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as God. This

also of the Green

13. Quotation

et conquerors put 94 25). 14. miu

Christ's Unction above all.

HEBREWS, II.

Chrisť: Unction above all. whereas the Son is the Creator (0. 10): not begotten | (so the Greek) all changes. as...a garment-(Isaiah, from everlasting, nor to be worshipped, as the Son 51.6.) 12. vesture--Greek, “ an enwrapping cloak." fold (Revelation, 14. 7; 22. 8, 9). 8. O God-The Greek has them up-So the LXX., Psalm 102. 26; but the Hebrew. the article to mark emphasis (Psalm 46. 6, 7). for ever "change them." The Spirit, by Paul, treats the He...righteousness-Everlasting duration and righteous brew of the Old Testament, with independence of handnesz go together (Psalm 45. 2; 89, 11). a sceptre of rigt- ling, presenting the Divine truth in various aspects; eousness - lit.. "a rod of rectitude," or "straight- sometimes as here sanctioning the LXX. (cf. Isaiah, forwardness." The oldest MSS. prefix "and" (cf. 34, 4; Revelation, 6. 14); sometimes the Hebrew: someEsther, 4, 11). 9. iniquity-"unrighteousness." Some times varying from both. cbanged-as one lays aside & oldest MSS. read, "Lawlessness." therefore--because garment to put on another. thon art the same-(Isaiah, God loves righteousness and hates iniquity. God... | 46. 4: Malachi, 3. 6.) The same in nature, therefore in thy God-JEROME, AUGUSTINE, &c., translate, Psalm covenant faithfulness to thy people. shall not fail45, 7, "O God, thy God, hath anointed thee," whereby Hebrew, "shall not end." Israel, in the Babylonian Christ is addressed as God. This is probably the true captivity, in Psalm 102,, casts her hopes of deliveranco translation of the Hebrew there, and also of the Greek on Messiah, the unchanging covenant-God of Israel. of Hebrews here : for it is likely the Son is addressed 13. Quotation from Psalm 110.1. The image is taken "O God." as in v. 8. The anointing here meant is not from the custom of conquerors putting the feet on the that at His baptism, when He solemnly entered on His necks of the conquered (Joshua, 10. 24, 25). 14. miniministry for us; but that with the "oil of gladness," or stering spirits-Referring to v. 7, "spirits... ministers." "exulting joy" (which denotes a triumph, and follows They are incorporeal spirits, as God is, but ministering as the consequence of His manifested love of righteous. I to Him as inferiors, sent forth-present participle: ness and hatred of iniquity), wherewith, after His tri- / * Being sent forth" continually, as their regular service umphant completion of His work. He has been anointed in all ages. to minister-Greek, “unto li.c., for) miniby the Father above His fellows (not only above us, His stry." for them--Greek, "on account of them," &c. fellowmen, the adopted members of God's family. | Angels are sent forth on ministrations to God and whom He is not ashamed to call His brethren," but Christ, not primarily to men, though for the good of above the angels, fellow-partakers in part with Him, "those who are about to inherit salvation" (so the though infinitely His inferiors, in the glories, holiness, Greele) : the elect, who believe, or shall believe, for and joys of heaven; "sons of God," and angel-“mes-whom all things, angels included, work together for sengers," though subordinate to the Divine Angel-good (Romans, 8. 28). Angels' ministrations are not "Blessenger of the covenant"). Thus He is antitype to properly rendered to men, since the latter have no Solomon, "chosen of all David's many sons to sit upon power of commanding them, though their ministrations the throne of the kingdom of the Lord over Israel." | to God are often directed to the good of men. So the even as his father David was chosen before all the house superiority of the Son of God to angels is shown. They of his father's sons. The image is drawn from the "all," however various their ranks, minister: He is custom of anointing guests at feasts (Psalm 23. 5); or ministered to. They " stand” (Luke, 1. 19) before God, rather of anointing kings: not until His ascension did or are "sent forth" to execute the divine commands He assume the lcirugdom as Son of man. A fuller ac- on behalf of them whom He pleases to save; He “ sits complishment is yet to be, wben He shall be VISIBLY on the right band of the majesty on high" (v. 3, 13). the anointed King over the whole earth (set by the He rules: they serve. Father) on His holy hill of Zion, Psalm 2. 6. 8. So

