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Solemn Charge to Timoth.

2 TIMOTHY, IV.

Nearness of the Apostle's Death. New Testaments, and opposed to the pretended wousdom, able or upseasonable. "Just as the fountains, though of the false teachers (1 Timothy, 1. 7. 8). doctrine- none may draw from them, still flow on; and therivers, Greek, "teaching." i.e., teaching the ignorant dogmatic I though none drink of them, still run : so must we do truths which they cannot otherwise know. He so uses all on our part in speaking, though none give heed to the Old Testament. Romans. 1. 17. reproof"refuta-l us." (CHRYSOSTOM Homıly 30., vol. 6. D. 991.) I think tion, convicting the erring of their error. Including with CHRYSOSTOM, there is included also the idea of polemical divinity. As an example of this use of the times whetber seasonable or unseasonable to Timothy Old Testament, cf. Galatians, 3, 6, 13, 16. "Doctrine himself: not merely when convenient, but wben iucon and reproof" comprehend the speculative parts of venient to thee, night as well as day (Acts, 20. 31), in divinity. Next follow the practical: Scripture is pro- | danger as well as in safety, in prison and when doomed fitable for (1) correction (Greck, "setting one right;" to death as well as when at large, not only in church, cf. an example, i Corinthians, 10. 1.10) and instruc- / but everywhere and on all occasions, wbenever and tion (Greek, " disciplining." as a father does his child, wherever the Lord's work requires it. reprove-cottNote, ch. 2. 25; Ephesians, 6. 4; Hebrews, 12. 6. 11, vict," "confnte." with-Greek, IN (the elcment in or "training" by instruction, warning, example, kind which the exbortation ought to have place) all long. nesses, promises, and chastisements : cf. an example, suffering (ch, 2. 24, 25; 3. 10) and teaching: cf. ch. 2. S. 1 Corinthians, 6. 13). Thus the whole science of theo "apt to tuach." The Greek for "doctrine" here is logy is complete in Scripture. Since Paul is speak didache, but in ch. 3. 16, didascalia. "Didascalia" is ing of Scripture in general and in the notion of it, the what one receives; didache is what is communicated. only general reason why, in order to perfecting the [TITTMANN.] 3. they-professing Christians. sound godly (v. 17), it should extend to erery department of doctrine-Greek, "the sound (Note, 1 Timothy, 1. 10 doc revealed truth, must be that it was intended to be the trine" (didascalias) or " teaching." viz., of the gospel complete and sufficient rule in all things touching perfec- Presently follows the concrete, “teachers." after their tion. See Article VI., Common Prayer Book, in own lasts-instead of regarding the will of God they Greek, instruction which is in righteousness," as con. | dislike being interrupted in their lusts by true tea trasted with the "instruction" in worldly rudiments herp-One on another: an indiscriminate mass of false (Colossians, 2. 20. 22). 17. man of God-(Note, 1 Timothy. teachers. Variety delights itching ears, "le who de 6. 11.) perfect, throughly furnished-Gr., "thoroughly | spises sound teaching, leaves sound teachers: they seek perfected," and so " perfect. The man of God is per instructors like themselves." (BENGEL] It is the cor fectly accoutred out of Scripture for bis work, whether ruption of the people in the first instance, that creates he be a minister cf. ch. 4. 2, with ch.3. 10) or a spiritual | priestcraft (Exodus, 32. 1). to themselves-such as wil layman. No oral tradition is needed to be added. suit their depraved tastes: " populus vult decipi, et CHAPTER IV.

