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Thanksgiving for the Hope

PETER, I.

to which we are Elected.

Cr. "the Shepherd . . of... souls," ch. 2. 25; "Feed the flock of God," "the chief Shepherd," ch 5. 2, 4, with John, 21. 15-17: "Feed my sheep ... lambs;" also " Whom ...ye love," ch. 1. 8; . 7, with John, 21. 15-17: "Lovest thou me?" and 3 Peter, 1. 14, with Jobn, 21. 18, 19. Wiesinger well says, "He who in loving impatience cast himself into the sea to meet the Lord. is also the man who most earnestly testifies to the hope of his return; he who dated his own faith from the sufferings of his Master, is never weary in holding up the suffering form of the Lord before his readers to comfort and stimulate them: he before whom the death of a martyr is in assured expectation, is t forth the duty, as well as the consolation, of suffering for Christ: as a rock of the church he grounds his readers against the storm of present tribulation on the true Rock of ages,"

CHAPTER. I.

Mesopotamia and Judea," i.e., the Jews now subject to Ver. 1-25. ADDRESS TO THE ELECTED OF THE GOD the Parthians, whose capital was Babylon, where he HEAD: THANKSGIVING FOR THE LIVING HOPE TO laboured in person ; " dwellers in Cappadocia, WHICH WE ARE BEGOTTEN, PRODUCING JOY AMIDST | Pontus, Asia, Phrygia, Bithynia," the Asiatic disSUFFERINGS: THIS SALVATION AN OBJECT OF persion derived from Babylon, whom he ministers to DEEPEST INTEREST TO PROPHETS AND TO ANGELS : by letter. 2. foreknowledge-foreordaining love (0. 20) Its COSTLY PRICE A MOTIVE TO HOLINESS AND inseparable from God's foreknowlerige, the origin from