CHAPTER II. David, His type, was first anointed at Bethlehem Ver. 1-18. DANGER OF NEGLECTING SO GREAT SAL (1 Samuel, 16, 13; Psalm 89. 20); and yet again at Hebron, VATION, FIRST SPOKEN BY CHRIST; TO WHOM, NOT TO first over Judah (2 Samuel, 2. 4), then over all Israel ANGELS, THE NEW DISPENSATION WAS SUBJECTED; (2 Samuel, 6. 3): not till the death of Saul did he enter THOUGU HE WAS FOR A TIME HUMBLED BELOW THE on his actual kingdom, as it was not till after Christ's ANGELS: THIS HUMILIATION TOOK PLACE BY DIVINE death that the Father set Him at His right hand far NECESSITY FOR OUR SALVATION. 1. Therefore-Beabove all principality (Ephesians, 1. 20, 21). The 45th cause Christ the Mediator of the new covenant is so Psalm in its first meaning was addressed to Solomon; far (ch, 1.) above all angels, the mediators of the old but the Holy Spirit inspired the writer to use language, covenant. the more earnest-Greek, "the more abunwhich in its fulness can only apply to the antitypical dantly." heard-spoken by God ch. 1. 1; and by the Solomon, the true Royal Head of the theocracy. 10. | Lord (v. 3). let them slip-lit., "flow past them" (ch. Abd-In another passage (Psalm, 102. 25-27) He says. 4. 1). 2. (Cf. v. 3.) Argument a fortiori. spoken by in the beginning-English Version, Psalm 102. 25, "of angels-The Mosaic law spoken by the ministration of old :" Hebrew,"before," "aforetime." LXX., "in the angels (Deuteronomy, 33. 2; Psalm 68. 17; Acts, 7. 53: beginning (as in Genesis, 1. 1) answers by contrast to l Galatians, 3. 19). When it is said, Exodus, 20.1."God the end implied in they shall perish," &c. The Greek spake," it is meant He spake by angels as His mouthorder here (not in the LXX) is, "Thou in the beginning, piece, or at least angels repeating in unison with His O Lord," which throws the "Lord" into emphasis. voice the words of the decalogue. Whereas the gospel * Christ is preached even in passages where many might was first spoken by the Lord alone. Was stedfasicontend that the Father was principally intended." | Greek, " was made stedfast," or "confirmed." was en(BENGEL) laid the foundation 01-"firmly founded" is forced by penalties on those violating it. transgression included in the idea of the Greek. heavens-plural: not-by doing evil; lit., overstepping its bounds: a positive merely one, but manifold, and including various orders violation of it. disobedience-by neglecting to do good: of heavenly intelligences (Ephesians, 4. 10). works of a negative violation of it. recorn pence-(Deuteronomy, thine hands--the heavens, as a woven veil or curtain '32. 36.) 3. we-who have received the message of salvaspread out. 11. They-The earth and the heavens in tion so clearly delivered to us (cf. ch. 12. 25). so great tbeir present state and form "shall perish" (ch, 12. salvation-embodied in Jesus, whose very name means 26, 27: % Peter, 3. 13). "Perish” does not mean annihila- salvation, including not only deliverance from foes and tion: just as it did not mean so in the case of "the from death, and the grant of temporal blessings (which world that, being overflowed with water, perished" the law promised to the obedient), but also grace of under Noah (2 Peter, 3. 6). The covenant of the pos- the Spirit, forgiveness of sins, and the promise of session of the earth was renewed with Noah and his heaven, glory, and eternal life (v. 10). which-"inasseed on the renovated earth. So it shall be after the 'much as it is a salvation which began," &c, spoken by periships by fire (2 Peter 3. 12. 13), remainest-through the Lord as the instrument of proclaiming it. Not as