decipiatur," the people wish to be deceiced, so let them Ver. 1-22. SOLEMN CHARGE TO TIMOTHY TO DO Hisbe deceived. "Like priest, like people" (1 Kings, 12. 31; DUTY ZEALOUSLY, FOR TIMES OF APOSTASY ARE AT | Hosea, 4.9). itching-liking to hear teachers who give HAND, AND THE APOSTLE IS NEAR HIS TRIUMPHANT them mere pleasure (Acts, 17. 19-21), and do not offend ExD: REQUESTS HU TO COME AND BRING MARK by truths grating to their ears. They, as it were, tickle WITH HIM TO ROME, AS LUKE ALONE IS WITH HIM, THE with pleasure the levity of the multitude (Cicero), who OTHERS HAVING GONE: ALSO HIS CLOAK AND PAROH come as to a theatre to hear what will delight their MENTS: WARNS HIM AGAINST ALEXANDER: TELLS ears, not to learn [SENECA, Ep. 10. 8) what will do then WHAT BEFELL HIM AT HIS FIRST DEFENCE: GREET good. "Iich in the ears is as bad as in any other part INGS: BENEDICTION. 1. charge-Greek, "adjure." | of the body, and perhaps worse." (SOUTH.] 4. The therefore-Omitted in the oldest MSS. the Lord Jesus ear brooks not what is opposed to the man's lusts. Curist-The oldest MSS read simply, "Christ Jesus." turned-Greek, turned aside" (1 Timothy. 1.6. It is a shall judge-His commission from God is mentioned, I righteous retribution, that when men tum auay from Acts, 10. 42; his resolution to do so, 1 Peter, 4. 5; the the truth, they should be turned to fables (Jeremish. execution of His commission, here. at his appearing- 2. 19). fables-1 Timothy, 1. 4.) 5. I am no lonxe The oldest MSS, read, "and" for "at;" then translate, / here to withstand these things: be thou & worthy 3D * I charge thee before God, &c.) and by His appearing." cessor of me, no longer depending on me for counsel and his kingdom--to be set up at His appearing, when but thine own master, and swimming without the cork we hope to reign with him. His kingdom is real now, (CALVIN); follow my steps, inherit their result, and but not visible. It shall then be both real and VISIBLE the honour of their end. (ALFORD) watch thou(Luke. 22. 28. 30: Revelation, 1.7; 11. 16; 19. 6). Now | * with the wakefulness of one sober." in all thingsHe reigns in the midst of His enemies expecting till they all occasions and under ali circumstances (Titus, 2. 7 shall be overthrown (Psalm 110. 2; Hebrews, 10. 13). endure afflictions-suffer hardships. (ALFORD.) epis Then He shall reign with His adversaries prostrate. 2. | gelist-A missionary bishop, preacher, and teacber. Preach-lit.. Proclaim as a herald." The term for the make full proof of-fulfill in all its requirements, leaving discourses in the synagogue was Daraschoth; the notbing undone (Acts, 12.95; Romans, 15. 19: Co corresponding Greck tern (impiying dialectical style. lossians, 4. 17). 6. Greek, “For I am already being dialogue, and discussion, Acts, 17. 2, 18; 18. 4, 19) is offered:" lit., as a libation; appropriate to the sbeddins applied in Acts to discourses in the Christian church. I of his blood. Every sacrifice began with an initiator JUSTIN MARTYR, Apology 2, describes the order of libation on the victim's head (Note, cf. Philippiani. public worship, "On Sunday all meet, and the writings | 2. 17). A motive to stimulate Timothy to faithfulness of the apostles and prophets are read; then the pre-1-the departure and final blessedness of Paul: it is the sident delivers a discourse : after this all stand up and end that crowns the work. (BENGEL.) As the time pray: then there is offered bread and wine and water; his departure was indicated to Peter, so to Para! the president likewise prays and gives thanks, and the (2 Peter, l. 14). my departure-lit., "loosing anchet people solemnly assent, saying. Amen." The bishops (Note, Philippians, 1. 33). Dissolution. 7. "I have and presbyters had the right and duty to preach, but striven the good strife" the Greck is not restricted to they sometimes called on deacons, and even laymen, to a fight, but includes any competitive contest, egin preach. EUSEBIUS, Ecclesiastical History, 6. 19: in this that of the race-course (1 Timothy, 6. 12 (ALFORD). thechurch imitated the synagogue (Luke, 4. 17-22; Acts 1 Corinthians, 9. 24, &c.; Hebrews, 12. 1. 2). kept the 13. 15, 16). be instant-1.e., urgent, earnest, in the whole faith-the Christian faith committed to me as a believer work of the ministry. in season, ont of season-i.e., at all and an apostle (cf. ch. 1. 14; Revelation, 2. 10; 8. 10. & seasons; whether they regard your spesking as season- la crown-rather as Greek, "the cron," The "bence