AGAIN OF TUE EVER- which, and pattern according to which election takes ABIDING WORD or God. 1. Peter-Greek form of place. Acts, 2, 23, and Romans, 11. 2, prove "foreCephas, man of rock, av apostle of Jesus Christ- knowledge" to be forcordination. God's foreknow"He who preaches otherwise than as a messenger of ledge is not the perception of any ground of action Christ, is not to be heardi: if he preach as such, then out of himself; still, in it liberty is comprehended. it is all one as if thou didst hear Christ speaking in thy and all absoluto constraint debarred. (ANSELM in presence." (LUTHER.) to the strangers scattered-lit., STEIGER.] For go the Son of God was "foreknown" "sojourners of the dispersion:" only in John, 7. 35 and (so the Greek for foreordained," v. 20) to be the sacri. James, 1. 1, in New Testament, and LXX., Psalm 147.2, ficial Lamb, not against, or without His will, but His * the outcasts of Israel:" the designation peculiarly will rested in the will of the Father : this includes given to the Jews in their dispersed state thronghout self-conscious action; nay, even cheerful acquiescence. the world ever since the Babylonian captivity. These | The Hebrew and Greek "know" include approval and he, as the apostle of the circumcision, primarily ad- acknowledging as one's own. The Hebrew marks the dresses, but not in the limited temporal sense only: he oneness of loving and choosing, by having one word for regards their temporal condition as a shadow of their both, Bachar (LXX., Greek, hairetizo). Peter descends spiritual calling to be strangers and pilgrims on earth, from the eternal "election of God throagh the new looking for the heavenly Jerusalem as their home. So birth, to the believer's "sanctification," that from tbe Gentile Christians, as the spiritual Israel, are in this he might again raise them through the consideracluded secondarily, as having the same high calling. tion of their new birth to a "living hope” of the He ch. 1. 14: 2. 10; 4. 3) plainly refers to Christian Gen. heavenly "inheritance." (HEIDEGGER.] The Divine tiles (cf. v. 17; ch. 2. 11). Christians, if they rightly con- | three are introduced in their respective functions in sider their calling, must never settle themselves here, I redemption, through - Greek, “in:" the element in but feel themselves travellers. As the Jews in their which we are elected. The "election of God realized dispersion diffused through the nations the knowledge and manifested itself "IN" their sanctification. Beof the one God, preparatory to Christ's first advent, so lievers are "sanctified through the offering of Christ Christians, by their dispersion among the unconverted, once for all” (Hebrews, 10. 10). "Thou must believe diffuse the knowledge of Christ, preparatory to His and know that thou art holy; not, however, through second advent. "The children of God scattered thine own piety, but throngh the blood of Christ." abroad" constitute one whole in Christ, who "gathers (LUTHER.) This is the true sanctification of the them together in one," now partially and in Spirit, Spirit, to obey the gospel, to trust in Christ. (BULbereafter perfectly and visibly. "Elect," in the Greek | LINGER.) sanctification--the Spirit's setting a part of order, comes before "strangers;" elect, in relation to the saint as consecrated to God. The execution of heaven, strangers, in relation to the earth. The elec- God's choice (Galatians, 1.4). God the Father gives us tion here is that of individuals to eternal life by the salvation by gratuitous election : the Son earns it by sovereign grace of God, as the sequel shows. "While His blood-shedding: the Holy Spirit applies the merits each is certified of his own election by the Spirit, he of the Son to the soul by the gospel word. (CALVIN.) receives no assurance concerning others, nor are we to | Cf. Numbers, 6. 24-26, the Old Testament triple blessbe too inquisitive (John, 21, 21, 22]: Peter numbers ing. unto obedience-the result or end aimed at by them among the elect, as they carried the appearance of God as respects us, the obedience which consists in having been regenerated." (CALVIN.) He calls the I faith, and that which flows from faith: “ obeying the whole church by the designation strictly belonging truth through the Spirit" (v. 22). Romans, 1, 5, only to the better portion of them. (CALVIX.) The “obedience to the faith," and obedience the fruit of election to hearing, and that to eternal life, are dis- faith. sprinkling, &c.- not in justification through tinct. Realization of our election is a strong motive the atonement once for all, which is expressed in the to holiness. The minister invites all, yet does not hide previous clauses, but as the order proves the daily the truth that in none but the elect will the preaching I being sprinkled by Christ's blood, and so cleansed effect eternal blessing. As the chief fruit of exhorta-1 from all sin, which is the privilege of one already tions, and even of threatenings, redounds to "the justified and "walking in the light." Grace- the source elect; therefore, at the outset, Peter addresses them. I of " peace." be multiplied-still further than already. STEIGER translates, To "the elect pilgrims who form Daniel, 4. 1. "Ye have now peace and grace, but still the dispersion in Pontus," &c. The order of the pro- not in perfection; therefore, ye must go on increasing vinces is that in which they would be viewed by one l until the old Adam be dead." [LUTN ER.) 3. He bewriting from the East from Babylon (ch. 5. 13); from gins, like Paul, in opening his epistles with giving North East southwards to Galatia, South East to Cap thanks to God for the greatness of the salvation: herein padocia, then Asia, and back to Bitbynia. West of I he looks forward (1.) into the future (r. 3-9) : (2.) backPontus. Contrast the order, Acts, 2. 9. He now was ward into the past (v. 10-12). (ALFORD.) Blessed ministering to those same peoples as he preached to on -A distinct Greek word (eulogetos. "Blessed BE") is Pentecost: "Parthians, Medes, Elamites, dwellers in I used of God, from that used of man (eulogemenos,

The Bdiver's

1 PETER, L.

Hope and heritane. * Blessed 18). Pather-This whole epistle accords with ward splendour of the lovebest of eartbly thinn. the Lord's prayer: "Father." ch. 1. 3, 14, 17. 23; 2; dooms them soon to rottenness and decay. tundeid **Our. ch. 1. 4, end;" In heaven. ch. 1. 4; * Hallowed -not stained as earthly goods by sin, either in the so be thy name, ch. 1. 15, 16; 3. 16; "Thy kingdom compe, quiring, or in the using of them, unsusceptible of any ch. 2. e: "Thy will be done, ch. 2. 15; 3. 17; 4. 2, 19: stain "The rich man is either a dishonest man him ** daily bread." ch. &. 7: * forgiveness of sins," ch. 4. self, or the beir of a dishonest man." (JEROME) 8. 1; "temptation," ch. 4. 12: "deliverance," ch. 4. 18 Even Israel's inheritance was defiled by the people's