Weighty Sanction

HEBREWS, IL

of the Gospel Word. the law. spoken by the instrumentality of angels (v. 2). / ward to the New Testament and the Jewish priestBoth law and gospel came from God; the difference bood and Old Testament ritual were in force then here referred to lay in the instrumentality by which | when Paul wrote, and continued till their forcible each respectively was promulgated (cf. 5. 6). Angels abrogation by the destruction of Jerusalem), it is "the recognise Him as "the Lord" (Matthew, 28. 6; Luke. world to come." Paul, as addressing Jews, appropriately 2. ). confirmed unto us--not by penalties, as the law | calls it so, according to their conventional way of view. was confirmed, but by spiritual gifts (0.4). by them that ing it. We, like them, still pray, "Thy kingdom come beard him-(cf. Luke, 1. 2.) Though Paul had a special for its manifestation in glory is yet future. "This and independent revelation of Christ (Galatians, 1. 16.world" is used in contrast to express the present fallen 17. 19), yet he classes himself with those Jews whom he condition of the world (Ephesians, 2. 9). Believers addresses, "unto us;" for like them in many particulars belong not to this present world-course, but by faith (ex. gr., the agony in Gethsemane, ch. 6. 7), he was rise in spirit to "the world to come," making it a predependent for antoptic information on the twelve sent, though internal, reality. Still, in the present apostles. So the discourses of Jesus.ex. gr., the sermon world, natural and social, angels are mediately rulers on the mount, and the first proclamation of the gospel under God in some sense: not so in the coming world: kingdom by the Lord (Matthew, 4. 17), he could only man in it, and the Son of man, man's Hend, are to be know by the report of the twelve : so the saying, "It supreme. Hence greater reverence was paid to angels is more blessed to give, than to receive" (Acts, 20. 35). by men in the Old Testament, than is permitted in the Paul mentions what they had heard, rather than what New Testament. For man's nature is exalted in Christ they had seen, conformably with what he began with, now, so that angels are our "fellow-servants" (Revelac. 1, 2, "Spake...spoken." Appropriately also in his tion, 22. 9). In their ministrations they stand on s epistles to Gentiles, he dwells on his independent call different footing from that on which they stood towards to the apostleship of the Gentiles; in his epistle to the us in the Old Testament. We are “brethren of Hebrews, he appeals to the apostles who had been long Christ in a Dearness not enjoyed even by angels (t. 10-12, with the Lord (cf. Acts, 1. 21; 10. 41):80 in his sermon to 16). 6. But-It is not to angeis the gospel kingdom is the Jews in Antioch of Pisidia (Acte, 13. 31); and "he subject, BUT, &c. one ... testified-The usual way of only appeals to the testimony of these apostles in a quoting Scripture to readers familiar with it. Psalm general way, in order that he may bring the Hebrews S. 6-7, praises Jehovah for exalting MAN, so as to subto the Lord alone" (BENG EL), not to become partizans | ject all the works of God on earth to him : this dignity of particular apostles, as Peter, the apostle of the cir having been lost by the first Adam, is realized only in cumcision, and James, the bishop of Jerusalem. This Christ the Son of man, the Representative Man and verse implies that the Hebrews of the churches of Pales. Head of our redeemed race. Thus Paul proves that tine and Syria (or those of them dispersed in Asia it is to MAX, not to angels, that God has subjected the Minor (BENGEL), 1 Peter, l. 1, or in Alexandria) were "world to come." In e. 6-8, MAX is spoken of in general primarily addressed in this epistie; for of none so well (** him...bim...his"); then at v. 9, first JESUS is intro could it be said, the gospel was confirmed to them by duced as fulfilling, as man, all the conditions of the the immediate hearers of the Lord: the past tense, I prophecy, and through death passing Himself, and 80 * was confirmed," implies some little time had elapsed consequently bringing us men, His "brethren,' to since this testification by eye-witnesses. 4. them- "glory and honour." What-How insignificant in binrather, "God also (as well as Christ, v. 3) bearing wit- self, yet how exalted by God's grace! (cf. Psalın 144._) ness to it"...joining in attestation of it." signs and The Hebrew, Enosh and Ben-Adam, express man and wonders - performed by Christ and His apostles. Son of man in his weakness: "Son of man" is here used ** Signs" are miracles, or other facts regarded as proof of any and every child of man: unlike, seemingly, the of a divine mission; "wonders' are miracles viewed as | lord of creation, such as he was originally (Genesis, 1. prodigies, causing astonishment (Acts, 2, 22, 33); powers and 2.), and such as he is designed to be (Psalm &), and are miracles viewed as evidences of superhuman power such as he actually is by title, and shall hereafter more divers miracles-Greek, "varied (miraculous) powers" | fully be in the person of, and in union with, Jesus, pre(2 Corinthians, 12. 12) granted to the apostles after the l eminently the Son of man (v. 9), art mindful of one ascension, gifts, &c.-reck, "distributions." The absent. visitest-lookest after him, as one present. 7. wift of the Holy Spirit was given to Christ without a little-Not as BENGEL, "a little time." than the measure (John, 3. 34), but to us it is distributed in angelg-Hebrew, "than God," Elohim, i.e., the abstract various measures and operations (Romans, 12. 3, 6, &c.; qualities of God, such as angels possess in an inferior 1 Corinthians, 12. 4-11). According to his own will-God's form, viz., heavenly, spiritual, incorporeal natures. free and sovereign will, assigning one gift of the Spirit Man, in his original creation, was set next beneatb to one, another to another (Acts, 6. 32: Ephesians, 1, 5). I them. So the man Jesus, though Lord of angels, when 5. For-Confirming the assertion, v. 2, 3, that the new | He emptied Himself of the externals of His Divinity covenant was spoken by One higher than the mediators Note, Philippians, 2, 6, 7), was in His human natur of the old covenant, viz., angels. Translate in the Greek "a little lower than the angels :" though this is be order, to bring out the proper emphasis, "Not the the primary reference here, but man in general. angels hath He," &c. the world to come-Implying, He crownedst him with glory and honour-as the appointed has subjected to angels the existing world, the Old kingly vicegerent of God over this earth (Genesis, 2 Testament dispensation (then still partly existing as to and 2.). and didst set him over the works of thy hands its frame-work),v. 2, the political kingdoms of the earth Omitted in some of the oldest MSS.; but read by others (Daniel, 4. 13; 10. 13, 20, 21; 12. 1), and the natural ele- and by oldest versions : so Psalm &. 6, “Thou made ments (Revelation, 9. 11; 16. 4), and even individuals I him to have dominion over the works of thy bands (Matthew, 18. 10). "The world to come " is the new 8. (1 Corinthians, 15. 27.) For in that--16., For ID dispensation brought in by Christ, beginning in grace | that God saith in the 8th Psalm, "He put the here, to be completed in glory hereafter, It is called things (so the Greek, the all things just mentioned ** to come," or "about to be," as at the time of its being subjection under him (man), He left nothing." &c AS subjected to Christ by the Divine decree, it was as yet no limitation occurs in the sacred writing, the "W a thing of the future, and is still so to us, in respect to I things" must include heavenly, as well as earthly this