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Paul Requests him to Come

2 TIMOTHY, IV.

and Bring Mark with him. forth" marks the decisive moment: he looks to bis with Barnabas (Acts, 16. 37-40;13. 6, 13). Timothy had state in a threefold aspect, (1.) The past, I have fought; subsequently occupied the same post in relation to (2.) the immediately present, there is laid up for me: Paul as Mark once held. Hence Paul, appropriately (3.) the future, the Lord will give in that day. (BENGEL,) | here, wipes out the past censure by high praise of crown-A crown, or garland, used to be bestowed at the Mark, and guards against Timothy's making self-comGreek national games on the successful competitor in placent comparisons between himself and Mark, as wrestling, running &c. (cf. i Peter, 6. 4; Revelation, 2. 10). though he were superior to the latter (cf. Philemon, 24). of righteousness--the reward is in recognition of right- Demas apostatizes. Mark returns to the right way, and eousness wrought in Paul by God's Spirit: the crown is no longer unprofitable, but is profitable for the is prepared for the righteous : but it is a crown which gospel ministry (Philemon, 11). 12. And-Greek, consists in righteousness. Righteousness will be its | "But." Thou art to come to me, but Tychicus I have own revard (Revelation, 22. 11). Cf. Exodus, 39. 30. | sent to Ephesus to supply thy place (if thou so willest A man is justified gratuitously by the merits of Christ it) in presiding over the church there in thy absence through faith; and when he is so justified God accepts (cf. Titus, 3. 12). It is possible Tychicus was the bearer bis works and honours them with a reward which is of this epistle, though the omission of "to thee" is not their due, but is given of grace, "So great is God's rather against this view. 13. cloak...I left-Probably goodness to men that He wills that their works | obliged to leave it in a hurried departure from Troas, should be merits, though they are merely His own | Carpus-a faithful friend to have been entrusted with Kilts." (Bp., POPE CELESTINE I., 12.) give-Greek, / so precious deposits. The mention of his "cloak," "shall award" in righteous requital as “ Judge" (Acts, so far from being unworthy of inspiration, is one of 17. 31; 2 Corinthians, 6. 10; 2 Thessalonians, 1. 6, 7). in those graphic touches which sheds a flood of light on that day--not until His appearing (ch. 1. 12). The par- the last scene of Paul's life, on the confines of two takers of the first resurrection may receive a crown worlds: in this wanting & cloak to cover him from also at the last day, and obtain in that general as- 1 the winter cold, in that covered with the rghteousness sembly of all men, & new award of praise. The of saints, "clothed upon with his house from heaven." favourable sentence passed on the brethren" of the I (GAUSSEN.) So the inner vesture and outer garment Judge, who sit with Him on His throne, is in Matthew, I of Jesus, Paul's master, are suggestive of most instruc25. 40, taken for granted as already awarded, when that tive thought (John, 19.1. books-he was anxious respectaffecting those who benefited them is being passed. ing these that he might transmit them to the faithful, (BENGEL] The former, the elect church who reign so that they might have the teaching of his writings with Christ in the millennium, are fewer than the when he should be gone. especially the parchmentslatter. The righteous heavenly Judge stands in oon containing perhaps some of his inspired epistles themtrast to the unrighteous earthly judges who con- selves. 14. Alexander the coppersmith--or *smith" demned Paul. me-individual appropriation. Greek, in general. Perhaps the same as the Alexander, * Not only to me." them that love-Greek, "have loved, 1 Timothy, 1. 20 (note there) at Epbesus. Excommuniand do love:" habitual love and desire for Christ's ap-cated then be subsequently was restored, and now pearing, which presupposes faith (cf. Hebrews, 9. 28). vented his personal malice because of his excommuniCl. the sad contrast, v. 10, “having loved this present cation in accusing Paul before the Roman judges, world." 9. (v. 21; ch. 1. 4. 8.) Timothy is asked to come / whether of incendiarism or of introducing a new reto be a comfort to Paul, and also to be strengthened | ligion. See my Introduction. He may have been the by Paul, for carrying on the gospel work after Paul's | Alexander put forward by the Jews in the tumult at decease. 10. Demas-once a "fellow-labourer of Paul, | Ephesus (Acts, 19. 33, 34). reward-The oldest MSS. along with Mark and Luke (Colossians, 4. 14; Phile- | read, "shall reward," or "requite him." Personal remon, 20). His motive for forsaking Paul seems to have venge certainly did not influence the apostle (v. 16, end). been love of worldly ease, safety, and comforts at 15. our words-the arguments of us Christians for our home, and disinclination to brave danger with Paul common faith. Believers have a common cause. 16. (Matthew. 13. 20, 21, 22). CHRYSOSTOM implies that At my first answeri.e., "defence" in court, at my Thessalonica was his home. Galatia-One oldest MS. first public examination, Timothy knew nothing of supports the reading " Gaul." But most oldest MSS, this, it is plain, till Paul now informs him. But dur&c., "Galatia." Titus-He must have therefore left ing his former imprisonment at Rome, Timothy was Crete after ** setting in order the affairs of the churches with him (Philippians, I. 1, 7). This must have been, there (Titus, 1.5). Dalmatia-part of the Roman pro therefore, a second imprisonment. He must have been vince of Illyricum on the coast of the Adriatic. Paul set free before the persecution in A.D. 04, when the had written to him (Titus, 3. 12) to coine to him in the Christians were accused of causing the conflagration winter to Nicopolis (in Epirus), intending in the in Rome; for, had he been a prisoner then, he certainly spring to preach the gospel in the adjoining province of would not have been spared. The tradition [EUSEBIUS, Dalmatia. Titus seems to have gone thither to carry 2. 25) that he was finally beheaded, accords with his not out the apostle's intention, the execution of which having been put to death in the persecution, A.D. 64. was interrupted by his arrest. Whether he went of when burning to death was the mode by which the his own accord, as is likely, or being sent by Paul, Christians were executed, but subsequently to it. His wbich the expression is departed" hardly accords with, "first" trial in his second imprisonment seerns to have cannot be positively decided. Paul here speaks only of been on the charge of complicity in the conflagration; his personal attendants having forsaken him; he had his absence from Rome may have been the ground of still friends among the Roman Christians who visited his acquittal on that charge; his final condemnation was him tch. 4. 21), though they had been afraid to stand probably on the charge of introducing a new and unby him at bis trial (v. 16). 11. Take-Greek," take up" on 'lawful religion into Rome. stood with me-Greek, thy journey (Acts, 20. 13, 14). John Mark was probably "came forward with me" (ALFORD) as a friend and in or near, Colosse, as in the epistle to the Colossians 1 advocate. may (it) not be laid to their charge--The

