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The Judie al Trial

MARK, XIV.

of the Lord Jesutg. cheek we are to turn to the smiter the other also (Mat- bere of that complaint, “False witnesses did rise up: ther, 639-is not to be taken to the letter.

they laid to my charge things that I knew not!" (Psalm Annas Sends Jesus to Caiaphas (v. 24). 24. "(Now] | 35. 11). but their witness agreed not together. If even Aanss had sent Him bound unto Caiaphas the bigb | two of them had been agreed, it would have been priest. On the meaning of this verse there is much | greedily enongh laid hold of. as all that the law insisted diversity of opinion; and according as we understand upon even in capital cases (Deuteronomy, 17. 6). But it will be the conclusion we come to, whether there even in this they failed. One cannot but admire the vas bat one hearing of our Lord before Annas and providence which secured this result: since, on the (siapbas together, or whether, according to the view one hand, it seems astonishing that those unscrupulous we have given above, there were trvo hearings-& pre prosecutors and their ready tools should so buogle a Eminary and informal one before Annas, and a formal business in wbich they felt their whole interests bound ead official one before Caiaphas and the Sanhedrim. up, and, on the other hand, if they had succeeded in Il our translators have given the right sense of the making even a plausible case, the effect on tbe proverse, there was but one bearing before Caiaphas; and gress of the Gospel might for a time have been inthen this 24th verse is to be read as a parenthesis, I jurious. But at the very time when His enemies were merely supplementing wbat was said in p. 13. This is saying, "God bath forsaken Him; persecute and take the view of CALVIN, BEZA, GROTIUS, BENG EL, DE Him; for there is none to deliver Him" (Psalm 71. 11), WITTE. MEYER, LUCKE, THOLUCK. But there are | He whose Witness He was and whose work He was decided objections to this view. First. We cannot doing was keeping him as the apple of His eye, and bat think that the natural sense of the whole passage, while He was making the wrath of man to praise embracing v. 13, 14 and 19-24, is that of a preliminary Him, was restraining the remainder of that wrath Doo-official hearing before "Annas first," the particu- (Psalm 76. 10). 57. And there arose certain, and bare Lars of which are accordingly recorded; and then of a false witness against him. Matthew (26. 60) is more pretransference of our Lord from Annas to Caiaphas. cise here: "At the last came two false witnesses." As Second. On the other view, it is not easy to see why no two had before agreed in anything, they felt it necesthe Evangelist should not have inserted v. 24 imme-sary to secure a duplicate testimony to something. eiately after o. 13; or rather, how he could well have but they were long of succeeding. And what was it. dobe otherwise. As it stands, it is not only quite out when at length it was brought forward? saying, 58. of its proper place, but comes in most perplexingly. We heard him say. I will destroy this temple that is made Whereas, if we take it as a simple statement of fact, | with hands, and within three days I will build another lbst after Annas had finished his interview with I made withont hands. On this charge, observe, first, Jesus. as recorded in v. 19-23, he transferred him to that eager as His enemies were to find criminal matter Caphas to be formally tried, all is clear and natural against our Lord, they had to go back to the outset of Turd, The pluperfect sense "had sent" is in the | His ministry, His first visit to Jerusalem, more than translation only: the sense of the original word being three years before this. In all that He said and did fimply sent. And thougb there are cases where the after that, though ever increasing in boldness, they Borist here used has the sense of an English pluper could öpd nothing: Next, that even thea, they fix only fert this sense is not to be put upon it unless it be on one speech, of two or three words, which they dared obvious and indisputable. Here that is so far from | to adduce against Him: Further, they most manifestly being the case, that the pluperfect 'bad sent' is rather pervert the speech of our Lord. We say not this bean unwarrantable interpretation tban a simple trang cause in Mark's form of it, it differs from the report lation of tbe word; informing the reader that, according of the words given by the Fourth Evangelist (John, to the over of our translators, our Lord "had been" 2. 18-22)--the only one of the Evangelists who reports it sent to Crisphas before the interview just recorded by all, or mentions even any visit paid by our Lord to the Evangelist; whereas, if we translate the verse Jerusalem before his last-but because the one report Hiterally-Aapas sent Him bound unto Caiapbas the bears truth, and the other falsehood, on its face. buah prest-we get just the information we expect, When our Lord said on that occasion, "Destroy this tbas Anpas, having merely precognosced the prisoner, temple, and in three days I will raise it up" they boping to draw something out of Him, "sent Him to | might, for a moment, have understood Him to refer to Cuaphas to be formally tried before the proper tri tbe temple out of whose courts He bad swept the banal This is the view of CARYSOSTOM and AUGUS- buyers and sellers. But after they had expressed their TLS among the Fathers; and of the moderns, of astonishment at His words, in that sense of them, and OLHA OSEN. SCHLEIERMACHER, NEANDER, EBRARD. reasoned upon the time it had taken to rear the temWIE ELEP, LANGE, LUTHARDT. This brings us back ple as it then stood, since no answer to this appears to do tbe text of our second Gospel, and in it to

