

yition." (ALFORD.) thereby-Greek. "In it: fed Thiereus, who offered literal sacrifices). Christ is the

t: in its strength (Acts, 11. 14). "The word is to only literal Hiereus-priest in the New Testament desired with appetite as the cause of life, to be through whom alone we may always draw near to God. allowed in the hearing, to be chewed as cud is by CI. v. 9. "& royal priesthood." i.e., a body of priestaination with the understanding, and to be digested kings, such as was Melchisedec. The Spirit never, in Caith. TERTULLIAN.) 3. Peter alludes to Psalm New Testament, gives the name hiereus, or sacerdotal 8. The first tastes of God's goodness are afterwards priest, to ministers of the gospel, koly-consecrated

Christians are both Priests


and the Tempk Spiritually. to God. spiritual sacrifices-not the literal one of the passive, are said to be appointed God acting less mass, as the Romish self-styled disciples of Peter directly in the appointment of the sinner's awal teach, C. Isaiah, 56. 7, which cf. with "acceptable to course). (BEXGEL) God ordains the wicked to pus God" here; 19. 21; Psalm 4.6: 60. 14; 61. 17. 19; Hosea, Ishment, not to crime. (J. CAPPEL.) "Appointed 14. 2: Philippians, 4. 18. "Among spiritual sacrifices or "set" (not here "FORE-ordained) refers, not to the the first place belongs to the general oblation of our eternal counsel so directly, as to the penal justice a selves. For never can we offer any thing to God until God. Through the same Christ whom sinners reject we have offered ourselves (2 Corinthians, 8. b) in sacri-ed, they shall be rejected; unlike believers, they are fice to Him. There follow afterwards prayers, giviog by God appointed onto urath as FITTED for it. 11° of thanks, alme-deeds, and all exercises of piety" lost shall lay all the blame of their ruin on their on ICALvix) Christian houses of worship are never sinful perversity, not on God's decree; the saved shall called temples, because the temple was a place for ascribe all the merit of their salvation to God's elec sacrifice, which has no place in the Christian dispensa-'ing love and grace. 9. Contrast in the privileges and tion : the Christian temple is the congregation of destinies of believers. Ct. the similar contrast with spiritual worshippers. The synagogue (where reading the preceding contest. chosen_elect" of God, era of Scripture and prayer constituted the worship) was as Christ your Lord is. generation - Implying the the model of the Christian house of worship (cf. Note, unity of spiritual origin and kindred of believers 28 James, 2. 2. Greek, "synagogue." Acts, 16. 21). Our a class distinct from the world. Soyal-kingls. Be sacrifices are those of prayer, praise, and sell-denying lievers, like Christ, the antity pical Melchiseiec, are services in the cause of Christ (v. 9, end). by Jesus at once kings and priests. Israel, in a spiritual sense, Christ - as our mediating High Priest before God. was designed to be the same among the nations of the Connect these words with "offer up." Christ is both earth. The full realization on earth of this, both precious Himself and makes us accepted (BENGEL] the literal and the spiritual Israel, is as set futant. As the ternple, so also the priesthood, is built on Christ holy nation--antitypical to Israel peculiar peoplo-11., (v. 4, 6). (BEZA.) Imperfect as are our services we are "a people for an acquisition," i.e., whom God chose to not with unbelieving timidity, which is close akin to be peculiarly His: Acts, 20, 28, ** purchased, lil, refined self-rigbteousness, to doubt their acceptance quired. God's " peculiar treasure above others. THROUGH CHRIST. After extolling the dignity of snow forth-publish abroad. Not their oror praisa Christians he goes back to Crist as the sole source but His. They have no reason to magnify themselre of it. 6. Wherefore also-The oldest MSS. read, "Be above others, for once they had been in the same data cause that." The statement above is so "because it is Dess, and only through God's grace had been broue contained in Scripture." Behold-Calling universal at to the light which they must benceiorth show forth tention to the glorious announcement of His eternal others. praises--Greek, "virtues." "excellencies." ile counsel. elect-So also believers (0.9, “ chosen," Greek, glory, mercy (v. 20), goodness (Greck, c. 3; Number "elect generation"). precions-In Hebrev, Isaiah, 28. 14. 17. 18: Isaiah, 03. 7. The same term is applied 16. "a corner stone of preciousness." See all my Note believers 2 Peter. 1. 6. of him who hath called you there. So in 0. 7Christ is said to be, to believers, (2 Peter, 1. 3.) out of darkness-of heathen and etc * precious," Greek, "PRECIOUSNESS." confounded- Jewish ignorance, error, sin, and misery, and so a Same Greek as in Romans, 9. 33 (Peter here as else- of the dominion of the prince of darkness. marsika where confirming Paul's teaching. See Introduction, Peter still has in mind Psalm 118. 23. lightalso Romans. 10. 11). "ashamed." In Isaiah, 28. 16, I called "His," i.e., God's. Only the spiritual Ni