BENGELI: cf. ch.3.7 and 4. 7 for allusions to prayer. sins. Defilement intrudes even on our holy things Dow. Barak, Hebrero *bless, is lit. to kneel. God, as the whereas God's service ought to be undefiled. that original source of blessing, must be blessed through fadeth not away-Contrast 6. 24. Even the most deliall His works. abundant - Greek, "much," "full." cate part of the heavenly inheritance, its bloom, CODThat God's "mercy" should reach us, guilty and tinues unfading. "In substance incorruptible; in enemies, proves its fulness. **Mercy" met our misery: purity undefiled; in beauty unfading." (ALFORD. "grace," our guilt. begotten as again-of the Spirit by reserved-kept up Colossians, 1. 5. * lard up for you in the word (d. 231 : whereas we were children of wrath heaven, 2 Timothy, 4. 8); Greek Perfect, expressings naturally, and dead in síns. unto-so that we have. I fized and abiding state. "whicb has been and is rescrvlively--Greck, "living." It bas life in itself, gives life, ed." The inheritance is in secunty, beyond risk, out and looks for life as its object. (DE WETTE.) Liring of the reach of Satan, though we for whom it is reserved is & favourite expression of St. Peter (v. 23; ch. 2. 4, 5). are still in the midst of dangers. Still, if we be be He delights in contemplating life overcoming death lievers, we too, as well as the inberitance, are kept in the believer. Faith and love follow hope (v. 8,21.22.) (the same Greek, John, 17. 12) by Jesus safely (r. 3). in "Unto) a lively hope" is further explained by " To) | heaveu-Greck, "in the heavens," where it can neither an inberitance incorruptible...fadeth not away," and be destroyed nor plundered. It does not follow that *(unto) salvation...ready to be revealed in the last because it is nono laid up in heaven, it shall not here time." I prefer with BENGEL and STEIGER to join as after be on earth also. for you-It is secure not only in in Greek, *Unto a hope liring (possessing life and itself from all misfortune, but also from all alienation, vitality) through the resurrection of Jesns Christ." so that no other can receive it in your stead. He bed Faith, the subjective means of the spiritual resur- said us (v. 3), he now turns his address direct to the rection of the soul, is wrought by the same power elect, in order to encourage and exhort tbem. 5. kest whereby Christ was raised from the dead. Baptism is -Greek, “who are being guarded." He answers the an objective means (ch. 3. 21). Its moral fruit is a objection, or what use is it that salvation is * reserved bew Life. The connexion of our sonship with the for us in heaven, as in & calm secure baren, wbea resurrection appears also in Luke, 20. 36; Acts, 13. 33. we are tossed in the world as on a troubled ses in the Christ's resurrection is the cause of ours. (1.) as an midst of a thousand wrecks? (CALVIN.) As the inefficient cause (1 Corinthians, 16. 22 : (?) as an exheritance is "kept" (s. 4 safely for the far distant emplary cause, all the saints being about to rise after "heirs," so mast they be "guarded in their persons the similitude of His resurrection. Our "hope" is, so as to be sure of reaching it. Neither shall it be Christ rising from the dead hath ordained the power, wanting to them, por they to it. "We are guarded is! and is become the pattern of the believer's resurrec- the world as our inheritance is kept in heater. This Cion. The soul, born again from its natural state into defines the "you" of v. 4. The inheritance, remember, the life of grace, is after that bom again unto the life belongs only to those who "endure unto the end," te of glory. Matthew, 19. 28. * The regeneration, when ing "guarded" by, or IN "the power of God, through the Son of man shall sit in the throne of His glory: the farth." Contrast Luke, 8. 13. God Himself is our sale resurrection of our bodies is a kind of coming out of guarding power. "It is His power which stres us the womb of the earth and entering upon immortality. | from our enemies. It is His long-suffering which are a pativity into another life. (BisHOP PEARSON.) | us from ourselves." (BENGEL] Jude, 1, preserved The four causes of our salvation are, (1.) the primary in Christ Jesus;" Philippians, 1. 6; 4. 7. "keep." Grecka cause, God's mercy: (2.) the proximate cause, Christ's | "guard," as here. This guarding is effected, on the death and resurrection; (3.) the formal cause, our re-part of God, by His * power," the efficient cause; CO generation ; (4.) the final cause, our eternal bliss. As the part of man, “through faith," the effective means John is the disciple of love, so Paul of faith, and by--Greek,"in." The believer lives spiritually is Peter of hope. Hence, Peter, most of all the apostles, God and in virtue of His power, and God lives in bin urges the resurrection of Christ: an undesigned coin-"In" marks that the cause is inherent in the means cidence between the history and the epistle, and so a working organically through them with living it proof of genuineness. Christ's resurrection was the fluence, so that the means, in so far as the cause York occasion of bis own restoration by Christ after his fall. organically through them, exist also in the cause 1 4. To an inheritance-the object of our "hope" (v. 3), 1 power of God which guards the believer is no external which is therefore not a dead, but a " living* hope. | force working upon him from without with mechanical The inheritance is the believer's already by title, be- necessity, but the spiritual power of God in which ing actually assigned to him; the entrance on its pos-lives, and with whose Spirit he is clothed. It come session is future, and hoped for as a certainty. Being down on, and then dwells in him, even as he is in 2 "begotten again" as a “son," he is an "heir," as (STEIGER.) Let none flatter himself he is being guste earthly fathers beget children who shall inherit their led by the power of God unto salvation, if he be Dot goods. Tho inheritance is "salvation" (v. 6, 9): "the walking by faith. Neither speculative knowledge ad grace to be brought at the revelation of Christ" (v. 13): reason, nor works of seeming charity will shall "a crown of glory that fadeth not away." incorraptible severed from faith. It is through faith that saivati