have been given by our Lord, it is hardly conceivable The Judicial Trial and Condemnation of the Lord that they should continue in the persuasion that this denu by the Sanhedrim (v. 55-64). But let the reader was really His meaning. But finally, even if the more Observe, that though this is introduced by the Evan ignorant among them bad done so, it is next to certain geist before any of the denials of Peter are recorded, that the ecclesiastics, who were the prosecutors in this we have given reasons for concluding that probably case, did not believe that this was His meaning. For in the first two denials took place while our Lord was less than three days after this they went to Pilate, say. with Annas, and the last only during the trial before ing, “Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while the Stahedrin. 55. And the chief priests and all the he was yet alive, after three days I will rise again" councul sazbt for witness against Jesus to put him to (Matthew, 27. 63). Now what utterance of Christ deuth: Matthew (26. 59) says they "sought false witness." known to bis enemies, coud this refer to, if not to this Duey knew they could find nothing valid; but having | very saying about destroying and rearing up the temtheir Prisoner to bring before Pilate, they beboved to I ple? And if so, it puts it beyond a doubt that by this sake a cause. and found none-none that would suit | time, at least, they were perfectly aware that our their purpose, or make a decent ground of charge be Lord's words referred to His death by their hands and Lore Klate. 56. For many bear false witness against His resurrection by His own. But this is confirwed by

. Prom their debasing themselves to "seek" them, the next verse. 59. But neither so did their witness agree we are led to opfer that they were bribed to bear false together-i.e., not even as to so brief a speech, consistwitpery: though there are never wanting sycophants ing of but a few words, was there such a concurrence enough, ready to sell themselves for nought, if they in their mode of reporting it as to make out a decent may bat get a smile from those above them: see a case. In such a charge everything depended on the very

nilar scene in Acts, 6. 11-14. How is one reminded terms alleged to have been used. For every one must

Jesus is Interrogated

MARK, XIV.