make haste," le., flee in sudden panic, covered with created by God, not darkness. In Isaiah, 46. 7. 15 the shame of confounded hopes. 7. Application of the physical darkness and evil, not moral, that God is Scripture just quoted first to the believer, then to the to create: the punishment of sin, not sin itself. Pela unbeliever. On the opposite effects of the same gospel with characteristic boldness, brands as darkness on different classes, cf. John, 9. 89; 2 Corinthians, 2. 16, all the world calls light: reason, without the Lor 16. precious-Greck, "THE preciousness" (v. 6). To Spirit, in spite of its vaunted power, is spiritual dat you believers belongs the preciousness of Christ just ness. "It cannot apprehend wbat faith is: there inentioned. disobedient - to the faith, and so dis- stark blind; it gropes as one that is without eye-sigt obedient in practice. the stone which, &c., head of... stumbling from one thing to another, and known coruer-(Psalm 118. 22.) Those who rejected the STONE | what it does." (LUTHER.) 10. Adapted from Herth were all the while in spite of themselves unconsciously 1. 9, 10; 2. 23. Peter plainly confirms Paul, who good contributing to its becoming Head of the corner. The the passage as implying the call of the Gentiles to be same magnet has two poles, the one repulsive, the come spiritually that which Israel had been literal other attractive; so the gospel has opposite effects on 1 "the people of God." Primarily, the prophecy teen believers and unbelievers respectively. 8. stone or to literal Israel, hereafter to be fully that which starnbling. &c. - Quoted from Isaiah, 8. 14. Not their best days they were only partially, God's people merely they stumbled, in that their prejudices were pot obtained inercy-lit., "who were men not cog offended; but their stumbling implies the judicial sionated." Implying that it was God's pure mura, punishment of their reception of Messiah: they hurt their merits, which made the blessed change in the themselves in stumbling over the corner stone, as state: a thought which ought to kindle their first "stumble" means in Jeremiah, 13. 16: Daniel, 11. 19. gratitude, to be shown with their life, as well as the at the word rather join "being disobedient to the lips. 11. As heretofore he exhorted them to $ word." so ch, 3.1; 4. 17. whereunto - to penal stum. | worthily of their calling, in contradistinction to the bling: to the judicial punishment of their unbelief, own former walk, so now be exhorts thera to da See above. also an additional thought: God's God before unbelievers. Dearly beloved-be po ordination ; not that God ordains or appoints them their attention to his exhortation by assuring the to sin, but they are given up to "the fruit of their own his love. strangers and pilgrims-ch, 1. 17.) Spor ways" according to the eternal counsel of God. The lit.. settlers having a house in a city without moral ordering of the world is altogether of God. citizens in respect to the rights of citizenship: a piesa God appoints the ungodly to be given up unto sin, and of the Christian's position on earth; and pi & reprobate mind and its necessary penalty. "Were staying for a time in a foreign land. FLACIDS appointed." Greek, "set," answers to "I lay." Greek, analyses the exhortation : 1. Purify your souls * "set." . 6. God, in the active, is said to appoint! strangers on earth who must not allow yourselves Christ and the elect (directly). Unbelievers, in the be kept back by earthly lusts, and (b) beus de