not having within the germs of death. Negations | is both received and kept. unto salvation-the final of the imperfections which meet us on every side here end of the new birth. "Salvation, not merely are the chief means of conveying to our minds a con- complished for us in title by Christ, and made over ta ception of the heavenly things which have not | us on our believing, but actually manifesterik el entered into the heart of man," and which we have finally completed. ready to be revealed - When Cbris. not faculties now capable of fully knowing. Peter. I shall be revealed, it shall be revealed. The prepart sanguine, impulsive, and highly susceptible of outward | tions for it are being made now, and began wta impressions, was the more likely to feel painfully tbe | Christ came: "All things are now ready:" the sale deep-seated corruption wbich, lurking under the out. I tion is already accomplished, and only waits we

Trials Test Faith, and

1 PETER, I.

Prepare for Final Glory. Lord's time to be manifested: He is ready to judge." | soul was what was lost, so "salvation" primarily conlast time the last day, closing the day of grace: the cerns the soul; the body sball share in redemption day of judgment, of redemption, of the restitution hereafter; the soul of the believer is saved already: an of all things, and of perdition of the ungodly. 6. additional proof that "receiving... salvation" is here Wherein-In which prospect of fipal salvation. greatly a thing present. 10. The magnitude of this" salvation" rejoice--"exult with joy :" " are exuberantly glad," | is proved by the earnestness with which "prophets** Salvation is realized by faith (v. 9) as a thing so and even "angels" searched into it. Even from the actually present as to cause exulting joy in spite of beginning of the world this salvation has been testised existing afflictions, for a season--Greek, "for a little to by the Holy Spirit. prophets-Though there is no time." if need be - "if it be God's will that it should Greek article, yet English Version is right, "the probe so" (ALFORD), for not all believers are afflicted. phets" generally (including all the Old Testament inOne need not invite or lay a cross on himself, but only spired authors), as "the angels” similarly refer to them ** take up the cross which God imposes his cross"). / in general. epquired-perseveringly : 80 the Greek. 2 Timothy, 3. 12, is not to be pressed too far. Not! Much more is manifested to us than by diligent enevery believer, nor every sinner, is tried with afflic quiry and search the prophets attained. Still it is not tions. (THEOPHYLACT.) Some falsely think that pot said, they searched after it, but "concerning" (so the withstanding our forgiveness in Christ, a kind of Greek for "of") it. They were already certain of the atonement, or expiation by suffering, is needed. ye redemption being about to come. They did not like are in heaviness - Greek, "ye were grieved." The |us fully see, but they desired to see the one and the ** grieved" is regarded as past, the "exulting joy" same Christ whom we fully see in spirit. "As Simeon present. Because the realized joy of the coming was anxiously desiring previously, and tranquil in salvation makes the present grief seem as a thing of peace only when he had seen Christ, so all the Old the past. At the first shock of affliction ye were grier. Testament saints saw Christ only hidden, and as it ed, but now by anticipation ye rejoice regarding the were absent-absent not in power and grace, but inpresent grief as past. through-Greek, "IN;" the ele asmuch as He was not yet manifested in the flesh." ment in which the grief has place. manifold-many (CALVIN.] The prophets, as private individuals, had and of various kinds (ch, 4. 12, 13). temptations to reflect on the hidden and far reaching sense of their "trials" testing your faith. 7. Aim of the "tempta- own prophecies; because their words, as prophets, in tions." trial testing. proving. That your faith so their public function, were not so much their own as prored "may be found aorist : once for all, as the the Spirit's, speaking by and in them: thus Caiaphas. result of its being proved on the judgment-day) unto A striking testimony to verbal inspiration : the words (eventuating in) praise." &c., viz., the praise to be which the inspired authors wrote are God's words exbestowed by the Judge than that of gold rather | pressing the mind of the Spirit, which the writers " than gold." though-"which perisheth, YET is tried themselves searched into, to fathom the deep and with fire." If gold, though perishing (v. 18), is yet precious meaning, even as the believing readers did. tried with fire in order to remove dross and test its "Searched " implies that they had determinate marks gengineness, how much more does your faith, which to go by in their search the grace that should come shall never perish, need to pass through a fiery trial unto you - viz., the grace of the New Testament: an to remove whatever is defective, and to test its | earnest of "the grace" of perfected “salvation" "to be genuineness and full value? glory-"Honour" is not brought at the (second) revelation of Christ." Old so strong as "glory." As praise is in words, so Testament believers also possessed the grace of God: * honour" is in deeds : honorary reward appearing they were children of God, but it was as children in