Colossians. 4. 20), written two years before this, he is position of "their," in the Greek, is emphatic. "May mentioned as about to visit them. Timothy was now it not be laid to THEIR charge," for they were intimiobsent from Ephesus, and somewhere in the interior dated : their drawing back from me was not from bad of Asia Minor: hence he would be sure to fall in with disposition so much as from fear; it is sure to be laid Merk op his journey. he is profitable to me for the mi. | to the charge of those who intimidated them. Still Distry-Mark bad been under a cloud for having for Paul, like Stephen, would doubtless have offered the saken Paul at a critical moment in his missionary tour same prayer for his persecutors themselves (Acts. 7. 60). pretanoo: both from evil and the Evil.onet de

Agricola, 14, mentious writish king, Cogidunt

Paul almost Deserted.

2 TIMOTHY, IV

Pudens and the British Claudia. 17, the Lord-the more because men deserted me. stood | As Miletus was near Ephesus, there is a presumption with me--stronger than "came forward with me" (Greek, that Timothy was not at Ephesus when Paul wrote, or v. 16). strengthened-Greek," put strength in me." by he would not need to inform Timothy of Trophimus me-"through me:" through my means. One single lying sick in his immediate neighbourhood. Howoccasion is often of the greatest moment. the preach-ever, Trophimus may not have been still at Miletus ing--"the gospel proclamation." might be fully at the time when Paul wrote, though he had left him known-might be fully made (Note, t. 6). that all the there on his way to Rome. Prisca and Aquila were Gentiles-present at my trial, "might hear the gospel most likely to be at Ephesus (v. 19), and he desires proclaimed then, Rome was the capital of the Gentile Timothy to salute them: so also Onesiphorus' houseworld, so that a proclamation of the truth to the Ro hold (ch. 1. 18). Paul had not the power of healing at mans was likely to go forth to the rest of the Gentile will (Acts, 19. 12), but as the Lord allowed him. 21. world. I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion-viz., before winter-when & voyage, according to ancient Satan, the roaring, devouring lion Luke, 22, 31:1 Poter, usages of navigation, would be out of the question: 6. 8). I was prevented falling into his snare (ch. 2. 26 : also, Paul would need his "cloak" against the winter Psalm 22. 21 ; 2 Peter, 2. 9): v. 18 agrees with this inter | (c. 13). Pudens...Claudia-afterwards husband and wife pretation, "The Lord shall deliver me from every evil (according to MARTLAL IV., 13; XI., 64), he a Roman work," viz., both from evil and the Evil One, as the knight, she a Briton, surnamed Rufina. TACITUS, Greek of the Lord's Prayer expresses it. It was not de- Agricola, 14, mentions that territories in South East liverance from Nero (who was called the lion) which he Britain were given to a British king, Cogidunus, in rejoiced in, for he did not fear death (0.6-8), but deliver reward for his fidelity to Rome, A.D. 52, whilst Claudius ance from the temptation, through fear, to deny His was emperor. In 1772 a marble was dug up at ChiLord: so ALFORD. 18. And the Lord shall-Hope draws chester, mentioning Cogidunus with the surname its conclusions from the past to the future. (BES-Claudius, added from his patron, the emperor's naine ; GEL.) will preserve me lit., "will save" (Psalm 22. 21): and Pudens in connexion with Cogidunus, doubtless ** will bring me safe to." Jesus is the Lord and the his father-in-law. His daughter would be Claudia, who Deliverer (Philippians, 3. 20; 1 Thessalonians, 1. 10): 1 seems to have been sent to Rome for education, as a He saves from evil; He gives good things. heavenly pledge of the father's fidelity. Here she was under the kingdom-Greek. His kingdom which is a heavenly protection of Pomponia, wife of Aulus Plautius, COD" one." to whom, &c.--Greek, "to whom be the glory unto queror of Britain. Pomponis was accused of foreign the ages of ages." The very hope produces a doxo-superstitions, A.D. 67 (TACITUS, Annals, 3. 32). prology: how much greater will be the doxology which bably Christianity. She probably was the instrument the actual enjoyment shall produce. (BEXGEL.) 19. of converting Claudia, who took the name Rusina from Prisca and Aquila-(Acts, 18, 2, 3; Romans, 16. 3, 4; 1 Co- her, that being a cognomen of the Pomponian gans rinthians, 16. 19, written from Ephesus, where therefore (cf. Roinans, 16. 13, Rufus a Christian). Pudens in Aquila and Priscilla must then have been.) household Martial and in the Chichester inscription, appears as of Onesiphorus-If he were dead at the time the house-a pagan; but perhaps he or his friends concealed his hold" would not have been called "the household og Christianity through fear. Tradition represents Onesiphorus." He was probably absent (Note, ch. 1. 16). Timothy, a son of Pudens, as taking part in converting 20. In order to depict his desertion, he informs the Britons. Linus-put third ; therefore not as this Timothy that Erastus, one of his usual companions time yet, as he was afterwards, bishop. His bare (Acts, 19. 22, possibly the same Erastus as in Romans, being here inserted between Pudens and Claudia, in 16. 23, though how he could leave his official duties for plies the two were not yet married. "Eubulus" is missionary journeys is not clear), stayed behind at i identified by some with Aristobulus, who, with his Corinth, his native place, or usual residence, of which converts, is said to have been among the first evange city he was "chamberlain," or city steward and lists of Britain, Paul himself, says CLEMEXT,"visited treasurer (Romans, 16. 23): and Trophimus he left be- the farthest west (perhaps Britain, certainly Spais, hind at Miletus sick. (See on his former history, and was martyred under the rulers at Rome," w bo were Acts, 20. 4; 21. 29.) This verse is irreconcilable with Nero's vicegerents in his absence from the city. 12. the imprisonment from which he writes being the first: Grace be with you-Plural in oldest MSS., "with you." for he did not pass by Corinth or Miletus on his way to é.€., thee and the members of the Ephesian and neighRome when about to be imprisoned for the first time. bouring churches.