Submission to Lauful


Ordinances of Man. lusts war against the soul's salvation. 2. Walk | the exercise of their authority, earthly governors are piously among unbelievers (El) so that they may cease but human institutions being of men, and in relation to calumniate Christians, and (b) may themselves be to men. The apostle speaks as one raised above all converted to Christ. feshly lusts-Enumerated in Ga- human things. But lest they should think themselves latians, 5. 19. &c. Not only the gross appetites which so ennobled by faith as to be raised above subordinawe have in common with the brutes, but all the tion to human authorities, he tells them to submit thoughts of the uprenewed mind. which-Greek, "the themselves for the sake of Christ, who desires you to be which," i.e., inasmuch as being such as "war." &c. subject, and who once was subject to earthly rulers Not only do they impede, but they assail. (BENGEL.) | Himself, though having all things subject to Him, and the soul-i.e. against the regenerated soul: such as whose honour is at stake in you as His earthly rewere those now addressed. The regenerated soul is presentatives. Cf. Romans, 13. 5. "Be subject for conbesieged by sinful lusts. Like Samson in the lap of science sake." king – the Roman emperor was Delilah, the believer, the moment that he gives way "supreme" in the Roman provinces to which this to fleshly Insts, has the locks of his strength shorn, and epistle was addressed. The Jewish zealots refused ceases to maint in that spiritual separation from the obedience. The distinction between "the king as world and the flesh, of which the Nazarite vow was supreme, and "governors sent by him," implies that the type. 12. conversation-behaviour:" "conduct." "if the king command one thing, and the subordinate There are two things in which "strangers and pilgrims" magistrate another, we ought rather to obey the ought to bear themselves well: (1.) The conversation superior." (AUGUSTINE in GROTIUS.) Scripture preor conduct, as subjects (v. 13). servants (v. 18), wives scribes nothing upon the form of government, but (ch. 3. 1), husbands (ch. 3. 7), all persons under all simply subjects Christians to that everywhere subcircumstances (v. 8); (2.) confession of the faith ch. 3. sisting, without entering into the question of the 15, 16). Each of the two is derived from the will of right of the rulers (thus the Roman emperors had by God. Our conversation should correspond to our force seized supreme authority, and Rome had, by Saviour's condition: this is in heaven, so ought that to unjustifiable means, made herself mistress of Asia), be honest-honourable, becoming, proper (ch. 3. 16). because the de facto governors have not been made by Contrast vain conversation," ch. 1. 18. A good walk chance, but by the providence of God. 14. governors does not make us pious, but we must first be pious and subordinate to the emperor, "sent," or delegated believe before we attempt to lead a good course. Faith by Cæsar to preside over the provinces. for the pun. first receives from God, then love gives to our neigh-ishment-No tyranny ever has been so unprincipled as bour. (LUTHER.) whereas they speak against you that some appearance of equity was not maintained noro (v. 15), that they may, nevertheless, at some time in it: however corrupt & government be, God never or other hereafter glorify God. The Greek may be suffers it to be so much so as not to be better than rendered, “Wherein they speak against you, &c., that | anarchy. (CALVIN.) Although bad kings often op. (therein) they may. by your good works, which on a press the good, yet that is scarcely ever done by public closer inspection they shall behold, glorify God." The authority (and it is of wbat is done by public authovery works "which, on more careful consideration, rity that Peter speaks), save under the mask of right. inust move the heathen to praise God, are at first the Tyranny harasses many, but anarchy overwhelms the object of hatred and raillery." (STEIGER.) evil doers / whole state. (HORNEIUS.) The only justifiable ex

Because as Christians they could not conform to Iception is in cases where obedience to the earthly heathenish customs, they were accused of disobedi- king plainly involves disobedience to the express comence to all legal authority, in order to rebut, this mand of the King of kings. praise of them that do well charge, they are told to submit to every ordinance of every government recognises the excellence of truly man (not sinful in itself), by-owing to. they shall | Christian subjects. Thus PLINY, in lis letter to the bebold-Greek, " they sball be eye-witnesses of :" "shall emperor Trajan, acknowledges "I have found in them behold on close inspection:" as opposed to their "ignor nothing else save a perverse and extravagant superstiauce" (. 16; of the true character of Christians and tion." This recognition in the long run mitigates perChristianity, by judging on mere bearsay. The same secution (ch. 3. 13). 15. Ground of his directing them Greck verb occurs in & similar sense in ch. 3. 2. to submit themselves (u. 13). put to silence-lit., "to **Other en narrowly look at (so the Greek implies) | muzzle," "to stop the mouth. ignorance-spiritual : the actions of the righteous." (BENOEL.) TERTUL-I not having "the knowledge of God," and therefore LIAN contrasts the early Christians and the heathen: ignorant of the children of God, and misconstruing These delighted in the bloody gladiatorial spectacles their acts: influenced by mere appearances, and ever of the amphitheatre, whereas a Christian was excom- ready to open their mouths, rather than their eyes municated if he went to it at all. No Christian was and ears. Their ignorance should move the believer's found in prison for crime, but only for the faith. The pity, not his anger. They judge of things which they heathen excluded slaves from some of their religious are incapable of judging through unbelief (cf. v. 12). services, whereas Christians had some of their presby. Maintain such a walk that they shall have no charge ters of the class of slaves. Slavery silently and gradu against you, except touching your faith; and so their ally disappeared by the power of the Christian law of l minds shall be favourably disposed towards Chris. love, " Whatsoever ye would that men should do I tianity. 16. as free-as "the Lord's freemen," conto you, do ye even so to them." When the pagans de nected with v. 16, Doing well as being free. "Well. zerted their nearest relatives in a plague, Christians doing (u. 15) is the natural fruit of being freemen of ministered to the sick and dying. When the Gentiles Christ, made free by "the truth" from the bondage of left their dead unburied after a battle, and cast their sin. Duty is enforced on us to guard against licenwounded into the streets, the disciples hastened to tiousness, but the way in which it is to be fulfilled, is relieve the suffering. glorify-forming a high estimate I by love and the holy instincts of Christian liberty. of the God whom Christians worship, from the ex- | We are given principles, not details. not using-Groek, emplary conduct of Christians themselves. We must "not as having your liberty for & veil (cloke) of bad