Translate as in v. 13, "revelation." At Christ's re their nonage, so as to be like servants; whereas we envelation shall take place also the revelation of the joy the full privileges of adult sons. 11. what-Greek. sons of God (Romans, 8. 19, “manifestation," Greek, / "In reference to what, or what manner of time." What ** revelation;" 1 John, 3. 2, Greek, “manifested...mani- expresses the time absolutely: what was to be the era fested," for "appear...appear"). 8. not having seen, ye of Messiah's coming : "what manner of time;" what love though in other cases it is knocledge of the events and features should characterise the time of person that produces love to him. They are more His coming. The "or" implies that some of the pro**blessed that have not seen and yet have believed." | phets, if they could not as individuals discover the than they who believed because they have seen. On exact time, searched into its characteristic features Peter's own love to Jesus, cf. John, 21. 15-17. Though and events. The Greek for "time" is the season, the the apostles had seen Him, they now ceased to know epoch, the fit time in God's purposes. Spirit of Christ Him merely after the flesh. in whom-connected with ...in them-(Acts, 16. 7, in oldest MSS., " the Spirit of ** believing the result of which is "ye rejoice" (Greek, Jesus," Revelation, 19. 10.) SO JUSTIN MARTYR says. cxult). now in the present state, as contrasted with the "Jesus was He who appeared and communed with future state wben believers "shall see His face." un Moses, Abraham, and the other patriarchs." CLEMENS speakable-(1 Corinthians, 2. 9.) fall of glory-Greek, ALEXANDRINUS calls Him "the Prophet of prophets.

glorified." A joy now already encompassed with glory. I and Lord of all the prophetical spirit." did signifyThe "glory” is partly in present possession, through did give intimation." of-Greek, “the sufferings (ap. the presence of Christ," the Lord of glory." in the soul; pointed) unto Christ," or foretold in regard to Christ. partly in assured anticipation. "The Christian's joy is "Christ" the anointed Mediator whose sufferings are bound up with love to Jesus: its ground is faith; it is I the price of our "salvation" (v. 9, 10), and who is the not therefore either self-seeking nor self-sufficient." channel of "the grace that should come unto you." ISTEIGER.) 9. Receiving-in sure anticipation; "the the glory-Greek, "glories," viz., of His resurrection, end of your faith, i.e.. its crowning consummation. I of His ascension, of His judgment and coming kingKnally-completed "salvation" (Peter here confirms | dom, the necessary consequence of the sufferings, Paul's teaching as to justification by faith!: also receiv- that should follow-Greek, "after these (sufferings)." ing now the title to it and the first-fruits of it. In the ch. 3. 18-22; 5. 1. Since “the Spirit of Christ" is the next verse (v. 10) the "salvation ” is represented as Spirit of God, Christ is God. It is only because the already present, whereas "the prophets" had it not as | Son of God was to become our Christ that He manicet present. It must, therefore, in this verse, refer to fested Himself and the Father through Him in the The present: Deliverance now from a state of wrath: | Old Testament, and by the Holy Spirit eternally pro

lievers even now "receive salvation," thongh its ceeding from the Father and Himself. spake in the u revelation" is future. of...souls- The immortal! proplets. 12. Not only was the future revealed to