by the High Priest. see that a very slight turn, either way, given to such though noble, was not of such primary importancewords, would make them either something like indict- but to that sublime confession which, under Pilate's able matter, or else a ridiculous ground for a criminal administration, He witnessed before the only comcharge-would either give them & colourable pretext petent tribunal on such occasions, the Supreme Ecclefor the charge of impiety wbich they were bent on siastical Council of God's chosen nation that He was making out, or else make the whole saying appear, on THE MESSIAH, and THE SON OF THE BLESSED OXE: in the worst view that could be taken of it, as merely some the former word owning His Supreme Official, in the mystical or empty boast. 60. Answerest thou nothing latter His Supreme Personal Dignity. 63. Then the what is it which these witness against thee? Clearly, high priest rent his clothes. On this expression of they felt that their case had failed, and by this artful horror at blasphemy, see Kings, 18. 37. and saith, question the high priest hoped to get from his own What need we any furtber wituesses! 64. Ye have heard mouth what they had in vain tried to obtain from their the blasphemy. (See John, 10. 35.) In Lake (22. 71). false and contradictory witnesses. But in this, too "For we ourselves have heard of his own mouth-an they failed. 61. But be held his peace, and answered affectation of religious horror, what think ye? "Say nothing. This must have non plussed them. But they what the verdict is to be.' And they all condemned him were not to be easily baulked of their object. Again to be guilty of death-or of a capital crime, which blasthe high priest-arose (Matthew, 26. 62), matters having phemy against God was according to the Jewish law now come to a crisis, and asked him, and said unto him, I (Leviticus, 24. 16). Yet not absolutely all: for Joseph Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed! Why our of Arimathea, “a good man and a just," was one of Lord should have answered this question, when He that Council, and he was not a consenting party to Was silent as to the former, we might not have quite the counsel and deed of them,' for that is the strict seen, but for Matthew, who says (26. 63) that the bigh sense of the words of Luke, 23. 60, 51. Probably he priest put Him upon solemn oath, saying, "I adjure absented himself, and Nicodemus also, from this meetthee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou ing of the Council, the temper of which they would be the Christ, the Son of God." Such an adjuration know too well to expect their voice to be listened to: was understood to render an answer legally necessary and in that case, the words of our Evangelist are to be (Leviticus, 5. 1). 62. And Jesus said, I am-or, as in taken strictly, that, without one dissentient voice, Matthew, 26, 64, “Thou hast said fit." In Luke, "all (present) condemned Him to be guilty of death." bowever (22. 70), the answer. "Ye say that I am,"| The Blessed One is now Shamefully Entreated (. 65. should be rendered-as DE WETTE. MEYER, ELLI- Every word here must be carefully observed, and the COTT, and the best critics agree that the preposition several accounts put together, that we may lose Done requires_'Yo say fit), for I am (sol.' Some words, of the awful indignities about to be described. 65. however, were spoken by our Lord before giving His And some began to spit on him-or, as in Matthew, 26. 67. answer to this solemn question. These are recorded "to spit in (or 'into'j His face." Luke (22. 63) says in by Luke alone (22. 67, 68): "Art thou the Christ (they | addition, "And the men that held Jesus mocked him" asked) I tell us. And He said unto them. If I tell you, -or cast their jeers at Him. and to cover his face or ye will not believe : and if I also ask-or interro- 'to blindfold him (as in Luke, 22. 61), and to buffet gate' "you, ye will not answer me, por let me go." him. Luke's word, which is rendered "smote linn" This seems to bave been uttered before giving His (22. 63), is a stronger one, conveying an idea for which direct answer, as a calm remonstrance and dignified we have an exact equivalent in English, but one too protest against the prejudgment of His case and the colloquial to be inserted here. and [began) to say unto unfairness of their mode of procedure. But now let him, Prophesy. In Matthew, 26. 68 this is given more us hear the rest of the answer, in which the conscious fully: "Prophesy unto us, thou Christ, Who is be that majesty of Jesus breaks forth from behind the dark smote thee The sarcastic fling at Him as "the cloud which overhung Him as He stood before the Christ," and the demand of Him in this character to Council: and (in that character) ye shall see the Son of Dame the unseen perpetrator of the blows inflicted man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in on Him, was in them as infamous as to Him it must the clouds of heaven. In Matthew (26. 64) a slightly have been, and was intended to be, stinging, and the different but interesting turn is given to it by one servants did strike him with the palms of their handsword: “Thou hast said (it): nevertheless-We prefer or "struck Him on the face" (Luke, 29. 61). Ah! Well this sense of the word to besides,' which some recent did He say prophetically, in that Messianic prediction critics decide for-"I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye which we have often referred to, "I gave my back to see the Son of man sit on the right hand of power, and the smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off coming in the clouds of heaven." The word rendered the hair: I hid not my face from shame and spitting!" "hereafter" means, not at some future time' (as now (Isaiah, 50.6). "And many other things blasphemously "hereafter* commonly does), but what the English wordspake they against Him" (Luke, 22. 65). This general originally signified, after here,'' after now,' or 'from statement is important, as showing that virulent and this time. Accordingly, in Luke, 22. 60, the words varied as were the recorded affronts put upon Him, used mean 'from now,' So that though the reference they are but a small specimen of what He endured on we have given it to the day of His glorious Second that dark occasion. Appearing is too obvious to admit of doubt, He would, Peter's FIRST DENIAL of his Lord (v. 66-68). 66. by using the expression. From this time,' convey the And as Peter was beneath in the palace. This little word important thought which He had before expressed. "beneath"-one of our Evangelist's graphic touches immediately after the traitor left the Supper-table to -is most important for the right understanding of do his dark work, "Now is the Son of Man glorified what we may call the topography of the scene. We (John, 13. 31). At this moment, and by this speech, I must take it in connection with Matthew's word 25 did He "witness the good confession" emphatically 60). "Now Peter sat without in the palace"- or and properly, as the apostle says, 1 Timothy, 6. 13. Our quadrangular court, in the centre of which the fire translators render the words there, “Who before would be burning: and crowding around and buzzing Pontius Pilate witnessed;" referring it to the admis about it would be the menials and others who bsd sion of His being & King, in the presence of Cesar's been admitted within the court. At the upper end own chief representative. But it should be rendered, of this court. probably, would be the memorable as LUTHER renders it, and as the best interpreters chamber in which the trial was held-open to the now understand it, who under Pontius Pilate wit-court, likely, and not far from the fire (as we gather nessed,' &c. In this view of it, the apostle is referring from Luke, 22. 61), but on a higher level: for (as our not to what our Lord confessed before Hate-which, verse says) the court, with Peter in it. was "benestb