TAE EPISTLE OF PAUL TO

TITUS.

INTRODUCTION. MENUINENESS. Clement of Rome quotes it (Epistola ad Corinthios, c. 9); Irenæus (3.3, sec. 4) refers to it as Paul's; U Theophilus, ad Autolyeus, 3., sec. 14, quotes it as Scripture. Cr. Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, 1 299 : Tertullian Prescriptione Hereticorum, 6.

TIME AND PLACE OF WRITING.-This epistle seems to bave been written from Corinth [Birka), subsequently to his first imprisonment, when Paul was on his way to Nicopolis (ch. 3. 12) in Epirus, where be purposed paesing the winter, shortly before his martyrdom, A.D. 67. Birka thinke, from the similarity of the epistle to Titus and first Timothy, that botà were written from the same place, Corinth, and at dates not widely apart ; first Timothy shortly after coming to Corinth. before he had planned a journey to Epirus, the epistle to Titus afterwards. The journey to Crete and Ephesus for the better of his letters would be easy from Corinth, and he could himself tbence easily pags into Epirus. He had shortly befest visited Crete, wherein a church existed (though without due organization), the first foundation of which he mayhsve parti laid at his former visit (Acts, 87, 7, &c.),when on his way to his first imprisonment at Rome. That he returned to the East after his first imprisonment appears most probable from Philippians, 2 94; Philemon, 22. However, there may have been seeds of Christianity sown in Crete, even before his first visit, by the Cretians who heard Peter's preaching on Pentecost (Acts, 2.11.

OCCASION OF WRITING.--Corrupt elements soon showed themelves in the Cretian church, similar to those noticed in the epistles to Timothy as existing in the Epbepian chureb, Judaism, false pretensions to science, and practical ungodb

ded. Crete, wherein a church worth, and he could himsele cars. The journey to Crete and te

Introduction: Address.

TITUS, I.

Titus Function in Crete. Dess. Paul, on his late visit, had left Titus in Crete to establish church government, and ordain presbyters (deacons are not mentioned). Titus had been several times employed by Paul on a mission to the Corinthian churches, and had probably thence visited Crete, which was within easy reach of Corinth. Hence the suitableness of his selection by the apostle for the

now follows up with instructions by letter those he had already given to Titus in person on the qualifications of elders, and the graces becoming the old, the young, and females, and warns him against the unprofitable speculations so rife in Crete. The national character of the Cretians was low in the extreme, as Epimenides, quoted in ch. l. 12, paints it. Livy, 44, 45, stigmatizes their avarice; Polybius, 6. 46. 9, their ferocity and fraud; and 6. 47.5, their mendacity, so much so, that "to Cretanise" is another name for to lie: they were included in the proverbial three infamous initials K or C, " Cappadocia, Crete. Cilicia"