summation. In respect to the subjecting (cf. 1 Corinthians, 3. 21, 92). But now-as things to of all things to Christ in fulfilment of Psalm 8., the reali. I are, we see not yet the all things put under mar. zation is still “to come." Regarded from the Old But-We see not man as yet exercising lordship over Testament, standpoint, which looks prophetically for all things, but rather. Him who was made a LED

The Son of Man's Humiliation

HEBREWS, II. the Path to His Universal Dominion. lower than the angels (cf. Luke, 22. 43), we behold (by himself the brighter and more perfect." (CHRYSOSTOM.] faith: a different Greek verb from that for 'we see,' v. 8, Bringing to the end of troubles, and to the goal full of which expresses the impression which our eyes pas- glory: a metaphor from the contests in the public games, sirely receive from objects around us ; whereas, 'we CI. "It is finished," Luke, 24. 26; John, 19. 30. I prefer, behold,' or 'look at,'implies the direction and intention with CALVIN, understanding, "to make perfect as a of one deliberately regarding something which he tries completed sacrifice:" legal and official, not moral, perto see: so ch. 3, 10; 10. 25, Greek), viz., Jesus, on account section is meant : "to consecrate" (so the same Greek is of His suffering of death, crowned," &c. He is already translated ch. 7. 28 : cf, Margin) by the finished expiaso crowned, though unseen by us, save by faith; bere- tion of His death, as our perfect High Priest, and so after all things shall be subjected to Him visibly and our "Captain of salvation" (Luke, 13. 32). This agrees fully. The ground of His exaltation is "on account of with v. 11, "He that sanctifieth," i.e., consecrates them His having suffered death" (v. 10; Philippians, 2, 8, 9). by Himself being made a consecrated offering for them. that he by the grace of God-(Titus, 2. 11; 3. 4.) The read- So ch. 10. 14, 29; John, 17. 19: by the perfecting of His ing of ORIGEN, "That He without God" (laying aside consecration for them in His death, He perfects their His Dirinity; or, for every being save God; or perhaps consecration, and so throws open access to glory (ch. alluding to His having been temporarily "forsaken," | 10. 19-21; ch. 6. 9; 9. 9, accord with this sense). Captain as the sin-bearer, by the Father on the cross), is not of, &c.- lit., Prince-leader: as Joshua, not Moses, led supported by the MSS. The "that," &c., is connected the people into the Holy land, so will our Joshua, or with " crowned with glory," &c., thns: His exaltation Jesus, lead us into the heavenly inheritance (Acts, after sufferings is the perfecting or consummation of 13. 39). The same Greek is in ch. 12. 2, " Author of our His work (v. 10) for us: without it His death would faith." Acts, 315, "Prince of life” (5. 31). Preceding have been ineffectual; with it, and from it, flows the others by His example, as well as the originator of our result that His tasting of death is available for (in salvation. 11. he that sanctifieth-Christ who once for behalf of, for the good of) every man. He is crowned all consecrates His people to God (Jude, 1, bringing as the Head in heaven of our common humanity, pre-them nigh to Him as the consequence and everlasting senting His blood as the all-prevailing plea for us. glory, by having consecrated Himself for them in His This coronation above makes His death applicable for being made "perfect (as their expiatory sacrifice) every individual man (observe the singular: not merely through sufferings" (v. 10; ch. 10. 10, 14, 29; John, 17. * for all meno), ch. 4. 14; 9. 24; 1 John, 2. 2 "Taste 17, 19). God, in His electing love, by Christ's finished death," implies His personal experimental undergoing work, perfectly sanctifies them to God's service and to of death: death of the body, and death (spiritually) ot heaven once for all: then they are progressively sancti. the soul, in His being forsaken of the Father. “As a tied by the transforming Spirit. "Sanctification is physician first tastes his medicines to encourage his glory working in embryo; glory is sanctification come sick patient to take them, so Christ, when all men 10 the birth, and manifested." (ALFORD.) they who feared death, in order to persuade them to be bold in are sanctified-Greek, "they that are being sanctified" maeeting it, tasted it Himself, though he had no need” (cf. the use of "sanctified," 1 Corinthians, 7. 