Prophets Searched their Own

1 PETER, I.

Prophecies Concerning Christ, them, but this also, that these revelations of the future strength of your spirit." (HEXSLER) Sobriety, ie, were given them not for themselves, but for our good , spiritual sel-restraint, lest one be overcome by the in gospel times. This so far from disheartening, only allurements of the world and of sense, and patient quickened them in unselfishly testifying in the Spirit hopeful waiting for Christ's revelation, are the true for the partial good of their own generation (only of be- ways of "girding up the loins of the mind." to the lievers), and for the full benefit of posterity. Contrast end-rather, “perfectly," so that there may be nothing in gospel times. Revelation, 22. 10. Not that their deficient in your hope, no casting aray of your con. prophecies were unattended with spiritual instruction fidence. Still there may be an allusion to the "end" as to the Redeemer to their own generation, but the mentioned 9. Hope so perfectiy (Greek telcios: as to fall light was not to be given till Messiah should come; reach unto the end (telos) of your faith and hope, fiz.. it was well they should have this "revealed to them, lest they should be disheartened in not clearly dis- Greek) the revelation of Christ." As grace shall then 1 wus weu wey now nave is reveale, come here that ... being brought unto you in 150. covering with all their enguiry and search the full par- be perfected, so you ought to hope perfectly. "Hope" ticulars of the coming * salvation." To Daniel is repeated from v. 3. The two appearances are but (Daniel, 9. 25. 26) the "time" was revealed. Our im- | dfferent stages of the OXE great revelation of Christ mense privileges are thus brought forth by contrast comprising the New Testament from the beginning to with theirs, notwithstanding that they had the great the end. 14. From sobriety of spirit and endurinn er honour of Christ's Spirit speaking in them; and this, hope he passes to obedience, holiness, and recratial as an incentive to still greater earnestness on our fear. As-Marking their present actual character 88 part than even they manifested (v. 13, &c.). 18The “born again" (v. 3, 22). obedient-Greck, children d oldest MSS. read "you," as in v. 10. This verse im. obedience:" children to whom obedience is their chatplies that we, Christians, may understand the pro-acteristic and ruling nature, as a child is of the same phecies by the Spirit's aid in their most important nature as the mother and father. Contrast Ephesiani, part, viz., so far as they have been already fulfilled. 5. 6, “the children of disobedience." (1. c. 17. with the Holy Ghost sent down-on Pentecost. The "obeying the Father" whose " children" ye are. oldest MSS, omit the Greck preposition en, é e.. "in;" | Having the obedience of faith (cf. 7. 22) and 80 ol tben translate, by." The evangelists speaking by the practice (cf. v. 16, 18). "Faith is the highest obedience, Holy Spirit were infallible witnesses. "The Spirit of because discharged to the highest command." (LE Christ" was in the prophets also (u. 11), but not mani. THER) fashioning - The outward fashion Greek festly, as in the case of the Christian church and its schema) is fleeting, and merely on the surface Ibe first preachers, "SENT down from heaven." How " form," or con formation in the New Testament, is favoured are we in being ministered to as to "salva- something deeper and more perfect and essential tion," by prophets and apostles alike, the latter now the former lusts in--which were characteristic of your apnouncing the same things as actually fulfilled which state of ignorance of God: true of both Jews 308 the former foretold. which things -- "the things now Gentiles. The sanctification is first described best reported unto yon" by the evangelistic preachers, tively (v. 14, "not fashioning yourselves," &c.: the pat