Peter's Denial
MARK, XIV.

of his Lord. t. The ascent to the Council-chamber was perbaps had not been observed; but hoping. probably, to 178 sbort flight of steps. If the reader will bear this put them off the scent by joining in the fireside-taik, xplanation in mind, he will find the intensely in-he only thus discovered himself. The Fourth Goseresting details which follow more intelligible. therepel is particularly interesting here : "One of the ebeth one of the maids of the high priest-"the damsel servants of the high priest, being his kinsman (or hat kept the door" (John, 18. 17). The Jews seem to kinsman to him whose ear Peter cut off, saith. sve employed women as porters of their doors (Acts, Did not I see thee in the garden with Him?” 2 13). 67. And when she saw Peter warming himself, (John, 18. 26.) No doubt his relationship to Malbe looked upon him. Luke (22. 56) is here more graphic; chus drew his attention to the man who had smitBat a certain maid beheld him as he sat by the fire" ten him, and this enabled him to identify Peter.

ut by the liont.' which, shining full upon him, re "Sad reprisals !' exclaims BENGEL. Poor Peter! caled him to the girl" and earnestly looked upon Thou art caught in thine own toils; but like a wild imor. 'fixed her gaze upon him.' His demeanour bull in a net, thou wilt toss and rage, filling up the od timidity, which must have attracted notice, as measure of thy terrible declension by one more de

perally happens, 'leading.' says OLAHAUSEN, 'to nial of thy Lord, and that the foulest of all. 71. But be recognition of him,' and said, And thou also wast he began to curse-'to anathematise,' or wish himself rich Jeets of Nazzreth-with Jesus the Nazarene,'or, accursed if what he was now to say was not true, and with Jesus of Galilee" (Matthew, 26. 60). The sense to swear-or to take & solemn oath, saying. I know t this is given in John's report of it (18. 17), "Art not not this man of whom ye speak. 72. And THE SECOND bon also one of this man's disciples!” i.e., thou as TIME THE COCK CREW. The other three Evange

all as **that other disciple," whom she knew to be lists, who mention but one crowing of the cock-and be, but did not challenge, perceiving that he was a that not the first, but the second and last one of Mark civilerred person In Luke (22. 56) it is given as a -all say the cock crew "immediately," but Luke mark made by the maid to one of the bystanders says, “Immediately, while he yet spake, the cock tiria man was also with Him." If so expressed in crew" (22. 60), Alas! But now comes the wonderful heter's hearing-drawing upon him the eyes of every sequel. De that heard it (as we know it did, Matthew, 26. 70). The Redeemer's Look upon Peter, and Peter's Bitter nd ooropelling him to answer to it that would ex-Tears (v. 72; Luke, 22. 61, 62). It has been observed Iain the different forms of the report naturally that while the beloved disciple is the only one of Borgh. But in such a case this is of no real import the four Evangelists who does not record the repentDoe 68. But be denied-“ before all" (Matthew. 26. ance of Peter, he is the only one of the four who reW saying. I know not, neither understand I what thou l cords the affecting and most beautiful scene of his

Testin Lake, “I know Him not." And he went complete restoration. (John, 21. 16-17.) Luke. 22. 61: ut into tbe porch-the vestibule leading to the street "And the Lord turned and looked upon Peter." po doubt finding the tire-place too hot for him; possi- | How it will be asked. We answer, From the cham

y also with the hope of escaping-but that was not ber in which the trial was going on, in the direction obe, and perhaps he dreaded that too. Doubtless, of the court where Peter then stood-in the way

this time his mind would be getting into a sea of already explained. See on v. 66. Our Second Evanomotion, and would fluctuate every moment in its gelist makes no mention of this look, but dwells on esolves. AND THE COCK CREW. See on Luke, 22. the warning of his Lord about the double crowing of This, then, was the First Denial.