own glory, but to the l ness. but as the servants of God," and therefore bound glory of God. the day of visitation-of God's grace: I to submit to every ordinance of man (c. 13) which is of When God shall visit them in mercy. 13. every ordi- | God's appointment. 17. Honour all men-according to

unce of man-"every human institution" (ALFORD). I whatever honour is due in each case. Equals have a 20. "every human creation." For though of divine respect due to them. Christ bas dignified our Appointment, yet in the mode of nomination and in humanity by assuming it; therefore we should not

Christ is our Pattern


of Patience tender Wrong. dishonour, but be considerate to, and honour our | viz., of His patience combined with innocence, 22. Icommon humanity, even in the very humblest. The Ilustrating Christ's first "honour" is in the Greek aorist imperative, im-did-Greek aorist, "Never in a single instance did." plying. "In Every case render promptly every man's (ALFORD.) Quoted from Isaiah, 63. 9, end, LXX due." (ALFORDJ The second is in the present, im- neither-nor yet : not even. (ALFORD.) Sinlessness plying, Habitually and continually honour the king. as to the mouth is a mark of perfection. Guile is a com Thus the first is the general precept; the three follow-mon fault of servants, "If any boast of his innocency. ing are its three great divisions. Love - present: Christ surely did not suffer as an evil-doer" ICAL Habitually love with the special and congenial affec- 1 yet He took it patiently (v. 20). On Christ's sinlesstion that you ought to feel to brethren, besides the ness, cf. 2 Corinthians, 6. 91 ; Hebrews. 7. 2. 23 general love to all men, Year God...the king-The king Servants are apt to answer again (Titus, 29. is to be honoured; but God alone, in the highest Threats of Divine judgment against oppressors are of sepse, feared. 18. Servants-Greek, "household ser- ten used by those who have no other arms, as for invants:" not here the Greek for "slaves." Probably in-stance slaves. Christ, who as Lord, could have threaten cluding freedmen still remaining in their master's ed with truth, never did so. committed him.U-OT house. Masters were not commonly Christians: he His cause, as man in His suffering. Cr. the type therefore mentions only the duties of the servants. Jeremiah, 11. 20. In this Peter seems to have before These were then often persecuted by their unbelieving his mind Isaiah, 63. 8. C. Romaps, 12. 19, on our cor masters. Peter's special object seems to be to teach responding duty. Leave your case in His bandı. Eo them submission, whatever the character of the mas- desiring to make Him executioner of your reverze, bus ters might be. Paul not having this as his prominent rather praying for enemies, God's righteous judoman design, includes masters in his monitions. be subject gives tranquillity and consolation to the oppressed -Greek, being subject : the participle expresses & par- 24. his own self-there being none other bat Higit ticular instance of the general exhortation to good con- / who could have done it. His roluntary undertakin duct, v, 11, 12, of which the first particular precept is of the work of redemption is inplied. The Grenk kiven . 13, "Submit yourselves to every ordinance of puts in antithetical juxtaposition, OUB, and HS OSX man for the Lord's sake." The general exhortation is SELF, to mark the idea of His substitution for his taken up again in v. 16; and so the participle, v. 18, "be-"welldoing" in His sufferings is set forth bere ing subject," is joined to the hortatory imperatives example to servants and to us all (v. 20). baregoing before, viz., "abstain," "submit yourselves," sacrifice : carried and offered up: a sacrificial tere "honour all men." with-Greek, “in." all-all possible: Isaiah, 53. 11, 12, "He bare the sin of many wbere onder all circumstances, such as are presently de- the idea of bearing on Himself is the prominent ose tailed, fear-the awe of one subject: God, however, is here the offering in sacrifice is combined with thu the ultimate object of the "fear;" fear * for the Lord's idea. So the same Greek means, ch. 2. S. our stes-In sake" (v. 13), not merely slavish fear of masters. good offering or presenting in sacrifice as the Grecher