NOTICES OF TITUS.-It is strange that he is never mentioned by this name in Acts, and there seems none of those mentioned in that book who exactly answers to him. He was a Greek, and therefore a Gentile (Galatians, 2.1, 3), and converted by Paul (ch. l. 4). He accompanied the apostle on the deputation sent from the cburch of Antioch to Jerusalem, to consult the apostles respecting the circumcision of Gentile converts (Acte, 15.2); and, agreeably to the decree of the council there, was not circumcised. He was in company with Paul at Ephesus, whence he was sent to Corinth to commence the collection for the Jerusalem saints, and to ascertain the effect of the first epistle on the Corinthians (2 Corinthians, 7. 6-9; &. 6; 12. 18), and there showed an unmeroenary spirit. He next proceeded to Macedon, where he rejoined Paul, who had been already eagerly expecting him at Trons (2 Corinthians, 2. 19, 13, “Titus my brother ;* 7. 6). He was then employed by the apostle in preparing the collection for the poor saints in Judea, and became the bearer of the second epistle to the Co. rinthians 2 Corinthans, S. 16, 17, 93). Paul in it calls him "my partner and fellow helper concerning you." His being located in Crete (Titus, 1, 3) was subsequent to Paul's first imprisonment, and shortly before the second, about 67 A.D., ten years subsequent to the last notice of him in second Corinthians, 57 A.D. He probably met Paul, as the apostle desired, at Nicopolis ; for his subsequent journey into Dalmatia, thence (or else from Rome, whither he may have accompanied Paul) would be more likely, than from the distant Crete (2 Timotby, 4. 10, written subsequently to the epistle to Titus). In the unsettled state of things then, Titus' episcopal commission in Crete was to be but temporary, Paul requiring the presence of Titus with himself, whenever Artemas or Tychicus should arrive in Crete and set him free from his duties there,

Tradition represents him to have died peaceably in Crete, as Archbishop of Gortyna, at an advanced age.

CHAPTER 1.

grace was the result of the eternal purpose "before the Ver. 1-16. ADDRESS: FOR WHAT END TITUS WAS world began." 3. in due times-Greek, " in its own seaLEFT IN CRETE: QUALIFICATIONS FOR ELDERS: GAIN sons," the seasons appropriate to it, and fixed by God SAYERS IN CRETE NEEDING REPROOF. 1, servant of for it (Acts, 1. 7). manifested-implying that the God- not found elsewhere in the same connexion. In "promise," v. 2, had lain hidden in His eternal purpose Romans, 1. 1, it is "servant of Jesus Christ" (Galatians, heretofore (cf. Colossians, 1. 26; 2 Timothy, 1.9, 10). bis 1. 10: Philippians, 1. 1; cf. Acts, 16. 17; Revelation, 1. word-equivalent to "eternal life" (v. 2; John, 5, 24; 6. 1:16. 3). In Romans, 1. 1, there follows, "called to be 63: 17. 3, 17). through preaching-Greek, in preachan apostle," which corresponds to the general designa ing," or rather as ALFORD (Note, cf. 2 Timothy, 4. 17), tion of the office first, "servant of God," here, followed 1 " in the (gospel) proclamation (the thing preached the by the special description, “apostle of Jesus Christ," gospel) with which I was entrusted." according toThe full expression of his apostolic office answers, in in pursuance of (cf. 1 Timothy, 1. 1). of God our Saviour both epistles, to the design, and is a comprehensive -rather as Greek, "of our Saviour God." God is preindex to the contents. The peculiar form here would | dicated of our Saviour (cf. Jude, 25; Luke, 1. 47). Also never have proceeded from a forger. According to the Psalm 24, 6; Isaiah, 12. ; 45, 16, 21, LXX. Applied to faith-rather," for," "with a view to subserve the | Jesus, v. 4; ch. 2. 13; 3. 6; 2 Timothy, 1. 10. 4. Titus, faith this is the object of my apostleship (cf. v. 4, 9; I mine own son-Greek, "my genuine child" (1 Timothy. Romans, 1. 5). the elect--for whose sake we ougbt to 1, 2, i.e., converted by my instrumentality (1 Coendure all things (2 Timothy, 2. 10). This election has rinthians, 4. 17; Philemon, 10). after the common faith its ground, not in any thing belonging to those thus -A genuine son in respect to in virtue of) the faith distinguished, but in the purpose and will of God from common to all the people of God, comprising in a comeverlasting 2 Timothy, 1. 9; Romans, 8. 30-33; cf. Luke, mon brotherhood Gentiles as well as Jews, therefore 18. 7; Ephesians, 1. 4; Colossians, 3. 12). Acts, 13. 48, embracing Titus & Gentile 2 Peter, 1. 1 : Jude. 3). shows that all faith on the part of the elect, rests on Grace, inercy, and peace-"Mercy" is onnitted in some of the divine foreordination : they do not become elect by the oldest MSS. But one of the best and oldest MSS. their faith, but receive faith, and so become believers, | supports it (Notes, cf. 1 Timothy, 1.2; 2 Timothy, 1. 2). because they are elect. and the acknowledging of the There are many similarities of phrase in the pastoral truth and for promoting) the full knowledge of the epistles. the Lord Jesus Christ--The oldest MSS. read truth" i.e., the Christian truth (Ephesians, 1. 13). after I only " Christ Jesus." our Saviour-found thus added to codliness-i.e., which belongs to piety: opposed to the “Christ" only in Paul's pastoral epistles, and 2 Peter. knowledge which has not for its object the truth, but 1.1, 11; 2. 20; 3. 18. 5. I left thee-"I left thee beerror, doctrinal and practical u. 11, 16; 1 Timothy, 6.3); hind" (ALFORD) when I left the island: not implying or even which has for its object mere earthly truth, not permanence of commission (cf. 1 Timothy. 1, 3). in Growth in the divine life. "Godliness," or "piety," is Crete-now Candia. set in order-rather as Greek, a term peculiar to the pastoral epistles: a fact explained | " that thou mightest follow up (the work begun by me) by the apostle having in them to combat doctrine setting right the things that are wanting," which I was tending to " ungodliness' (2 Timothy, 2. 16; cf. ch. 2. | unable to complete by reason of the shortness of my u. 12). 2. In hope of eternal life-Connected with the stay in Crete. Christianity, doubtless, had long existed whole preceding sentence. That whereon rests my aim in Crete: there were some Cretians among those who as an apostle to promote the elects faith and full know- heard Peter's preaching on Pentecost (Acts, 2. 11). Ledge of the truth, is," the hope of eternal life" (ch. 2. The number of Jews in Crete was large (v. 10) and it 13: 3.7: Acts, 23. 6; 24. 16; 28. 20). that cannot lie-Ro- is likely that those scattered in the persecution of mans, 3. 4; 11. 29; Hebrews, 6. 18.) promised before the Stephen (Acts, 11, 19) preached to them, as tbey did world began-A contracted expression for "purposed to the Jews of Cyprus, &c. Paul also was there on his before the world began (lit., before the ages of time), and voyage to Rome (Acts, 27. 7-12). By all these instruvromised actually in time," the promise springing from mentalities the gospel was sure to reach Crete. But the eternal purpose: As in 2 Timothy, 1. 9, the gift of until Paul's later visit, after his first imprisonment at