the cock, which would announce his triple fall, as Peter's SECOND DENIAL of his Lord (v. 69. 70). There what rushed stingingly to his recollection and made

bere a verbal difference among the Evangelists, | him dissolve in tears. And Peter called to mind the which, without some information which has been word that Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, withheld. cannot be quite extricated. 69. And a maid thou shalt deny me thrice. And when he thought thereon, I'm hind said-Or, 'a girl.' It might be rendered 'the he wept. To the same effect is the statement of the

1 but this would not necessarily mean the same First Evangelist (Matthew, 26. 76), save that like "the De as before, but might, and probably does, mean beloved physician," he notices the "bitterness" of the sust the female who had charge of the door or gateweeping. The most precions link, however, in the ta which Peter now was. Accordingly, in Matthew, whole chain of circumstances in this scene is beyond

Lahe is expressly called "another (maid)." But I doubt that "look" of deepest, tenderest import s Lake it is a male servant: "And after a little while I reported by Luke alone. Who can tell what lightning #70m the time of the first denial) another"-1.e., as flashes of wounded love and piercing reproach shot bewond stenifies, another male' servant. But there from that "look" through the eye of Peter into his

so real difficulty, as the challenge, probably, after heart! "And Peter remembered the word of the being made by one was reiterated by another. Lord, how He had said unto him, Before the cock Acordindy. in John, it is. "They said therefore unto crow, thou shalt deny Me thrice. And Peter went bin. te. as if more than one challenged him at l out and wept bitterly." How different from the Do and began to say to them that stood by, This is one sequel of Judas's act! Doubtless the hearts of the

te , as in Matthew, 26. 71–"This (fellowl was two men towards the Saviour were perfectly different also with Jesus the Nazarene." 70. And he denied it from the first; and the treason of Judas was but the

zata In Lake, “Man, I am not." But worst of all consummation of the wretched man's resistance of in Matthew-"And again he denied with an oath, I the blaze of light in the midst of which he had lived do not know the man" (20. 72). This was the Second for three years, while Peter's denial was but a moDental more vehement, alas ! than the first.

mentary obscuration of the heavenly light and love Peter THIRD DEXIAL of his Lord (o. 70-72). 70. to his Master which ruled his life. But the immekod a little after" about the space of one hour after" diate cause of the blessed revulsion which made Peter Lake. 22 601, they that stood by said again to Peter. I ** weer bitterly” was, beyond all doubt, this heartiarely thou art one of them: for thou art a Galilean, and piercing "look" which his Lord gave him. And reng speech a Teeth thereto-"bewrayeth (or 'discover membering the Saviour's own words at the table, th) thee” Matthew, 28. 73). In Luke it is "Another ! "Simon, Simon, Satan hath desired to bave you, that pa idently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow he may sift you as wheat; Inct I prayed for thee, that Lowas with hiru: for he is a Galilean." The Gall thy faith fail not," may we not say that this prayer esa dialect had a more Syrian cast than that of fetched down all that there was in that "look" to pierce ludea 1 Peter had held his peace, this peculiarity 1 and break the heart of Peter, to keep it from despair. An Angel Declareth the

MARK, XV. XVI.

Resurrection of Christ. to work in it "repentance unto salvation not to be Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified-'the Nazarene, repented of." and at length, under other healing the Crucified.' he is risen: he is not here. See on Lake, touches, to "restore his soul?" (See on Mark, 24. 6, 6. behold the place where they laid him. See on 16. 7.)

Matthew, 28. 6. 7. But go your way, tell his disciples CHAPTER XV.

and Peter. This Second Gospel, being drawn up-as Ver. 1-20. JESUS IS BROUGHT BEFORE PILATE-At all the earliest tradition states-under the eye of Peter. A SECOND HEARING PILATE AFTER SEEKING TO or from materials chiefly furnished by him. there is RELEASE HIM, DELIVERS HIM UP-AFTER BEING

something deeply affecting in the preservation of this CRUELLY EXTREATED, HE IS LED AWAY TO BE

little clause by Mark alone. that he goeth before you CRUCIFIED. Matthew, 26. 1, 2, 11-31; Luke, 23. 1-6,

into Galilee; there sball ye see him, as he said unto you, 13-25; John. 18. 28-19. 16.) See on John, 18. 28-19. 16.