14). of CHRYSOSTOM) (v. 14, 15). 10. For-Giving a reason why one-Father, God: not in the sense wherein He is "the grace of God" required that Jesus "should taste Father of all beings, as angels; for these are excluded death." it became bim-the whole plan was (not only by the argument, v. 16; but as He is Father of His not derogatory to, but) highly becoming God, though spiritual human sons, Christ the Head and elder anbelief considers it & disgrace. (BeNGEL.) An Brother, and His believing people, the members of the answer to the Jews, and Hebrew Christians, whoso-body and family. Thus, this and the following verses ever, through impatience at the delay in the promised are meant to justify his having said, "many sons" advent of Christ's glory, were in danger of apostasy, (v. 10). "Of one" is not "of one father Adam," or stumbling at Christ crucified. The Jerusalem Chris- "Abraham."as BENGEL,&c., suppose. For the Saviour's tians especially were liable to this danger. The scheme participation in the lowness of our humanity is not of redemption was altogether such a one as harmonizes mentioned till v. 14, and then as a consequence of what with the love, justice, and wisdom of God. for whom precedes. Moreover, "Sons of God" is, in Scripture -God the Father Romans, 11. 36: 1 Corinthians, 8. 6: usage, the dignity obtained by our union with Christ: Revelation, 4.11). In Colossians, 1, 16, the same is said and our brotherhood with Him flows from God being of Christ. all things-Greek, "the universe of things," His and our FatherChrist's Sonship (by generation) * the all things." He uses for "God," the periphrasis, / in relation to God is reflected in the sonship (by adop"Him for whom...by wbom are all things." to mark | tion) of His brethren, he is not asbamed-though being the becomingness of Christ's suffering as the way to His the Son of God, since they have now by adoption obbeing "perfected" as "Captain of our salvation," seeingtained a like dignity, so that His majesty is not comthat His is the way that pleased Him whose will and promised by brotherhood with them (cf. ch. 11. 16). whose glory are the end of all things, and by whose It is a striking feature in Christianity that it unites operatim all things exist. in bringing The Greek is such amazing contrasts as "our brother and our God." past." Having brought as He did," viz., in His elect- I (THOLUCK.) "God makes of sons of men song of God, ing purpose (cf." Ye are sons," viz., in His purpose, because God hath made of the Son of God the Son of Galatians, 4, 6; Ephesians, 1. 4). & purpose which is man." (ST. AUGUSTINE on Psalm 2.) 12. (Psalm accomplished in Jesus' being "perfected through suffer- | 22. 22.) Messiah declares the name of the Father, not ings." many-(Matthew, 20. 28.) “The church" (v. 12), I known fully as Christ's Father, and therefore their **the general assembly" (ch. 12. 23). Sons--no longer | Father, till after His crucifixion (John, 20. 17), among children as under the Old Testament law, but sons by His brethren ("the church," i.e., the congregation), adoption. unto glory-to share Christ's "glory" (v. 9; 1 that they in turn may praise Him (Psalm 22, 23). At cf, v. 7; John, 17. 10, 22, 24: Romans, 8. 21). Sonship. v. 22, the 22d Psalm, which begins with Christ's cry, holiness (v. 11), and glory, are inseparably joined. " My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me," and ** Suffering." "salvation," and "glory." in Paul's writ- detais minutely His sorrows, passes from Christ's ings, often go together (2 Timothy. 2. 10). Salvation sufferings to His triumph, pretigured by the same in presupposes destruction, deliverance from which for us the experience of David, will I sing-as leader of the required Christ's "sufferings." to make ... perfect-to choir (Psalm 8. 2). 13. I will put my trust in him-From consummate: to bring to consummated glory through | the LXX., Isaiah, 8. 17, which immediately precedes sufferings, as the appointed avenue to it. "He who I the next quotation." Bebold, I and the children." &c. suffers for another, not only benefits him, but becomes | The only objection is the following words, "and again."