Qualifications of a

TITUS. L.

Good Bishop. Rome, the Cretian Christians were without church or talkers, and deceivers."* "unruly being predicated of ganization. This Paul began, and had commissioned / both rain talkers and deceivers. vain talkers-opposed (before leaving Crete) Titus to go on with, and now to "holding fast the faithful word "(0.9). “Vain jangreminds him of that commission. ordain-rather, "ap- |ling" (1 Timothy, 1. 6): "foolish questions, unprofitpoint," "constitute." in every city-" from city to | able and vain" (ch, 3. 9). The source of the evil was city," ag I...appointed thee-.e., as I directed thee: pre corrupted Judaism (c. 14). Many Jews were then living scribing as well the act of constituting elders, as also in Crete, according to JOSEPHUS: so the Jewish leaven the manner of doing so. wbich latter includes the remained in some of them after conversion. deceivers qualifications required in a presbyter presently stated. I-lit., "deceivers of the minds of others" (Greek, GalaThose called "elders" here are called “bishops." o. 7. tians, 6.3). 11. mouths...stopped-lit., "muzzled," Elder is the term of dignity in relation to the college of "bridled" as an unruly beast (cf. Psalm 32. 8). who presbyters; bishop points to the duties of his office in 1-Greek, " (seeing that they are) such men as," or "inasrelation to the flock. From the unsound state of the much as they." (ELLICOTT.) subvert...houses-"over Cretian Christians described here, we see the danger throwing " their "faith" (2 Timothy, 9. 18). "They of the want of church government. The appointment are the devil's levers by which he subverts the houses of presbyters was designed to check idle talk and specu- of God" (THEOPHYLACT.) for filthy Incre-1 Timothy, lation, by setting forth the "faithful word." 6. (Notes. 1 3. 3, 8; 6. 6.) 12. One-Epimenides of Pbastas, or cf. 1 Timothy, 3, 2-4). The thing dwelt on here as the Gnossus, in Crete, about 600 B.C. He was sent for to requisite in a bishop, is a good reputation among those purify Athens from its pollution occasioned by Cylon. over whom he is to be set. The immorality of tbe | He was regarded as a diviner and prophet. The words Cretian professors rendered this a necessary requisite | here are taken probably from his treatise “concern. in one who was to be a reprover: and their unsound- | ing oracles." Paul also quotes from two other heaness in doctrine also made needful great stedfastness then writers, ARATUS (Acts, 17. 28) and MENANDER in the faith (v. 9, 13). having faithful children-i.e., be 1 (1 Corinthians, 15, 33), but he does not honour them 50 lieving children. He who could not bring his children ( far as even to mention their names of themselves... to faith, how sball he bring others? (BENGEL.) | their own-which enhances his authority as & vitness. ALFORD explains, “established in the faith." not ac "To Cretanise" was proverbial for to lie; as "to cused-Not merely not riotous, but " not leven) ac rinthianise was for to be dissolute. Alway liars-not cused of riot" (* profligacy" (ALFORD): "Dissolute | merely at times, as every natural man is. Contrast life" (WAHL)). aoruiy-insubordinate: opposed to 1 v. 2, "God that cannot lie." They love “fables . 143 *in subjection" (1 Timothy, 3. 4). 7. For...mast-The even the heathen poets laughed at their lying assertion emphasis is on must. The reason why I said "blame that they had in their country the sepulchre of Jupiter. less," is the very idea of a "bishop' (an overseer of the evil beasts-rude, savage, cunning, greedy. Crete was a flock : he bere substitutes for presbyter" the term country without wild beasts. Epimenides' sarcasm was which expresses his duties involves the necessity for that its human inhabitants supplied the place of wild such blamelessness, if he is to have influence over the beasts, slow belles-indolent through pampering their flock, steward of God -The greater the master is, the | bellies. They themselves are called "bellies," for that greater the virtues required in His servant (BENGEL) is the member for which they live (Romans, 16. 