See on Matthew, 28. 7. 8. And they went out quick'y. 21-37. CRICIFIXION AND DEATH OF THE LORD and ned from the sepuicure, or they trembiea and JESUS. =Matthew, 27. 32-50; Luke, 23. 26-46; John,

amazed for tremor and amazement seized them.' 19, 17-30.) See on John, 19. 17-30.

neither said they any thing to any man; for they were 38-47. SIGNS AND CIRCUMSTANCES FOLLOWING

I afraid. How intensely natural and simple is this ! THE DEATH OF THE LORD JESUS.-HE 18 TAKEN Appearances of Jesus After His Resurrection (v.9-18). DowX FROM THE CROSS AND BURIED-THE SEPUL

9. Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the CHRE IS GUARDED. (=Matthew, 27. 61-66; Luke, 23

week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom 45, 47-56; John 19. 31-42.) See on Matthew, 27. 51-56;

be bad cast seven devils. There is some difficulty here, and on John, 19. 31-42.

and different ways of removing it have been adopted.

She had gone with the other women to the sepulchre CHAPTER XVI.

(0.1), parting from them, perhaps, before their interVer. 1 - 20. ANGELIC ANNOUNCEMENT TO THE view with the angel, and on finding Peter and John WOMEN ON THE FIRST DAY OF THE WEEK, THAT she had come with them back to the spot; and it was CHRIST IS RISEN - HIS APPEARANCES AFTER His at this second visit, it would seemn, that Jesus appeared RESURRECTION-A18 ASCENSION-TRIUMPHANT PRO- to this Mary, as detailed in John, 20. 11-18. To a woman CLAMATION OF HIS GOSPEL. (=Matthew, 28. 1-10, was this honour given to be the first that saw the rusen 16-20; Luke, 24. 1-61; John, 20. 1, 2, 11-29.!

Redeemer; and that woman was NOT his virginThe Resurrection Announced to the Women (v. 1-8). mother. 11. And they, when they had heard that he was 1. And when the sabbath was past-that is, at sunset of alive, and had been seen of her, believed not. This, which our Saturday, Mary Magdalene-see on Luke, 8.2, and is once and again repeated of them all, is most importMary the mother of James--James the Less see on ch. ant in its bearing on their subsequent testimony to His 16. 40), and Salome-the mother of Zebedee's sons (cf, resurrection at the risk of life itself. 12. After that he ch, 16. 40 with Matthew, 27. 66), had bought sweet spices, appeared in anotber form (cf. Luke, 24. 16) unto two of tbat they might come and anoint him. The word is sim them, as they walked, and went into the country. The ply bought. But our translators are perbaps right reference here, of course, is to His manifestation to the in rendering it here 'had bought,' since it would ap- two disciples going to Emmaus, so exquisitely told by pear, from Luke, 23. 56, that they had purchased them the third Evangelist (see on Luke, 24, 13, &c.). 12. Axd immediately after the Crucifixion, on the Friday even they went and told it unto the residue: neither believed ing, during the short interval that remained to them they them...15. And he said unto them, Go ye into all the before sunset, when the Sabbath rest began; and that world, and preach the Gospel to every creature. See on they had only deferred using them to anoint the body John, 20. 19-23; and on Luke, 24. 36-49. 16. He that betill the Sabbath rest should be over. On this "anoint-lieveth and is baptized. Baptism is here put for the ing." see on John, 19. 10. 2. And very early in the external signature of the inner faith of the heart, just morning-see on Matthew, 28. 1, the first day of the week. as "confessing with the mouth" is in Romans, 10. 10; they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun-not and there also as here this outward manifestation, quite literally, but at earliest dawn;' according to a once mentioned as the proper fruit of faith, is not reway of speaking not uncommon, and occurring some-peated in what follows (Romans, 10.11). sball be saved; times in the Old Testament. Thus our Lord rose on but he that believeth not shall be damned. These awful the third day: having lain in the grave part of Friday, issues of the reception or rejection of the Gospel, the whole of Saturday, and part of the following First though often recorded in other connections, are given day. 3. And they said amoug themselves as they were in this connection only by Mark. 17. And these signs approaching the sacred spot, Who shall roll us away the shall follow them that believe... 18. They shall take up stone from the door of the sepulchrel...for it was very great. serpents, &c. These two verses also are peculiar to On reaching it they find their difficulty gone-the stone Mark. already rolled away by an unseen hand. And are The Ascension and Triumphant Proclamation of the there no others who, when advancing to duty in the Gospel thereafter (v. 19-20). 19. So thed, after the Lordfuce of appalling difficulties, find their stone also rolled an epithet applied to Jesus by this Evangelist only in away! 6. Aud entering into the sepulchre, they saw a the two concluding verses, when He comes to His xloyoung man. In Matthew, 28. 2, he is called "the angel rious Ascension and its subsequent fruits. It is most of the Lord;" but here he is described as he appeared frequent in Luke. had spoken unto them, he was reto the eye, in the bloom of a life that knows no decay. ceived up into heaven. See on Luke, 24. 50. 51. and sat la Matthew he is represented as sitting on the stone on the right hand of God. This great truth is here only outside the sepulchre; but siace even there he says, related as a fact in the Gospel History. In that exalted "Come, see the place where the Lord lay" (28.6), he attitude He appeared to Stephen (Acts, 7. 66, 56); and seems, as ALFORD says, to have gone in with them it is thereafter perpetually referred to as His proper from without; only awaiting their arrival to accompany condition in glory. 20. And they went forth, and preacoed them into the hallowed spot, and instruct them about every where, the Lord working with them, and coufirining it. Sitting on the right side - having respect to the the word with signs following. Amen. We have in this position in which His Lord had lain there. This trait closing verse a most important link of connection with is peculiar to Mark; but cf. Luke, 1. 11. clothed in a the Acts of the Apostles, where He who directed all long white garment. On its length, see Isaiah, 6.1; and the movements of the infant Church is perpetually on its whiteness, see on Matthew, 28. 3. and they were styled "TRE LORD;" thus illustrating His own proall izhted. 6. And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted-mise for the founding and building up of the Church a stronger word than * Fear not" in Matthew. Yeseek "Lo, I AM WITO You alway!