Unity of the Redeemer and the Redeemed. HEBREWS, IT,

Christ by Death Overcame Death. usually introduce a new quotation, whereas these two the Devourer to Him, His divinity to pierce him, apare parts of one and the same passage. However, this parent weakness to provoke, hidden power to trapstix objection is not valid, as the two clauses express dis- | the hungry ravisher. The Latin epigram says, "Mors tinct ideas : "I will put my trust in Him" expresses | mortis morti mortem nisi morte tulisset, Æterns His filial confidence in God as His Father, to whom vitae janua clausa foret. Had not death by death He flees from His sufferings, and is not disappointed: borne to death the death of Death, the gate of eternal life which His believing brethren imitate, trusting solely would have been closed. destroy-lit., "render power in the Father through Christ, and not in their own less:" deprive of all power to hurt His people. " That merits. "Christ exhibited this 'trust,' not for Him- thou mightest still the enemy and avenger" (Psalm sell, for He and the Father are one, but for His own 8. 2). The same Greek verb is used, 2 Timothy, 1. 10. people" (v.16). Each fresh aid given Him assured Him,abolished death." There is no more death for beas it does them, of aid for the future, until the complete lievers. Christ plants in them an undying seed the victory was obtained over death and hell (Philippians, germ of heavenly immortality, though believers have 1.16), (BENGEL.) Behold I and the children, &c.-(Isaiah, to pass through natural death. power - Satan is 8. 18.) "Sons (v. 10). "brethren" (v. 12), and "chil. "strong" (Matthew. 12. 29), of death-Implying that dren," imply His right and property in them from ever- | death itself is a power which, though originally foreiz lasting. He speaks of them as "children" of God, I to human bature, now reigns over it Romans, 6. 12; though not yet in being, yet considered as such in His 6. 9). The power which death bas Satan wields. The purpose, and presents them before God the Father, author of sin is the author of its consequences. C. who has given Him them, to be glorified with Him "power of the enemy" (Luke, 10.19). Satan has acquired self. Isaiah (meaning "salvation of Jehovah') typically over man (by God's law, Genesis, 2. 17; Romans, 6. 23) represented Messiah, who is at once Father and Son, | the power of death by man's sin, death being the Isaiah and Immanuel (Isaiah, 9. 6). He expresses his l executioner of sin, and man being Satan's "lawut resolve to rely, he and his children, not like Ahaz and captive." Jesus, by dying, has made the dying His the Jews on the Assyrian king, against the confederacy own (Romans, 14. 9), and has taken the prey from the of Pekah of Israel, and Rezin of Syria, but on Jehovah: mighty. Death's power was manifest: wbo wielded and then foretells the deliverance of Judah by God, that power, lurking beneath it, is here expressed, pin, in language which finds its antitypical full realization | Satan. Wisdom 9. 24, "By the envy of the devil, only in the far greater deliverance wrought by Messiab. | death entered into the world." 15. fear of death-even Christ, the antitypical Prophet, similarly, instead of before they had experienced its actual power. all the human confidences of His age, Himself, and with their lifetiune-Such a life can hardly be called bfe. Him GOD THE FATHER's children (who are therefore subject to bondage-lit.. " subjects of bondage :" Dot His children, and so antitypical to Isaiah's children, merely liable to it, but enthralled in it (cf. Romans, though here regarded as His "brethren." cf. Isaiah, 8. 16; Galatians, 6. 1). Contrast with this bondage, the 9. 6. "Father:" and "His seed," 63. 10) led by Him, trust glory of the "sons" (v. 10). "Bondage" is defined by wholly in God for salvation. The official words and | Aristotle, "The living not as one chooses:" "lib acts of all the prophets find their antitype in the Great 1 "the living as one chooses." Christ, by delivering us Prophet (Revelation, 19. 10), just as His kingly office is from the curse of God against our sin, has taken antitypical to that of the theocratic kings; and His from death all that made it formidable. Desih, priestly office to the types and rites of the Aaronic viewed apart from Christ, can only in with borror, priesthood. 14. He who has thus been shown to be the if the sinner dares to think. 16. For verily - Grech, * Captain (Greek, Leader) of salvation" to the many / "For as we all know;" " For as you will doubtless sons," by trusting and suffering like them, must there-grant." Paul probably alludes to Isaiah, 41. $; fore become man like them, in order that His death Jeremiah, 31, 32, LXX., from which all Jews would may be efficacious for them. (ALFORD.) the children | know well that the fact here stated as to Messiah, was

-before mentioned (v. 13): those existing in His eternal what the prophets had led them to expect. took not on purpose, though not in actual being. are partakers of him, &c.-rather, "It is not angels that He is helping