Christ's sufferings and the glory that should follow" ting off the old man, even in the outward fashxon, # (v. 11. 12). angels-still higher than the prophets" | well as in the inward conformation), then positive (v. 10). Angels do not any more than ourselves pos- (v. 15, putting on the new man, cf. Ephesians, L. 2, sess an INTUITIVE knowledge of redemption. "To" Lusts" flow from the original birth-sin inberita! look into" in Greek is lit., to bend over 80 as to look from our first parents, who by self-willed desire deeply into and see to the bottom of a thing. Seo note brought sin into the world), the lust which, ever siace on the same word, James, 1.25. As the cherubim stood | man bas been alienated from God. seeks to fill op bending over the mercyseat, the emblem of redemp-with earthly things the emptiness of his being; tk tion, in the holiest place, so the angels intently gaze manifold forms which the mother-last assumes are upon and desire to fathom the depths of "the great called in the plural lusts. In the regenerate, si mystery of godliness, God manifest in the flesh, as the neto man is concerned, which constitutes les justified in the Spirit, seen of angels." Their "mini- truest self, "sin" no longer exists; but in the fieshet stry to the heirs of salvation" naturally disposes them old man it does. Hence arises the conflict. uninter to wish to penetrate this mystery as reflecting such ruptedly maintained through life, wherein the new men glory on the love, justice, wisdom, and power of their in the main prevails, and at last completely. Bof the and our God and Lord. They can know it only through natural man knows only the combat of his lasts with its manifestation in the church, as they personally bave one another, or with the law, without power to co not the direct share in it that we have. "Angels have quer them, 15. Litu, "But (rather) after the pattete only the contrast between good and evil, without the of Him who hath called you (whose characteristics power of conversion from sin to righteousness: wit- that He is) holy, be (Greek, become, ye yourselves als nessing such conversion in the church they long to holy." God is our grand model, God's calling is a penetrate the knowledge of the means whereby it is frequently-urged motive in Peter's epistles. Every brought about." (HOFMAN in ALFORD.) 13. Where that begets, begets an offspring resembling himsel fore--Seeing that the prophets ministered unto you (EPIPHANIOS.) "Let the acts of the offspring indicate in these high gospel privileges which they did not similarity to the Father." (AUGUSTINE) Courer themselves fully share in though "searching into -deportment, course of life: one's way of going to them, and seeing that even angels " desire to look l as distinguished from one's internal nature, to wa into" them, how earnest you ought to be and watchful it must outwardly correspond. Christians are alres in respect to them. gird up... loins-referring to holy unto God by consecration; they must be so also in Christ's own words, Lake, 12. 35: an image taken from their outroard walk and behaviour in all respects. I the way in which the Israelites ate the passover with | outward must correspond to the inward mana the loose outer robe girded up about the waist with & Scripture is the true source of all authority in gese kirdle, as ready for a journey, Workmen, pilgrims, I tions of doctrine and practice. Be ye...for I as-13 runners, wrestlers, and warriors (all of whom are types | me you have to do with. Ye are mine. Thereket of the Christian), so gird themselves up, both to shorten | abstain from Gentile pollutions. We are too prent the garment so as not to impede motion, and to gird to have respect unto men. (CALVIN.) As I am the up the body itself so as to be braced for action. The fountain of holiness, being holy in my CSBeko, be believer is to have his mind (mental powers) collected I therefore zealous to be partakers of holiness, that and always ready for Christ's coming. Gather in the way be as I also am, IDIDYMUS.) God is essential

The Price of our Redemption.

1 PETER, I,

Ils Fruit is Holiness. holy: the creature is holy in so far as it is sanctified fruit of redemption "from our vain conversation:" for by God. God, in giving the command, is willing to He by whom we are redeemed is also He for whom we give also the power to obey it, viz., through the sancti-are redeemed. "Without the righteous abolition of fying of the Spirit (v. 2). 17. if-i.e., "seeing that ye the curse, either there could be found no deliverance, call on," for all the regenerate pray as children of or, what is impossible, the grace and righteousness of God, “Our Father who art in heaven." the Father God must have come in collision" (STEIGER); but now, rather. "Call upon as Father Him who without ac Christ having borne the curse of our sin, frees from it ceptance of persons (Acts, 10. 34; Romans, 2. 11; James, those who are made God's children by His Spirit. wait 2. 1. not accepting the Jew above the Gentile, -self-deceiving, unreal, and unprofitable : promising 2 Chronicles, 10. 7; Luke. 20. 21; properly said of a good which it does not perform Cr. as to the Genindge not biassed in judgment by respect of persons) tiles, Acts, 14. 15; Romans, 1. 21; Ephesians, 4.17 ; as to indgeth. &c. The Father judgeth by His Son, His human philosophers, 1 Corinthians, 3. 20; as to the Representative, exercising His delegated authority disobedient Jews, Jeremiah, 4. 14. conversation(John, 6. 22). This marks the harmonious and com course of life. To know what our sin is we must know plete unity of the Tripity. work-Each man's work what it cost. received by tradition from your fathersis one complete whole, whether good or bad. The The Jews' traditions. “Human piety is & vain blasparticular works of each are manifestations of the phemy, and the greatest sin that a man can commit" general character of his life-work, whether it was of ILUTHER). There is only one Father to be imitated, faith and love whereby alone we can please God and v. 17; cf. Matthew, 23. 9, the same antithesis. [BExcscape condemnation. pass--Greek, "conduct your GEL.) 19. precious-of inestimable value. The Greek

pes during." sojourning-the outward state of the order is, " With precious blood, as of a lamb without Jews in their dispersion is an emblem of the sojourner blemish (in itself and without spot (contracted by hke state of all believers in this world, away from our contact with others), seven the blood) of Christ." true Fatherland, fear-reverential, not slavish. He Thongh very man, He remained pure in Himsels who is your Father, is also your Judge-& thought('without blemish"), and uninfected by any impression

ch may well inspire reverential fear. TREOPHY of sin from without ("without spot"), which would have LACT observes, A double fear is mentioned in Scrip- / unfitted Him for being our atoning Redeemer: so the ture : (1.) elementary, causing one to become serious; passover-lamb, and every sacrificial victim; so too, the (2.) perfective: the latter is here the motive by which