kind, gentle-indulgent towards errors: considerate: "bare" implies) His body. Christ offered in it the se yielding, not exacting all which justice might demand. of our sins upon the cross, as upon the altar of God froward-perverse: harsh. Those bound to obey must that it might be expiated in Him, and so taken amu not make the disposition and behaviour of the superior from us. C. Isaiah, 63. 10. "Thou shalt make FLD the measure of the fulfilment of tbeir obligations, 19. soul an offering for sin." Peter thus mes as by sme Reason for sabjection even to froward masters. what the Syriac takes two words to express to be thankworthy--(Luke, 6. 83.) A course out of the com- and to offer: (1.) He bath borne our sins laid upon Him mon, and especially praiseworthy in the eyes of God: (viz., their guilt, curse, and punishment); 12. Be Lord not as Rome interprets, earning merit, and so a work so borne them that He offered them along with Hia of supererogation (cf. . 20). for conscience toward God- self on the altar. He refers to the animals upon which lit., * consciousness of God." from a conscientious re- sing were first laid, and which were then erored the gard to God, more than to men. endure-Greck, patient-laden. (VITRINGA.) Sin or guilt among the Set by bear up under: "as & superimposed burden." nations is considered as a burden lying heavily poe [ALFORD.) grief-Greek, "griefs." 20. what-Greek, the sinner. (GESENIUS,] on the tree--the cross the " what kind of." glory-what peculiar merit. buffeted proper place for One on whom the curse was laid: -the punishment of slaves, and suddenly inflicted curse stuck to Him until it was legally (throudHis IBENGEL.) this is-Some oldest MSS. read, "for." death as the guilt-bearer) destroyed in His body, the Then the translation is, "But if when...ye take it the hand-writing of the bond against us is canoelled patiently it is a glory), for this is," &c. acceptable- His death, that we, being dead to sins-the effect Greek, “thankworthy." as in v. 19. 21. Christ's ex- | His death to "sin" in the aggregate, and to dlar ample a proof that patient endurance under undeserv. ticular "sins," viz., that we should be as entine's ed sufferings is acceptable with God. hereunto-to the livered from them, as a slave that is dead is delver! patient endurance of unmerited suffering (ch. 3. 9). from service to his master. This is our in Christ is an example to servants, even as He was once standing through faith by virtue of Christ's date in the form of a servant." called-with a heavenly our actual mortification of particular sins is io preper calling, though slaves. for us-His dying for us is the tion to the degree of our effectually beinz made est highest exemplification of "doing well" (v. 20). Ye formable to His death. "That we should due to must patiently suffer, being innocent, as Christ also sins whose collected guilt Christ carried awu innocently suffered (not for Himself, but for 19). The death, and so LIVE TO THE RIGHTEOUSSES oldest MSS. for "us... us," read, "you...for you." Isaiah, 53. II, "My righteous servant shall Christ's sufferings, whilst they are for an example, many'), the gracious relation to God which heb were also primarily sufferings "for me," a considers brought in." (STEIGER.) by whose stripes to tion which imposes an everlasting obligation on us to stripe) ye were healed-A paradox, yet true. Yes please Him. leaving-behind: so the Greek: on His vants (cf. 'buffeted,' 'the tree,' 0. 20. 24 ollen ler departure to the Father, to His glory. an example- stripebut it is not more than your Lord HITE Greek, "a copy," lit., & writing copy set by masters for bore: learn from Him patience in wrongful sustering their pupils. Christ's precepts and sermons were the 25. (Isaiah, 63. 6.) For-Assigning their natural transcript of His life. Peter graphically sets before of healing (v. 24). DOW-now that the atoncm servants those features especially suited to their case. all has been made, the foundation is laid for netiesitus follow-close upon; so the Greek. his steps--footsteps. conversion: 30" we are returned," or "hare dans

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