-lit.. " have (in His purpose) been partakers" all in the present implies duration); but it is the seed of common. flesh and blood - Greek oldest MSS. have | Abraham that He is helping.". The verb is lit., to help "blood and flesh." The inner and more important by taking one by the hand, as in ch. 8.9,"When I took element, the blood, as the more immediate vehicle of them by the hand," &c. Thus it answers to "succou. the soul, stands before the more palpable element, v. 18, and deliver," v. 15. "Not angels," who have the flesh; also, with reference to Christ's blood-shed-no flesh and blood, but "the children, who have ding, with a view to which He entered into community | "flesh and blood," He takes hold of to help by * Him with our corporeal life. "The life of the flesh is in the self taking part of the same" (v. 14). Whatever effect blood: it is the blood that maketh an atonement for Christ's work may bave on angels, He is not taking bola the soul" (Leviticus, 17. 11, 14). Likewise-Greck, “in a of them to help them by suffering in their datum somewhat similar magner: not altogether in a like deliver them from death, as in our case. seed of Ahrs manner. For He, unlike them, was conceived and bornham-He views Christ's redemption (in complimen. pot in sin (ch. 4. 16). But mainly "in like manner;" not to the Hebrews whom he is addressing, and as epong in mere semblance of a body, as the Docete heretics for his present purpose) with reference to Abraham's taught. took part of -participated in. The forfeited seed, the Jewish nation, primarily : not that be es inheritance (according to Jewish law) was ransomed cludes the Gentiles (v. 9. " for every man, who, wben by the nearest of kin: so Jesus became our nearest of believers, are the seed of Abraham spiritually kin by His assumed humanity, in order to be our v. 12; Psalm 22. 22, 25, 27), but direct reference to then, Redeemer. that through death-which He could not such as is in Romans, 4, 11, 12, 16; Galatians, 3. 7. 24 have undergone as God, but only by becoming man. | 28, 29, would be out of place in his present arguedi. Not by Almighty power, but "by His death" (so the It is the same argument for Jesus being the Christ Greek! He overcame death. "Jesus suffering death which Matthew, writing his gospel for the Hebrers overcame : Satan wielding death succumbed." uses, tracing the genealogy of Jesus from Abrah$. [BENGEL) As David cut off the head of Goliath with the father of the Jews, and the one to wbom the pas the giant's own sword wherewith the latter was wont mises were given, on which the Jews especially pridel to win his victories. Coming to redeem mankind, themselves (cf. Romans, 9. 4, 5). 17. Wherefore-Greco Christ made Himself a sort of hook to destroy the “Whence," Found in Paul's speech, Acts, 8. 19. IR deril; for in Him there was His humanity to attract all things--which are incidental to manhood, the beirs Christ a Merciful and

HEBREWS, III.

Faithful High Priest. born, nourished, growing up, suffering. Sin is not, in number), "largeness of heart even as the sand that the original constitution of man, a necessary attendant ! is on the sea shore" (1 Kings. 4. 20). "Not only as God of manhood, so He had no sin it behoved him-by He knows our trials, but also as man He knows them moral necessity, considering what the justice and love by experimental feeling." of God required of Him as Mediator (cf. ch. 6. 3), the