18: (1 Timothy, 3. 16): the church is God's house, over Philippians, 3. 19). 13. This witness-" This testimony which the minister is set as a steward (Hebrews, 3. (though coming from a Cretian) is true." sharply-Gen2-6; 1 Peter, 4. 10, 17). Note, ministers are not merely | tleness would not reclaim so perverse offenders. thai church officers, but God's stewards: church government they--that those seduced by the false teachers may be is of divine appointment. not self-willed-lit.. "self. / brought back to soundness in the faith. Their maiad pleasing:" unaccommodating to others: harsh, the opis strifes about words and questions (ch. 3. 9; posite of "a lover of hospitality" (v. 8): so Nabal | 1 Timothy. 6. 4). 14. Jewish fables-(Notes, 1 Timothy, (1 Samuel, 25.): self-loving and imperious : such a spirit | 1.4; 4. 7: 2 Timothy. 4. 4.) These formed the transitiot would incapacitate him for leading a willing flock. I stage to subsequent Gnosticism; as yet the error was instead of driving. not given to wine-Notes, 1 Timothy, but profitless, and not tending to godliness, rather 3. 3, 8. not given to filthy lucre-not making the gospeithan openly opposed to the faith, commandments a a means of gain (1 Timothy, 3, 3, 8). In opposition to men-as to ascetic abstinence (v. 16; Mark, 7. 7-9; Colos those " teaching for filthy lucre's sake" (v. 11; 1 Timotby, sians, 2. 16, 20-23; 1 Timothy, 4. s). tuat turn from te 6. 5; 1 Peter, 6. 2). 8. lover of hospitality-needed es-truth-whose characteristic is that they turn aw pecially in those days (Romans, 12. 13; 1 Timothy, 3. 2; from the truth (2 Timothy. 4. 4). 15. all thingsHebrews, 13. 2; 1 Peter, 4.9;3 John, 6). Christians travel. ternal, "are pure " in themselves ; the distinction of ling from one place to another were received and for pure and impure is not in the things, but in the disa warded on their journey by their brethren. lover of position of him who uses them: in opposition to the good men--Greek, "a lover of all that is) good." men commandments of men" (v. 14), which forbad certain or things (Philippians, 4. 8. 9). Sober-towards one's things as if impure intrinsically. "To the pare self: "discreet:" "self-restrained" (ALFORD) (Note, wardly, 1.e., those purified in heart by faith (Acts, L 1 Timothy, 2. 9). just-towards men. boly-towards 19; Romans, 14. 20; 1 Timothy, 4. 3), all outward this God (Note, 1 Thessalonians, 2. 10). temperate-"One are pure; all are open to their use. Sin alone touches baving his passions, tongue, hand, and eyes, at com and defiles the sout (Matthew, 23. 26; Luke, IL. 41). ** mand" (CHRYSOSTOM): "continent." 9. Holding fast thing pure either within or without (Romans, 14.%. Holding firmly to (cf. Matthew, 6. 24; Luke, 16. 13). the | mind-their mental sense and intelligence. CORSCIERS faithful--true and trustworthy (1 Timothy, 1.16). word -their moral consciousness of the conformity or dis as he has been taught-lit., "the word (which is) accord-crepancy between their motives and acts on the one ing to the teaching" which he has received (cf. hand, and God's law on the other. A conscience and

4. 6, end; 2 Timothy, 3. 14). by-translate I a mind defiled are represented as the source of the as Greek, "to exhort in doctrine (instruction, which is errors opposed in the pastoral epistles a Trnothy, L. sound" sound doctrine or instruction is the element in 19; 3. 9; 6. 5). 16. They professi... make a professides which his exhorting is to have place. On "sound" acknowledging God. He does not deny their theo (peculiar to the pastoral epistles), see 1 Timothy, 1. 10; retical knowledge of God, but that they practically 6. 3. convince-rather, "reprove" (ALFORD) (v. 13). I know Him. deny him-The opposite of the previous 10. unraly_"insubordinate." and-Omitted in the profess" or "confess" Him (1 Timothy 6.8: 2 Timothy, oldest MSS. "There are many unruly persons, vain 2. 12; 3. 6). abominable-themselves, though laying 90

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