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO

S, LUKE.

CHAPTER I.

burn incense - The part assigned to each priest in his Ver. 1-4. It appears from the Acts of the Apostles week of service was decided by lot. Three were emand the Apostolic Epistles, that the earliest preaching ployed at the offering of incense-to remove the ashes of the gospel consisted of a brief summary of the facts of the former service; to bring in and place on the goldof our Lord's earthly history, with a few words of en altar the pan filled with hot burning coals taken pointed application to the parties addressed. Of these from the altar of burnt-offering; and to sprinkle the astonishing facts, notes would naturally be taken and incense on the hot coals; and, while the smoke of it digests put into circulation. It is to such that Luke ascended, to make intercession for the people. This bere refers; and in terms of studied respect, as narra I was the most distinguished part of the service (Revetres of what was "believed surely." or "on sure lation, 8. 3), and this was what fell to the lot of Zachacroonds among Christians, and drawn up from the rias at this time. (LIGHTFOOT.) 10. praying without testimony of "eye-witnesses and ministering servants -outside the court in front of the temple, wbere stood of the word." But when he adds that "it seemed the altar of burnt-offering; the men and women in sepa

od to him also to write in order, having traced down | rate courts, but the altar visible to all the time of sul things with exactness from their first rise," it is & incense-which was offered along with the morning and mrtasl claim for his own gospel to supersede these | evening sacrifice of every day; & beautiful symbol of

many" parratives. Accordingly, while not one of the acceptableness of the sacrifice offered on the altar them bas survived the wreck of time, this and the of burnt-offering, with coals from whose altar the in. ot ber canonical uspels live, and shall live, the only cense was burnt (Leviticus, 16. 12, 13). This again was

the vehicles of those life-bringing facts which have a symbol of the living sacrifice" of themselves and made all things new. Apocryphal or spurious gospels, their services offered daily to God by the worshippers. gebeld by parties unfriendly to the truths exhibited Hence the language of Psalm 141. 2: Revelation, 8. 3. to the canonical gospels, have not perished; but those But that the acceptance of this daily offering depended well-meant and substantially correct narratives here on the expiatory virtue pre-supposed in the burnt-ofreferred to, used only while better were not to be bad, fering, and pointing to the one "sacrifice of a sweetwere by tacit consent allowed to merge in the four smelling savour" (Ephesians, 5. 2, is evident from Leerless documents which from age to age, and with Isaiah, 6. 6. 7. 11. right side-the south side, between asta nishing unanimity, have been accepted as the the altar and the candlestick, Zacharias being on the ritten Charter of all Christianity. 1 to set forth in north side, in front of the allar, while offering incense.