CHAPTER III. office which He had voluntarily undertaken in order Ver. 1-19. THE SON OF GOD GREATER THAN MOSES, to "help" man (u. 16). his brethren-(v. 11)-"the seed | WHEREFORE UNBELIEF TOWARDS HIM WILL INCUR of Abraham" (v. 16), and so also the spiritual seed, His | A HEAVIER PUNISHMENT THAN BEFELL UNBELIEVelect out of all mankind. be-rather as Greek, "that He ING ISRAEL IN THE WILDERNESS. AS Moses espemight become High Priest:" He was called so. when He cially was the prophet by whom "God in time past was "made perfect by the things which He suffered” spake to the Fathers," being the mediator of the law, (v. 10; ch. 6. 8-10). He was actually made so, when He Paul deems it necessary now to show that, great as entered within the veil, from which last flows His was Moses, the Son of God is greater. EBRARD in ever-continuing intercession as Priest for us. The ALFORD remarks, The angel of the covenant came in death, as man, must first be, in order that the bring. I the name of God before Israel: Moses in the name of ing in of the blood into the heavenly Holy Place might Israel before God; whereas the high priest came both follow, in which consisted the expiation as High in the name of God (bearing the name JEROVAD on Priest. merciful-to "the people" deserving wrath by his forehead) before Israel, and in the name of Israel ** sins." Mercy is a prime requisite in a priest, since I (bearing the names of the twelve tribes on his breast) His office is to help the wretched and raise the fallen: before God (Exodus, 28. 9-29, 36-38). Now Christ is such mercy is most likely to be found in one who has above the angels, according to chs. 1. and 2., because a fellow feeling with the afflicted, having been so once (1), as Son of God He is higher; and (2) because manHimself (ch. 4. 15) : not that the Son of God needed to hood, though originally lower than angels, is in Him be taught by suffering to be merciful, but that in order exalted above them to the lordship of "the world to to save us He needed to take our manhood with all its corne," inasmuch as He is at once Messenger of God sorrows, thereby qualifying Himself by experimental to men, and also atoning Priest-Representative of men suffering with us, to be our sympathizing High Priest, I before God (ch. 2. 17, 18). Parallel with this line of and assuring us of His entire fellow-feeling with us in argument as to His superiority to angels (ch, 1. 4) runs every sorrow, So in the main CALVIN remarks here. that which here follows as to His superiority to Moses faithful-true to God (ch. 3. 5. 6) and to man (ch. 10. 23) (ch. 3. 3): (1) Because as Son over the house, He is in the Mediatorial office wbich He has undertaken. above the serrant in the house (v. 5, 6), just as the High Priest-which Moses was not, though "faithful" | angels were shown to be but ministering (serving) (ch. 3. 2). Nowhere, except in Psalm 110., Zechariah, spirits (ch. 1. 14), whereas He is the Son (v. 7, 8); (2) be6. 13. and in this epistle, is Christ expressly called a cause the bringing of Israel into the promised rest, Priest. In this epistle alone His priesthood is pro- which was not finished by Moses, is accomplished by fessedly discussed; whence it is evident how necessary Him (ch. 4.1-11), through His being not merely a leader is this book of the New Testament. In Psalm 110., and I and lawgiver as Moses, but also a propitiatory High Zechariab, G. 13, there is added mention of the lingdom Priest (ch. 4. 14,-6. 10). 1. Therefore-Greek, “Whence," of Christ, which elsewhere is spoken of without the i.e., seeing we have such & sympathizing Helper you priesthood, and that frequently. On the cross, whereon ought to "consider attentively"... "contemplate;" fix as Priest He offered the sacrifice, He had the title your eyes and mind on Him with a view to profiting * King" inscribed over Him. (BENGEL.) to make re- by the contemplation (ch, 12. 2). The Greek word is conciliation for the sins-rather as Greek, "to propitiate often used by Luke, Paul's companion (Luke, 12, 24, 27). (in respect to) the sins:" "to expiate the sins." brethren-in Christ, the common bond of union. parStrictly Divine justice is "propitiated;" but God's love I takers-" of the Holy Ghost," heavenly calling-coming is as much from everlasting as His justice; therefore, to us from heaven, and leading us to heaven whenco lest Christ's sacrifice, or its typical forerunners, the l it comes. Philippians, 3. 14, "the high calling :” Greck legal sacrifices, should be thought to be antecedent "the calling above," i.e., heavenly. the Apostle and High to God's grace and love, neither are said in the old or Priest of our profession--There is but one Greek article New Testament to have propitiated God; otherwise I to both nouns, “ Him who is at once Apostle and High Christ's sacrifice might have been thought to have first | Priest" -Apostle, as Ambassador (a higher designation induced God to love and pity man, instead of (as the than "angel"-messenger) sept by the Father (John. fact really is) His love having originated Christ's | 20. 21), pleading the cause of God with us; High Priest, sacrifice, whereby Divine justice and Divine love are as pleading our cause with God. Both His Apostleship barmonized. The sinner is brought by that sacrifice and High Priesthood are comprehended in the one title, into God's favour, which by sin he had forfeitedMediator. (BENGEL) Though the title "Apostle" is hence his right prayer is, "God be propitiated (so the nowhere else applied to Christ, it is appropriate here Greek) to me who am a sinner" (Luke, 18. 13). Sins in addressing Hebrews, who used the term of the bring death and "the fear of death" (v. 16). He had | delegates sent by the High Priest to collect the temple no sin Himself, and "made reconciliation for the I tribute from Jews resident in foreign countries, even iniquity” of all others (Daniel, 9. 24). of the people-l as Christ was Delegate of the rather to this world far " the seed of Abrabam" (v. 16): the literal Israel first, I off from Him (Matthew, 21. 37). Hence as what applies and then in the design of God), through Israel, the to Him, applies also to His people, the twelve are believing Gentiles, the spiritual Israel (1 Peter, 2. 10). designated His apostles, even as He is the Father's 18. For- Explanation of how His being made like His (John, 20. 21). It was desirable to avoid designating brethren in all things has made Him a merciful and | Him here "angel," in order to distinguish His nature faithful High Priest for us (v. 17). in that-rather as from that of angels mentioned before, though He is Greek. "wherein He suffered Himself: having been "the Angel of the Covenant." The "legate of the tempted, He is able to succour them that are being | church" (Sheliach Tsibbur) offered up the prayers in the tempted" in the same temptation, and as "He was synagogue in the name of all, and for all. So Jesus, tempted (tried and afflicted) in all points," He is able "the Apostle of our profession," is delegated to inter(by the power of sympathy, to succour us in all possible cede for the church before the Father. The words "of temptations and trials incidental to man (ch. 4. 16;5.2). our profession," mark that it is not of the legal ritual, He is the antitypical Solomon, having for every grain but of our Christian faith, that He is the High Priest, of Abraham's seed (which were to be as the saud for Paul comp pares Him as an Apostle to Moses; as High

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