church, the Bride, by her union with Him. As Is. Peter urges them as sons of God to be obedient. Fear rael's redemption from Egypt required the blood of is not here opposed to assurance, but to carnal secur- | the Paschal Lamb, so our redemption from sin and ity : fear producing vigilant caution lest we offend the curse required the blood of Christ: "foreordained" God and backslide. "Fear and hope flow from the (v. 20) from eternity, as the passover-lamb was taken same fountain: fear prevents us from falling away from up on the tenth day of the month. 20. God's eternal hope." (BENGEL.] Though love has no fear in it, yet foreordination of Christ's redeeming sacrifice, and in our present state of imperfect love, it needs to have completion of it in these last times for us, are an adfear going ALONG WITH it as a subordinate principle. ditional obligation on us to our maintaining a holy This fear drowns all other fears. The believer fears walk, considering how great things have been thus God and so has none else to fear. Not to fear God done for us. Peter's language in the history corresis the greatest baseness and folly. The martyrs' more ponds with this here : an undesigned coincidence than mere human courage flowed from this. 18. An- and mark of genuineness, Redemption was no afterother motive to reverential vigilant fear (v. 17) of dis- thought, or remedy of an unforeseen evil, devised at pleasing God, the consideration of the costly price of the time of its arising. God's foreordaining of the Reour redemption from sin. Observe, it is we who are deemer refutes the slander that, on the Christian bougbt by the blood of Christ, not heaven. The blood theory, there is a period of 4000 years of nothing but of Christ is not in Scripture said to buy heaven for us; an incensed God. God chose us in Christ before the heaven is the "inheritance" (0.4) given to us as sons, foundation of the world, manifest-in His incarnation by the promise of God. corruptible-Cf. v. 7, "gold in the fulness of the time. He existed from eternity that perisheth." 23. silver and gold-Greek, "or." Cf. before He was manifested in these last times-1 CorinPeter's own words, Acts, 3. 6: an undesigned coinci. I thians, 10. 11, "the ends of the world." This last disdence. redeemed-Gold and silver being liable to cor- pensation, made up of "times" marked by great ruption themselves can free no one from spiritual and I changes, but still retaining a general unity, stretches bodily death; they are therefore of too little value. from Christ's ascension to His coming to judgment Contrast v. 19, Christ's "precious blood." The Israel- 21. by him-CE. "the faith which is by Him," Acts, 3. 16. ites were ransomed with half a shekel each, which Through Christ: His Spirit, obtained for us in His went towards purchasing the lam) for the daily sacri- | resurrection and ascension, enabling us to believe. fice (Exodus, 30. 12-16; cf. Numbers, 3. 44-61). But the This verse excludes all who do not "by Him believe in Lamb who redeems the spiritual Israelites does so God," and includes all of every age and clime that do. ** without money or price." Devoted by sin to the | Lit.. "are believers in God." To believe IN (Greek cis) iustice of God, the church of the first born is redeemed | God expresses an internal trust: “ by believing to love From sin and the curse with Christ's precious blood | God, going INTO Him, and cleaving to Him, incorporat. Matthew, 20, 28; 1 Timothy, 2. 6; Titus, 2. 14; Revels- ed into His members. By this faith the ungodly is tion. 6. 9). In all these passages there is the idea of sub justified, so that thenceforth faith itself begins to work stitution, the giving of one for another by way of a by love." (P. LOMBARD.) To beliere os (Greek epi, or ransorn or equivalent. Man is "sold under sin" as a dative case) God, expresses the confidence which slave; shut up under condemnation and the curse, grounds itself on God, reposing on Him. "Faith in The ransom was, therefore, paid to the righteously-in- (Greek en) His blood" (Romans, 3. 25) implies that His censed Judge, and was accepted as a vicarious satisfac- blood is the element in which faith has its proper and tion for our sin by God, inasmuch as it was His own abiding place. Cf, with this verse, Acts, 20. 21. * Relove as well as righteousness which appointed it. An pentance toward (Greek cis, 'into,' turning towards and Israelite sold as a bond-servant for debt might be re- going into) God and faith toward (Greek eis, 'into') deerned by one of his brethren. As therefore, we could , Christ:" where, as there is but one article to both not redeem ourselves, Christ assumed our nature in "repentance" and "faith," the two are inseparably order to become our nearest of kin and brother, and joined as to,ether forming one truth; where repentso our Goel or Redeemer. Holiness is the natural ance is, there faith is: when one knows God the Father

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