op-more simply. 'to draw up a narrative.' from (WEBSTER & WILKINSON ) But why there! The right the beginning--that is, of His public ministry, as is was the favourable side, Matthew, 26. 33 (SCUOTTGEN

ats from what follows from the very first-that is, & WETSTEIN ID MEYER), cf. Mark, 16 5. 13. thy prayer from the very earliest events; referring to those pre- is heard-doubtless for offspring, which by some precon details of the birth and early life, not oniy of our sentiment he even yet had not despaired of. John-the Lord but of his forerunner, which we owe to Luke same as "Johanan," so frequent in the Old Testament, sebe in order- or "consecutively"-in contrast, pro- meaning • Jehovah's gracious gift.' 14. shall rejoicebably, with the disjointed productions to which he so they did (v. 68. 66); but the meaning rather is, 'shall Led referred. But this must not be pressed too far; have cause to rejoice-it would prove to many & joy. tot, o comparing it with the other gospels, we see fui event. 15. great in the sight of the Lord-nearer to Lut in some particulars the strict curonological order | Him in official standing than all the prophets. See on is not observed in this gospel. most +Xcellent - or Matthew, 11. 10. 11. drink neither wine, &c.i.e., shail most poble-& title of rank applied by this same be a Nazarite, or a separated one,' Numbers, 6.2, &c. riter twice to Felix and once to Festus (Acts, 23, 26: | As the leper was the living symbol of sin, so was the

5. It is likely, therefore, that "Theophilus' | Nazarite of holiness: nothing inflaming was to cross was chief magistrate of some city in Greece or Asia bis lips; no razor to come on his head; no ceremonial Minor. [WEBSTER & WILKINSOX.) that thou might- defilement to be contracted. Thus was he to be "holy * *-* koow thoroughly. hast been instructed to the Lord (ceremonially, all the days of his separaorally instructed'lit.. "cxtechized' or 'catecheti tion." Tois separation was in ordinary cases tem. cally taught. at first as a catechumea or candidate for porary and voluntary : only Samson (Judges, 13. 7), Christian Baptism.

Samuel (1 Samuel, 1. 11), and John Baptist, were Nazı. 6. ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE FORERUNNER. 5. rites from the womb. It was fitting that the utmost leredee on Matthew, 2. 1. course of Avia-or Abi- severity of legal consecration should be seen in Christ's

the eighth of the twenty-four orders or courses forerunner. He was the REALITY and PERFECTION into which David divided the priests. See 1 Chro-l of the Nazarite without the symbol, which perished in mscies, 24 1. 4. 10. Of these courses only four returned that living realization of it :-"Such an High Priest after the captivity Ezra, 2. 36-39), which were again became us, who was SEPARATE FROM SINNERS" (Hesabdivided into twenty-four - retaining the ancient brews, 7, 26). filled with the Holy Ghost from...wombDie and order of each. They took the whole temple-l a holy vessel for future service. 16. 17. A religious Brvice for a week each. his wife wag of the danghters I and moral reformer, Enjab-like, he should be (Malachi. & Aarez-Tbe priests might marry into any tribe, but 4. 6, where the "turping of the people's heart to the *it was most commendable of all to marry one of the Lord” is borrowed from i Kings, 18. 37). In both akses priest's line. (LIGHTFOOT.) 6. commandments and or their success, though great, was partial the na eizas. The one expressing their moral-lhe other was not gained before him-before the Lord their ther ceremonial-obedience. (CALVIN & BENGEL) | God," 0. 16. By comparing this with Malachi, 3. 1, und CL. Ezekiel, u. 20; Hebrews. 9. 1. It has been denied | Isaiah, 40. 3, it is plainly "Jehovah" in the flesh of i at any such distinction was known to the Jews and Messiah (CALVIN & OLSHAUSEN] before wbou John Xew Testament writers. But Mark, 12. 33, and other was to go as a herald to announce his approach, and a pusages, put this beyond all reasonable doubt. 7. So pioneer to prepare his way. in the spirit-after the with Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Elka model and power of Elias-not his miraculous power, and and haubah, Madoah and his wife. 9. uus lot to l for "John did no miracie" (John, 10, 11), but luus power

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